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5) Magnifying glass (Simple magnifier) A converging lens that allows one to focus on objects closer than the near point, so that it makes a larger, and therefore clearer, image on the retina. Note! The power of a magnifying glass is described by its angular magnification:

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Example: A magnifying glass with a focal length of 8.5 cm is used to read print placed at a distance 7.5 cm. Calculate (a) the position of the image; (b) the angular magnification Example: A person uses a converging lens of focal length 5.0 cm as a magnifying glass. What is the maximum possible magnification?

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6)Telescopes A refracting telescope consists of two lenses at opposite ends of a long tube. The objective lens is closest to the object, and the eyepiece is closest to the eye. The magnification is given by:

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Example: A170x astronomical telescope is adjusted for a relaxed eye when the two lenses are 1.25 m apart. What is the focal length of each lens? Example: A student constructs an astronomical telescope with a magnification of 10. If the telescope has a converging lens of focal length 50 cm, what is the focal length of the eyepiece? What is the resulting length of the telescope?

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6a) Different types of telescopes Astronomical telescopes need to gather as much light as possible, meaning that the objective must be as large as possible. Hence, mirrors are used instead of lenses, as they can be made much larger and with more precision. A terrestrial telescope, used for viewing objects on Earth, should produce an upright image. Here are two models, a Galilean type and a spyglass:

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7) Compound Microscope A compound microscope also has an objective and an eyepiece; it is different from a telescope in that the object is placed very close to the eyepiece. The magnification is given by:

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