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What is Happening in the World of Gifted Education? Professor Karen B. Rogers Gifted Education Research, Resource & Information Centre The University of.

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Presentation on theme: "What is Happening in the World of Gifted Education? Professor Karen B. Rogers Gifted Education Research, Resource & Information Centre The University of."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is Happening in the World of Gifted Education? Professor Karen B. Rogers Gifted Education Research, Resource & Information Centre The University of New South Wales

2 Teacher Effectiveness is Becoming Better Understood We now believe gifted students are more likely to appreciate a teacher’s effectiveness for actual teaching behaviors rather than personality alone (Rogers, 2007). Traits rated as “very important” include: –Covering the material that is “supposed” to be covered –Eliminating excess drill and revision –Compacting the curriculum through pre-assessment –Adjusting instructional pace appropriate to subject matter –Providing immediate corrective feedback –Provides scaffold (whole of the concept) up front, followed by chance to analyze and reflect on its parts –Makes individual accommodations for some learners –Is organized and clear in presentations

3 Teacher Effectiveness is Becoming Better Understood Personality and the personal traits of effective teachers of the gifted are still important to gifted learners, however (Rogers, 2007). These include: –Seeing the gifted learner as a unique individual –Liking able students in general –Being patient and even-tempered in nature –Having sense of humor “in line” with subject matter –Exhibiting enthusiasm for subject, continuing to learn in that area along with students –Showing no overt biases toward race or gender in treatment of students –Trusts students to make good learning choices and provides opportunities for independent learning

4 Comparative Differences in Characteristics of “Effectiveness” Effective Teachers of GT Learners –Expertise in specific academic or talent area –Self-directed in own learning, love for new, advanced learning –Strong belief in individual differences and individualization –Highly developed teaching skill and knowledge Effective Teachers of Regular Learners –Mastery of content knowledge, enthusiasm for subject taught –Self-directed in own learning, love for new, advanced learning –Focus on development of learner, view learner as “person” –Broad repertoire of instructional media, strategies

5 Comparative Differences in Characteristics of “Effectiveness” Effective Teachers of GT Learners –Not a “sage on the stage”, but a “guide on the side” –Variable pacing of learning experiences –Consistent, “accurate” feedback –Recognition of importance of intellectual development in GT learners Effective Teachers of Regular Learners –Facilitation of learning through applications and problem solving –Use of equipment, materials in new, creative ways –Expectation for order, purpose in classroom –Commitment to hard work, effort as measure of student success

6 Comparative Differences in Characteristics of “Effectiveness” Effective Teachers of Gifted Learners –Genuine interest in, liking of GT learners –Equanimity, level- headedness, emotional stability –Possess high degree of intelligence and intellectual honesty Effective Teachers of Regular Learners –Show respect for students –Are “themselves” with students, approachable –Network and collaborate with other teachers, are sought out by colleagues for teaching advice

7 Reflections on the Research What does this research on teacher effectiveness say to you about… –Professional development of your staff? –GATE learner outcomes -- are they high enough? (we will come back to this in a few minutes…) –What you need to include in your strategic planning for gifted service provision in your school or district?

8 Who the Gifted Learner is Has Become Clearer Focus on multiple expressions of giftedness (potential) and talent (performance) –Development of program services to accommodate different potentials and different talents --no longer a single program or provision The importance of learning rate in ultimate retention is better understood –Intellectually gifted and maths/science/foreign language talented students must work 2-3 times faster than “regular” class pace in order to retain accurately

9 USOE Definition 1972 (Marland) Visual Performing Arts Specific Academic IntellectualCreativity Leadership

10 Gagné’s Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent

11 Who the Gifted Learner is Has Become Clearer The gifted mind is more likely to be decontextualist in acquiring new learning than constructivist –Effective learning is most likely to occur when the gifted learner is taught concepts, principles, generalizations, and works on issues or problems (but all this is supported with adequate access to facts, details, vocabulary, basic knowledge) –Effective learning is most likely to occur when the concept is taught whole-to-part, rather than part-to-whole

12 Matching Instructional Delivery with Area Fast PacingMath, science, foreign language Target teaching of gaps In-depth learning Concept-based learning Science.HistoryHumanities, language arts, social studies Whole -to-partMath, scienceLiterature, social studies Elimination of drill and repetition Math, science, spelling, geography Literature, social studies Self-instructional learning Math, spelling, geography Some areas of social studies Reflection and analysisScienceHumanities, language arts, social studies

13 Reflections on the Research So what does this say to you about how teaching and instruction should be changed for gifted learners? Which of these strategies are your teachers already doing? Which of these strategies would you like to work toward in your longer term strategic planning for staff?

