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R.Greaves, 2008 The Internal Market and the Free Movement of Persons.

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Presentation on theme: "R.Greaves, 2008 The Internal Market and the Free Movement of Persons."— Presentation transcript:

1 R.Greaves, 2008 The Internal Market and the Free Movement of Persons

2 R.Greaves, 2008 Free movement of persons One of the ‘four freedoms’ envisaged in 1957 (Arts EC Treaty) Central feature of the internal market Article 39(1) Free movement of workers Article 43 EC – freedom of establishment (self-employed persons) Article 49 EC – freedom to provide and receive services

3 R.Greaves, 2008 Article 39 EC Para. 1 ‘Freedom of movement for workers shall be secured within the Community.’ Para 2 – FM shall entail the abolition of any discrimination based on nationality between workers as regards employment, pay and work conditions Para 3 – limitations to the right – on grounds of public policy, public security, public health Para 4 – Exemption for employment in the public service

4 R.Greaves, 2008 Economic nexus To fall within Article 39 EC the migrant must be engaging in an economic activity – they must be a ‘worker’ – i.e. factors of production

5 R.Greaves, 2008 The Free Movement of Persons Soon became clear that this policy area, which directly benefits human beings, must have implications beyond the economic of market integration

6 R.Greaves, 2008 Breaking the economic nexus This has been done incrementally, over time ECJ and the legislature began to reflect the human dimension of this field rg Regulation 1612/68

7 R.Greaves, 2008 Breaking the economic nexus ECJ broad interpretations of Treaty provisions and secondary legislation “worker” – Levin 53/81 ‘services performed for and under the direction of another for remuneration. Activity must be ‘effective and genuine’ and not ‘purely marginal or ancillary’ (Lowrie-Blum 66/85) Includes right to enter and remain to seek work Antonissen C-292/89 Hoeckx (Unger) 249/83 – access to “social advantages”

8 R.Greaves, 2008 Breaking the economic nexus A range of ‘ancillary’ rights – in order to remove disadvantages associated with exercising FM rights Right to receive social advantages under the same terms and conditions as host-state nationals Right of entry and residence for family members of the worker. Family rights = ‘derivative’/ ‘dependent’ – Lebon 316/85 These rights fleshed out in secondary legislation (Regulation 1612/68 + directives)

9 R.Greaves, 2008 A breakthrough – ‘Residency directives’ – early 1990s Designed to extend protection of Community law by offering residency rights to certain specific categories of persons Directive 90/365 –retired workers Directive 93/96 – students Directive 90/364 – all others (the ‘playboy directive’) No need to be a worker/economically active but must be economically self-sufficient

10 R.Greaves, 2008 Secondary legislation Directive 2004/38 – citizens’ rights directive This consolidated the case law and provides clearer and more coherent statement of rights  Right to equal treatment – Article 24  Codification of exceptions in Articles  Confers rights on migrants according to their length of residence in the host state

11 R.Greaves, 2008 Secondary legislation cont’d Regulation 1612/68 – substantive rights and social advantages- extended to family  Marked change of direction for the scope of the freedom- 5th indent of Preamble refers to exercise of the right in ”freedom and dignity”  Art 7(2) ”social advantages”  Art 9(1) public housing

12 R.Greaves, 2008 The biggest breakthrough! – EU citizenship Articles EC inserted into EC Treaty by the EU Treaty (Maastricht) Complementary status to nationality of MS Raft of rights

13 R.Greaves, 2008 EU Citizenship Most significant – Article 18 (1) “Every citizen of the Union shall have the right to move and reside freely within the territory of the MS, subject to the limits and conditions laid down in this Treaty and by the measures adopted to give it effect”

14 R.Greaves, 2008 What potential? Mere codification of pre-existing rights or basis for rethinking free movement rights? ECJ – crucial role in developing the concept of EU citizenship It has interpreted Article 18 in combination with the Article 12 principle in order to create rights for citizens when they are in other MS – irrespective of any economic nexus

15 R.Greaves, 2008 Some key case law Non-workers C-85/96 Martinez Sala 85/96– right to claim social security benefit Work-seekers C-138/02 Collins 138/02– right to claim social security benefit

16 R.Greaves, 2008 Employment rights Access to employment direct discrimination - Bosman 283/99; Code Maritime Case 167/73 Indirect discrimination – Collins 138/02; Groener 379/87;Angonese 281/98 Non-discriminatory - Bosman 283/99

17 R.Greaves, 2008 Some key caselaw Education and rights of students C-184/99 Grzelczyk -EU Citizenship is the ‘fundamental status of nationals of the MS’ C-413/99 Baumbast – Concerned residence rights -Article 18(1) is capable of having direct effect. Any limitations on exercise of Treaty rights must be compatible with the principle of proportionality C-209/03 Bidar –Equality of treatment in access to maintenance grants

18 R.Greaves, 2008 Transformative power of EU citizenship C-200/02 Chen

19 R.Greaves, 2008 Incremental approach to residence and equality Caselaw does not suggest that all migrant EU citizens have immediate right to claim all benefits in the MS on the same terms as nationals Incremental approach - also reflected in Directive 2004/38 Residence – integration - solidarity


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