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Unit 1 Expository Writing Responding to a Short Story.

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1 Unit 1 Expository Writing Responding to a Short Story

2 Responding to a Short Story  What is a literary response? In a literary response, a writer —tells how he or she reacted to a literary selection —explains his or her reaction using specific details and examples from the text In this workshop, you will learn how to write a response to a short story that you have read.

3 Assignment: Write a response to a short story I have read. Goal: Clearly present a personal opinion of or personal reaction to one aspect or element of a short story. Strategy: Use evidence from the story to support and explain my opinion or reaction.

4 Writing Rubric: an introduction that names the story and its author and includes a clear thesis, or statement of my response to the story body paragraphs that support and explain my thesis evidence from the story to support each main idea in my body paragraphs and my thesis precise language appropriate to my audience and topic a conclusion that sums up my response My response to literature should include the following:

5 Responding to a Short Story  When you respond to a short story explain your personal reaction to it—one way to do that is to say, “I liked the story” or “I didn’t like the story.” focus on something specific about the story that affected you, such as the main character, the setting, or a surprise ending. discuss whether you could see yourself or people you know in the story.

6 Walter Dean Myers recounts how his teacher made him read a book when he misbehaved. Note his use of personal details and point of view. Reading a book was not so much like entering a different world—it was like discovering a different language. It was a language clearer than the one I spoke, and clearer than the one I heard around me. What the books said was...interesting, but the idea that I could enter this world at any time I chose was even more attractive. The “me” who read the books...seemed more the real me than the “me” who played ball in the streets. —WALTER DEAN MYERS, Bad Boy

7 ➊ PREWRITE  Narrowing Your Topic First, decide on a story to write about. —Which stories do you feel most strongly about? —Which stories changed your understanding of something or made you question what you thought you knew? —Which stories did you find especially enjoyable, surprising, or strange? Whichever story you choose, be sure that it is one that inspired a strong reaction and one that will give you enough to discuss in your response.

8 ➊ PREWRITE  Gathering Details Once you choose a story to write about, gather details related to your response. Consider how specific events, characters, and settings shaped your feelings about the story. Then make a reactions chart like the one on the next slide to record your thoughts and reactions to specific details in the story.

9 Reaction Chart Details from StoryMy Reactions Use the chart to record the key parts of the story, as well as your reactions, predictions, and questions.

10 ➊ PREWRITE  Deciding on Your Purpose Now write a thesis statement or main idea statement that includes your response. Remember, a personal response states your own reaction, so write in the first-person, using pronouns such as I, me, and my. Use model thesis statements on the following slides to come up with ideas for your own thesis statement.

11 ➊ PREWRITE Model: My Ideas: I the story because. I liked the story “The Goodness of Matt Kaizer” because Matt was such a believable character.

12 ➊ PREWRITE Model: My Ideas: For me, the best part of was because. For me, the best part of “The Circuit” was the ending because it showed the circuit, or circle, of the narrator’s life.

13 ➊ PREWRITE Model: My Ideas: made me think about. “The All-American Slurp” made me think about the funny things that can happen when people adjust to a new culture.

14 ➊ PREWRITE  Deciding on Your Purpose You can also create your own sentence model that includes the name of the story, how you felt about it, and why. Thesis: “Lob’s Girl” is a great story because of all the surprises it contains, the way the surprises get bigger and better, and the fantastic surprise ending.

15 ➊ PREWRITE  Deciding on Your Purpose Now that you have chosen a story and a thesis, ask yourself whether you can write a whole paper about it. To test your thesis and get ready to draft, jot down ideas for at least two paragraphs that explain your main idea. If you think you can support your thesis, move on to the drafting stage. If not, come up with a new thesis and try again.

16 ➋ DRAFT  Organizing Ideas Often, the best method of organization is story order. For most stories, story order is the same as chronological order, or time order. To use story order —put your details in the same order in which they appear in the story. —discuss details at the beginning of the story first. —then move on to details that appear in the middle and at the end of the story.

17 ➋ DRAFT  Story Order Detail(s) from the Beginning — Lob finds Sandy—love at first sight Detail(s) from the Middle — Lob walks from Liverpool to Cornwall twice Detail(s) from the End — Lob finds the hospital — Lob brings Sandy out of her coma — Lob was buried at sea  Story Order Detail(s) from the Beginning — Lob finds Sandy—love at first sight Detail(s) from the Middle — Lob walks from Liverpool to Cornwall twice Detail(s) from the End — Lob finds the hospital — Lob brings Sandy out of her coma — Lob was buried at sea

18 ➋ DRAFT  Putting Your Thoughts on Paper A response to literature is a type of expository writing. —Expository writing is writing that explains something. —Expository writing typically includes the following framework. Introduction Body Conclusion

19 ➋ DRAFT  As you draft your response, follow this organizational plan: PartPurpose Introduction Body Conclusion lead your reader smoothly into your topic state the title, author, and thesis write a topic sentence for each body paragraph provide support from the story briefly sum up your main points add a final thought or insight

20 ➋ DRAFT  Making Connections Your goal in a personal response is to let your audience know how you reacted and to explain why you reacted that way. Use specific details and examples in your body paragraphs to explain your reaction.