14 What the Gifted Learner Should be Taught is Clearer Content that is –Abstract –Complex –Multidisciplinary –Human issues-related –Methodology-related Skills that are –Higher Order –Open-ended –Proof & Reasoning –Problem-based, inquiry-based, guided discovery-based –Group-produced (qualified) –Allow for Freedom of Choice in Learning –Strategies to improve retention (memory training)

15 What the Gifted Learner Should be Taught is Clearer The “extras” that must be included in their studies include: –The “classics” of literature –The “big ideas” of philosophy –The major principles of the arts (for all arts domains Visual arts Music Theatre Dance Creative Writing Graphic Design –The “big ideas” of science and mathematics

16 Matching Modified Curriculum with Area Content AbstractionLiterature, History, Humanities Science, Social Studies ComplexityMath, ScienceLiterature, Social Studies Multi-disciplinarityScienceLiterature, Humanities, Social studies Study of PeopleSocial Studies, ScienceLiterature, Humanities Methods of InquiryScienceHumanities, social studies Open-endednessLiterature, HumanitiesSocial Studies

17 Matching Modified Curriculum with Area Proof and Reasoning Science, MathLiterature, Social Studies Discovery LearningScienceSocial Studies, Humanities Real World Problems Science, MathLiterature, Social Studies, Humanities Transformational Products ScienceSocial Studies The “Classics”Literature, Humanities Science, Art, Music, Theater Memory WorkScienceHistory, Geography

18 Matching Modified Curriculum with Area Social Issues, Ethics Discussions Social Studies, Humanities Literature, Science Problem-Based Tasks and Projects Science, MathSocial Studies, Humanities Service LearningSocial Studies, Humanities, Science Literature Planning, Research Organization, Test- taking Training Science, MathSocial Studies, Humanities Communication Skills Training LiteratureSocial Studies. Science Arts-IntegrationCriticismHistory, aesthetics

19 How We Should Organize the Learning of Gifted Learners is Clearer Gifted learners must be grouped for substantial blocks of time daily for learning and for socializing –Self-contained gifted classrooms or schools –Cluster Grouping –Within Class Grouping –Cross-Grading –Vertical Grouping - Grade telescoping –Pull out/send out programs –Like-ability/performance Cooperative Grouping –Academic teams and competitions –Affective support groups –Service learning and other group projects

20 Grouping Research Options Grouping by ability –Cluster grouping –Special full-time schools/classes (school within a school) –Send-out programs –Like ability cooperative learning Grouping by Performance –Cluster grouping –Send-out programs –Like performing cooperative learning –Regrouping for advanced/honors/accelerated specific subjects –Within class performance grouping (flexible grouping) –Cross-graded classes

21 Research on Instructional Management: Grouping Permutations Full-time ability grouping(ES=.49,.33) Regrouping for specific instruction(ES=.34,.79) Cluster grouping of GT students(ES=.59,.44) Pull-out grouping (ES=.45,.44,.32) Within class ability grouping(ES=.34) Cross-graded classes(ES=.45,.46) Mixed ability cooperative groups(ES= 0) Like ability cooperative groups(ES=.28)

22 Matching for Ability Grouping Cognitive Functioning - is processing and achieving well above most others at grade level Learning Strengths - learns easily and well in most subjects at school Learning Preferences - prefers to work at fast pace, though not necessarily alone Personal Characteristics - academically motivated, comfortable with competition, self-accepting Interests/Attitudes - likes academic work even outside of school Books - reads widely and at advanced levels

23 Matching for Performance Grouping Cognitive Functioning - is achieving well beyond others at current grade level Learning Strengths - learns quickly and easily in most academic areas Learning Preferences - prefers fast paced, challenging work, though not necessarily alone Personal Characteristics - is academically motivated, accepting of others, self-accepting, independent Interests/Attitudes - likes academic work even outside of school Books - reads widely and at advanced levels

24 How We Should Organize the Learning of Gifted Learners is Clearer Gifted learners will need to be accelerated in some form at some time in their school lives –Grade-based Acceleration Vertical Grouping/Grade Telescoping Grade Skipping Early Admission to University –Subject-Based Acceleration Multi-age or Composite Classes Dual Enrollment Advanced Placement/ International Baccalaureate programs Subject Acceleration Credit for Prior Learning, Testing Out

25 Acceleration Research Options Grade-based Acceleration (shorten time in school) –Grade skipping –Grade telescoping –Early admission to college Subject-based Acceleration (advanced exposure early ) –Early admission to school –Concurrent/dual enrollment –Advanced Placement/International Baccalaureate programs –Mentorships/one-to-one tutoring –Subject acceleration –Credit by examination

