Structural Assumptions Origins of the Structural Perspective Structural Forms and Functions Basic Structural Tensions Vertical Coordination - Authority - Rules and Policies - Planning and Control Systems
Getting Organized (II) Lateral Coordination - Meetings - Task Forces - Coordinating Roles - Matrix Structures - Networks - Strengths and Weaknesses of Lateral Strategies
Structural Assumptions Achieve established goals and objectives Increase efficiency and performance via specialization and division of labor Appropriate forms of coordination and control Organizations work best when rationality prevails Structure must align with circumstances Problems arise from structural deficiencies
Origins of the Structural Perspective Frederick Taylor – Scientific Management Efficiency, time and motion studies, etc. Max Weber – Bureaucracy Fixed division of labor Hierarchy of offices Performance rules Separate personal and official property and rights Personnel selected for technical qualifications Employment as primary occupation
Structural Forms and Functions Blueprint for expectations and exchanges among internal and external players Design options are almost infinite Design needs to fit circumstances
Basic Structural Tensions Differentiation: dividing work, division of labor Integration: coordinating efforts of different roles and units Criteria for differentiation: function, time, product, customer, place, process Suboptimization: units focus on local concerns, lose sight of big picture
Vertical coordination Authority (the boss makes the decision) Rules and policies Planning and control systems Performance control (focus on results) vs. action planning (focus on process)
Lateral Coordination Meetings Task Forces Coordinating Roles Matrix Structures Networks Strengths and Weaknesses of Lateral Strategies
McDonald’s and Harvard: A Structural Odd Couple McDonald’s: clearer goals, more centralized, tighter performance controls Harvard: diffuse goals, highly decentralized, high autonomy for professors Why have two successful organizations developed such different structures?
Structural Imperatives Size and Age Core Process Environment Strategy and Goals Information Technology People: Nature of Workforce The case of Citibank
Conclusion Structural frame – examine social context of work Differentiation and integration Structure depends on situation Simpler more stable simpler, more hierarchical and centralized structure Changing, turbulent environments more complex, flexible structure
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