2 “Romanticism”Generally, “Romanticism” refers to groups of artists, poets, writers, musicians, and political, philosophical and social thinkers in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Romanticism exalted individualism, subjectivism, irrationalism, imagination, emotions and nature - emotion over reason and senses over intellect.
3 The increasing role of science in defining a worldview The skepticism resulting from by a clearer understanding of the world and humanity's place in it changed the way people thought of themselves and society. Charles Darwin's ( ) The Origin of the Species is one example of the new attitude.
4 A growing autonomy for the arts More and more, art was removed from functional roles and came to be appreciated for its aesthetic worth. The art of the past became increasingly revered, and our modern notions of the "artist" and of the "fine arts" were born.
9 Musical Developments Increased interest in nature and the supernatural The rise of program musicNationalism and exoticismChanging status of musicians
10 Increased Interest in Nature and the Supernatural Romantic artists saw nature in a less idealized way than the artists of the Classical period had.The natural world was considered less a model of perfection and more a source of mysterious powers.Romantic composers gravitated toward supernatural texts and stories. Schubert's Erlking and Berlioz' Symphonie fantastiqueare two good examples.
11 Musical StyleDynamic range is wider, and there is a larger range of sound.There is a greater variety of instruments, including improved or newly-invented wind instruments.Melodies are longer, more dramatic and emotional.Tempos are more extreme, and tempo rubato is often called for.Harmonies are fuller, often more dissonant.Formal structures are expanded. These are often determined by the programmatic content of the piece.
12 The VirtuosoThe Romantic Era saw the rise of the “Virtuoso” (meaning: skill, manliness, excellence) – A highly capable performer whose abilities were such that they “dazzled the public”.
14 Beethoven – The Crossover Composer Beethoven was born in the classical era, and his early music was typical of this time.As he grew older, his music started to exhibit characteristics that were not typically “classical”.Beethoven's use of tonal architecture in such a way as to allow significant expansion of musical forms and structures was immediately recognised as bringing a new dimension to music.
15 Beethoven – The three periods Early – Emulates the style of great predecessors (Haydn, Mozart)Middle – Brought on by his struggles with hearing loss. Characterized by large-scale works expressing heroism and struggle.Late – 1816 until his death in Intellectual depth, personal expression and experimentation with form.