26 Research on Instructional Management: Acceleration Permutations Grade Skipping(ES=.49,.31) Early Entrance to School(ES=.49) Subject Acceleration(ES=.57) Grade Telescoping(ES=.40) Concurrent Enrollment(ES=.22) Advanced Placement courses(ES=.27) Early Admission to College(ES=.30) Credit by Examination(ES=.59)

27 Matching for Acceleration: Grade-Based Cognitive Functioning - needs to learn more in a year than 1 year’s curriculum in most subjects Learning Strengths - shows strengths in every academic area Learning Preferences - prefers to work alone and at own pace Personal Characteristics - is independent and persistent Interests/Attitudes - likes academic work, has wide-ranging interests Books - often reads books well beyond age and “appropriately developmental” level

28 Matching for Acceleration: Subject-Based Cognitive Functioning - is performing well above age peers in specific academic area or areas Learning Strengths - more than 2 grades ahead in specific area or areas Learning Preferences - enjoys variety of delivery methods and challenges in that specific area Personal Characteristics - is self-directed, independent, and motivated to learn Interests/Attitudes - strong passion in specific area(s) with little time to pursue this outside of school Books - reads extensively in specific passion area

29 How We Should Organize the Learning of Gifted Learners is Clearer Some individualization of the gifted learner’s program of studies will be necessary –Compacting the Curriculum –Independent Study, self-instructional materials –Credit for Prior Learning –Testing Out –Mentorships, Tutorships

30 Individualization Research Options Individualization –Unique plan for individual child Education plan Compacting Mentorship/one-to-one tutoring Independent study On-line/distance learning –Flexible progression through general K-12 curriculum Non-graded classes Multi-grade classes Credit for prior learning Testing out On-line/distance learning

31 Research on Instructional Management: Individualization Non-graded classrooms(ES=.38) Multi-grade classrooms(ES=.19) One-to-one mentoring/tutoring(ES=.57) Compacting(ES=.83,.26) Credit for prior learning(ES=.56) Talent Development(LO) IEPs or ILPs(LO) Independent Study(ES= 0)

32 Matching for Compacted Curriculum Cognitive Functioning - is achieving at substantially higher level in some subjects than most classmates Learning Strengths - pre-assessment shows actual levels of mastery in subject or subjects Learning Preferences - willing to work alone or in small group on self-instructional tasks Personal Characteristics - motivated to learn, persistent, independent Interests/Attitudes - has high interest in area to be compacted, boredom with routine learning Books - reads deeply in specific area of strength

33 Matching for Independent Learning Cognitive Functioning - is processing, achieving well beyond grade level in specific academic area Learning Strengths - strong in planning and organizational skills, as well as in specific subject Learning Preferences - enjoys variety of delivery methods and challenge Personal Characteristics - is self-directed, independent, motivated to learn Interests/Attitudes - strong specific interests, time to supplement learning outside of school Books - reads deeply in specific interest, strength

34 So, What Does This Mean for Educational Leaders? Take ceilings and basements off curriculum outcomes Provide links among subject areas whenever a new concept is introduced Target teach for gaps in skills and knowledge, but spend less than 10% of your time on remediation Provide new content and skills daily in specific areas of talent for individual students (for the rest, additional challenge 1-2 times per week)

35 So, What Does This Mean for Educational Leaders? Provide affective, individualized support for students for approximately 25% of your time with them Regroup students according to their current performance levels in each subject taught Keep the pace fast and non-repetitive, especially in math, science, and foreign language Find content experts for individual learners when they have outstripped your knowledge of a talent area

36 So, What Does This Mean for Educational Leaders? Choose content and curriculum carefully with these two maxims in mind –Would, Could, Should Questions (Passow) –HOTS not MOTS

37 Last Words It’s a daunting task, being an educator, bearing the responsibility for shaping both academics and attitudes. Accountability, as defined in today’s schools, often measures the easy stuff: the math facts memorized, the commas placed correctly, the historical events sequenced. But the true measure of the educator’s teaching performance is not so readily determined. No computer-scanned bubble sheet measures how our students feel about learning or their biases toward self and others. These indexes, the true value of learning and education, elude detection and measurement, sometimes for years…So, the brave educators wishing to enhance both students’ self- concepts and their achievements must be content with not knowing the immediate or long-term impacts of their actions. [Delisle, J.R. (1992). Guiding the social and emotional development of gifted youth. Pp New York: Longman]


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