Presentation on theme: "Direct Assistance to Teachers R. Martin Reardon’s summary of Chapter 16. Glickman, C. D., Gordon, S. P. & Ross- Gordon, J. M. (2009), 227-240."— Presentation transcript:
Direct Assistance to Teachers R. Martin Reardon’s summary of Chapter 16. Glickman, C. D., Gordon, S. P. & Ross- Gordon, J. M. (2009), 227-240
Session 1: 8 slides2 Glickman’s Conceptual Schema (see p. 10) Ch 16 Ch 14: Observing Skills
Session 1: 8 slides3 Ch 16 Direct Assistance to Teachers Clinical Supervision Over 90 % of administrators “know it”? Developed by Cogan at Harvard in late 60s Both concept and structure As concept 1. A technology for improving instruction (distinct from summative process) 2. A deliberate intervention into the instructional process 3. Goal oriented (combines school & personal growth needs) 4. Assumes professional relationship between S and s 5. Requires mutual trust 6. Systematic but flexible 7. Productive tension between real & ideal 8. Assumes S knows a great deal about analysis of instruction & learning, & about productive interaction 9. Requires S receive pre-service and in-service training
Session 1: 8 slides4 Clinical Supervision: Structure 1. Preconference a. Determine reason & purposed. Time of observation b. Focuse. Time of postconference c. Method & form 2. Observation See Chapter 14: distinction between description & interpretation. 3. Analyzing & interpreting observation & determining conference approach S studies collected data alone to make sense of data; then develops interpretation(s): see Worksheet on p. 229 Determine interpersonal approach (this will be clearer by Session 9) 4. Postconference Discuss analysis and plan for improvement: see Worksheet on p. 231 objective, activities, resources, time & date for next preconference 5. Critique of previous four steps What was valuable? What was of little value? What changes are needed? Both symbolic & functional; S is not immune from need for improvement.
Session 1: 8 slides5 Clinical Supervision & Teacher Evaluation Compared C.S. includes but goes beyond formative evaluation Helps teacher design & implement action plan C.S. is NOT consistent with summative evaluation, though similar 5-step process might be involved Some school districts confuse the two Consider the purpose The integration of C.S. and Dev. Supervision will be clearer after Session 9
Session 1: 8 slides6 Other Forms of Direct Assistance: Peer Coaching “If S critically needs assistance..” Minimum of twice a year of Direct Assistance visits per teacher? Upper limit for S is 9 to 11 teachers? Teachers naturally help each other IF focus is improvement, not summative assessment, peers quite capable DON’T call a staff meeting & announce that it’s happening Using email is even worse Purpose: key questions include Peer assistance or “mentoring”? Who is expected to primarily benefit: observer or observed? Common instructional skills or idiosyncratic needs? Focus on teacher’s teaching or individual student’s behavior Focus greater awareness & reflection or particular skill implementation First step, meet to discuss how proposed program fits into school’s & district’s goals, & decide on above questions & any others
Session 1: 8 slides7 Peer Coaching (ii) Preparation Training on purpose & procedures Preconference as determining focus Observing & Analyzing as distinct actions Providing input on S styles (Ch 7 – 12) Use of standard forms (Ch 14) 6 hours of training Follow-up meeting after first cycle First year: 4 cycles, 2 as coach & 2 as being coached Based on volunteers; high involvement not necessary Scheduling Much more likely if P.C. is not an extra duty Substitute teacher take occasional class? Administrator? Some large group activity may provide some time Troubleshooting S as source of ideas; resource person S maintain contact with “coaches;” does not have to be elaborate system
Session 1: 8 slides8 Other Forms of Direct Assistance: Demonstration Teaching (Lesson Study) S or expert peer as guest teacher Visit to expert peer’s class Can involve pre- and postconference Co-teaching S or expert peer collaborates with teacher to plan, teach & evaluate lesson Assistance with resources and materials Individualized—technical mastery & adaptation Assistance with student assessment Alternative forms: authentic a., portfolios, “performance” a. … Problem solving Based on trust: identification, alternatives, selection, follow-up Mentoring Particularly for beginning teachers Useful for teachers new to building or course
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