21 ➋ DRAFT  Making Connections Make sure each body paragraph has a main idea and supporting evidence from the story. The main idea of each paragraph should support your thesis. State the main idea in a topic sentence, which is usually the first sentence of the paragraph. Then explain the main idea in several supporting sentences. End each paragraph with a statement that links your ideas to your thesis.

22 ➋ DRAFT  Making Connections In a personal response, remember that you need to explain and support your main ideas with evidence (details that come directly from the story). Include exact quotations or paraphrased evidence from the story in your supporting sentences. Study the examples of supporting evidence on the following slide.

23 ➋ DRAFT  Which of these examples of supporting evidence is paraphrased and which is a direct quote? Topic Sentence: The next two surprises are even more incredible. 1. Evidence: Liverpool is “at the other end of England from Cornwall.” 2. Evidence: Lob walks across the country to get back to the Pengellys.

24 ➋ DRAFT  Correct Answers: 1. Evidence: Liverpool is “at the other end of England from Cornwall.” Direct Evidence 2. Evidence: Lob walks across the country to get back to the Pengellys. Paraphrased Evidence

25 ➌ REVISE  Evaluating Your Draft Always reread your writing. Add more explanation where it is needed and take out words or sentences that are off the topic. Another good method for evaluating your draft is to give it to a peer reviewer.

26 ➌ REVISE  Delivering a Peer Review Be focused. —Concentrate on content, organization, and style. —Leave spelling and punctuation for the proofreading stage. Be positive. —Respect the writer’s feelings and genuine writing efforts. Be specific. —Give the writer concrete ideas on improving his or her work.

27 ➌ REVISE  Receiving a Peer Review Be specific. —Tell the reviewer your concerns about the paper. Ask questions. —Make sure you understand the reviewer’s comments. Be selective. —Accept suggestions graciously, but don’t feel you have to use all—or any—of them. Use the Revising Checklist on the next slide to help guide you through your review.

28 Revising Checklist  Does the introduction name the story and its author and include a clear thesis?  Do the main ideas of the body paragraphs support the thesis?  Are the main ideas supported with specific evidence from the story?

29 ➌ REVISE  Below is part of a literary response draft. The notes to the right indicate the reasons for the changes in the draft. See the complete draft on page 123 of your textbook.

30  EDIT AND PROOFREAD  Focus: Word Choice When you write, use words that tell your readers exactly what you mean. Use precise language that is appropriate to your audience and topic. Use specific nouns, verbs, and modifiers to make your points clearer and your writing more interesting. The biggest most remarkable surprises occur at the ending.

31 David Almond is the author of many award- winning books, such as Skellig and Secret Heart. Almond acknowledges that writing can be hard, but he encourages all young people to look for the things they enjoy in their work, and to trust their instincts and imaginations: Find something that you really like in everything you write, even if it’s just a sentence or two. Be brave enough to tell yourself that some of your writing is really good. Believe that you are becoming a good writer. Train yourself to find the good bits and to throw out or change the bad. Look around you, and allow yourself to be amazed by the world we live in.

32  EDIT AND PROOFREAD  Focus: Appositive Phrases An appositive is a noun or pronoun that usually follows another noun or pronoun and identifies it, limits its meaning, or gives additional information. In the following example, Mr. Dodsworth is the appositive. It identifies Lob’s owner. Lob’s owner, Mr. Dodsworth, takes him home to Liverpool.

33  EDIT AND PROOFREAD  Focus: Appositive Phrases An appositive phrase is the appositive and words that modify it. Commas set off an appositive phrase from the rest of the sentence. Can you identify the appositive phrase in the following sentence? Lob, the amazing German shepherd, walks across the country a second time!

34  EDIT AND PROOFREAD  Correct Answer: Here, the amazing German shepherd is an appositive phrase. It identifies Lob. Lob, the amazing German shepherd, walks across the country a second time!

35  EDIT AND PROOFREAD  Proofreading The next-to-last step in the writing process is to correct mistakes in spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. Look for any misused words or errors in grammar too. Use proofreader’s marks to show your corrections.

36 Student Model  Review the final draft of the Student Model on page 125 of your textbook. Pay attention to the notes that identify the different parts of the paper.

37  PUBLISH AND PRESENT  Final Draft Always make a clean copy of your work for presentation. Handwritten papers should be neat and easy to read. Word-processed papers should be double-spaced. Choose a font style and size that is easy to read. Many readers prefer a twelve-point type size.


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