Presentation on theme: "LECTURE 6 The aim of this lecture is to develop your speaking skills by: increasing your confidence in giving explanations in discussions improving your."— Presentation transcript:
LECTURE 6 The aim of this lecture is to develop your speaking skills by: increasing your confidence in giving explanations in discussions improving your delivery in presentations
DISCUSSION SKILLS Explaining When you explain something, such as a process, structure, situation or theory, you give the reasons why it is like it is. This involves linking causes (the reasons) with their effects (a description of the thing you are explaining).
Useful language Below are some expressions that are commonly used in spoken explanations of cause and effect. Identifying causes/reasons The reason (for…) is (that)… That’s because… That’s because of/due to… The/One explanation (for) is (that)… What has brought this about/led to/caused this …is… What’s responsible for…is
Expressing certainty/uncertainty The reasons for some things are not certain. When you give explanations, you need to make clear how sure or unsure you are of the reasons you identify. You can begin your explanation with phrases such as the following:
I think…that’s because/the reason is (etc.) It’s likely that I’m certain I’d say It could be that It could well be that Possibly I’m sure There’s no doubt (in my mind) (that) (Number the above expressions of uncertainty in order of certainty.)
I think4 It’s likely that 6 I’m certain 1/2 I’d say 5 It could be that 8 It could well be that 7 Possibly 9 I’m sure 3 There’s no doubt (in my mind) (that) 1
PRESENTATION SKILLS Delivery: Emphasis and phrasing Using your voice The way you speak when you tell your opinion/give a presentation is important. If you say all words with the same emphasis and at the same speed, the presentation will sound boring and it may not be easy to understand. You want listeners to understand your meaning easily, and to be interested in what you are saying.
Using your voice to emphasise important words is one way of doing this. Grouping words into meaningful units, or phrases, also helps to make your presentation more listener-friendly. It will be easier to understand your meaning and your presentation will sound less monotonuous.
Emphasis There are several ways in which you can emphasise, or stress important points with your voice. You can: speak the word more loudly speak the word more slowly be briefly silent before and after the word.
Task: With a partner, try all three techniques in the sentence below. Emphasise the words ’by far’. English is now BY FAR the most frequently used language in international conferences.
Phrasing Your presentation will be clearer and more interesting if you group words together according to your meaning with very little phrasing and emphasis
Text A, listen, T reads it English is now by far the most frequently used language in international conferences. Increasingly it is the only official language. Simultaneous translation facilities are sometimes provided in very large congresses, but this is becoming less, rather than more, commom. With your partner practise saying text B. Remember to pause very briefly at the end of each line. Emphasise the words in bold print (and only these words).
Text B, more phrasing and emphasis English is now BY FAR the most frequently used language in international conferences Increasingly it is the ONLY official language Simultaneous translation facilities are sometimes provided in very large congresses, But this is becoming LESS, Rather than MORE, commom.
Analysis Task: Divide the text into sensible word groups, or phrases and underline the words you want to emphasize. OK well what I’m going to do is briefly describe the main differences between English and Outlandic you should have in front of you two sets of sentences with the English on top and the Outlandic underneath and what I’m going to do is explain which bit goes with which bit in each language and to try to make clear the main differences between the two languages
OK/ well what I’m going to do is briefly/ describe the main differences between English and Outlandic/ you should have in front of you two sets of sentences/ with the English on top/ and the Outlandic underneath/ and what I’m going to do is explain which bit goes with which bit/ in each language/ and to try to make clear the main differences between the two languages
Task: Compare your version with your partner’s Try saying themm aloud to each other, as if you were giving a presentation. !!The most common weakness!! A monotonous unmarked delivery, with almost equal emphasis on each word. This is boring to listen to, and more difficult to understand.
SUMMARY The content of a presentation may be clear to you as a speaker, but your listeners need to be guided through the spoken information. You can make your meaning clearer by: grouping words into phrases giving special emphasis to the words that are most important. Using these techniques will also make your presentation sound less monotonuous.