2 Chapter 2: The Emergence of Cities Outline:IntroductionThe Ecological ComplexPolitical Economy ModelsFirst SettlementsInteractions of Population, Organization, Environment, and TechnologyCity PopulationsEvolution in Social OrganizationTechnological and Social EvolutionUrban RevolutionSurvival of the CityThe Hellenic CityRomeEuropean Urbanization until the Industrial CityIndustrial CitiesSummary
3 IntroductionThe need to develop some understanding of the process of urban development—that is, how and why cities developed
4 The Ecological Complex use of an ecosystem framework to explain broad urban change. A model, not a theory.Ecosystem: a natural unit in which there is an interaction of an environment and a biotic system—that is, a community together with its habitatThe ecological complex identifies the relationship between four causally interdependent concepts or classes of variables: population, organization, environment, and technology
5 Population: refers not only to the number of people but also to growth or contraction through either migration or natural increaseOrganization (social structure): the way urban populations are organized according to social stratification, the political system, and the economic systemEnvironment: the natural environment and the built environment of streets, parks, and buildingsTechnology: tools, inventions, ideas, and techniques that directly impact urban growth and form
6 Political Economy Models Conflict-based paradigms or modelsMany models, but all stress that urban growth is largely a consequence of capitalist economic systems of capital accumulation, conflict between classes, and economic exploitation of the powerless by the rich and powerful.
7 First Settlements Agricultural Revolution Hunting-and-Gathering Societies: ranging from 25 to 50 personsSettled Agriculture: shift from a specialized food-collecting culture to a culture where grains were cultivated occurred in the Middle East around 8000 B.C.E.First true cities are generally thought to have begun in the “Fertile Crescent” of Mesopotamia around 4000 B.C.E.
8 Population Expansion Mesoamerica Initially supported by slash-and-burn agricultureMesoamericaPhysically isolated from the Middle East and AsiaThe Mayans has a major civilization and large cities dating from roughly 500 B.C.E.Between 800 and 900, most of the great cities of Central America were abandoned, for reasons that are still debated and unclearBy the time the Spanish invaders arrived in 1521, both Mayan society and its cities had collapsed
9 Interactions of Population, Organization, Environment, and Technology Clearer in their consequences than in their timingIncreased population = increased pressure for developmentsPermanent settlements changed the structure of the familyLocation defined the technology needed
10 City Populations Little more than small towns at the beginning Probably represented no more than 3 or 4 percent of all the people within the various localitiesThe size of the cities was limited by how much surplus could be produced and what technology was available to transport it
11 Evolution in Social Organization Early cities encouraged innovations in social organizationDivision of LaborHierarchy and stratificationSpecialized priests probably the first to be released from direct subsistence functionsKingship and Social ClassWarrior-leaders, primarily used for external threat, began to stay in power during times of peaceShift of central focus from temple to palace
13 Technological and Social Evolution Technology spurred by necessityi.e. water collection and distribution, weapons, chariots, and other luxuriesThe first city was a clear break form the past, a whole new social system.
14 Urban RevolutionV. Gordon Childe’s list of 10 features that define the “urban revolution”Permanent settlement in dense aggregationsNon-agriculturalists engaging in specialized functionsTaxation and capital accumulationMonumental public buildingsA ruling class
15 The technique of writing The acquisition of predictive sciences—arithmetic, geometry, and astronomyArtistic expressionTrade for vital materialsThe replacement of kinship by residence as the basis for membership in the communityMost useful in indicating what we have come to accept as the general characteristics of cities
16 Survival of the City Stable location must be able to resist siege Also threat of fire and disease
17 The Hellenic City Social Invention Physical Design and Planning The Greek development of social organizationPolis: city-statePhratries: groups of clansPhysical Design and PlanningGreek cities all had a similar designAcropolis: a fortified hillAgora: an open spacePopulationAthens had 250,000 people at its peakAncient Greeks preferred smaller cities because of the correlating smaller governmentDiffusion of People and IdeasCreation of colonies kept population under control
18 Rome Size and Number of Cities Housing and Planning Transportation The Romans had several cities of more than 200,000 inhabitantsRome controlled over a third of the world’s populationHousing and PlanningMunicipal planning was limited in scopeExtensive system of aqueductsTransportationRoad and sea trade for import and exportLife and LeisureThose who did work rarely worked over 6 hoursThe ratio of workdays to holidays was one to oneCreation of entertainment to deter uprisings
19 European Urbanization until the Industrial City The Medieval Feudal SystemSerfdom: the virtual slavery of the peasantsA rural economic systemThe few cities that survived were ruled by Catholic bishopsTown RevivalCities began to revive in the 11th centuryTrade repopulated citiesTwo external factors contributed to the growth of towns in EuropeThe CrusadersThe overall population growth
20 Characteristics of Towns Typically had small populations of 10,000-30,000Bourgeoisie: a new social class of artisans, weavers, innkeepers, money changers, and metal smiths. In many ways the antithesis of feudal nobility.PlagueFrom , the plague wiped out at least one-fourth of the population of EuropeOverall, 35 million Europeans diedThe feudal social structure never really recovered
21 Renaissance Cities Influences of Technology Demographic Transition Gunpowder and cannons changed the nature of the walled cityCities began to expand verticallyDemographic TransitionDemographic Transition (demographic revolution): refers to the transition from a time of high birthrates matched by almost equally high death rates, through a period of declining death rates, to a period where birthrates also begin to decline, and eventually to a period where population stability is reestablished—this time through low birthrates matched by equally low death ratesChanges in AgricultureJethro Tull’s published research on agriculture increased usability of acreageSelective breeding became popular
22 Industrial CitiesTechnological Improvements and the Industrial RevolutionThe First Urban RevolutionThe emergence of citiesThe Second Urban RevolutionThe 18th-century changes that for the first time made it possible for more than 10 percent of the population to live in urban spaces