8“Backbone of the Hills” Female majority in all interior districtsFeminization of poverty observedSubsistence cultivation on small parcels of landRemittance supplements family incomeAccess to common lands, health services, water major issues
9Birthplace of the Chipko Chipko - literally “to hug”Active phase from 1973 to 1987Major milestone in the global environmental movement, focus on resource rightsCelebrated confrontation between mainly village women and loggers that resulted in local forests being saved.Spread to rest of Uttarakhand Himalayas, inspired women environmental activists throughout world including at Clayoquot.
10Gaura Devi, 1925-1991 Heroine of Reni forest defense action, 1974 President of Reni Women’s AssociationDedicated life to community defense & developmentDied in penury
13Academic De(con)struction Anupam Mishra writes first history of Chipko (1978), followed by Shiva & Bandyopadhyay (1986), Weber (1987), Guha (1989), Routledge (1993), Küchli (1997)Critiques launched by Aryal (1994), Mawdsley (1998), Bandyopadhyay (1999), Rangan (2000), mostly targeting Shiva’s ecofeminist interpretationsMawdsley (1998) & Rangan (2000) update the Chipko story with comparisons to the Uttarakhand separate state struggle that raged throughout the 1990s
15Other Social Movements associated with Chipko Prohibition Movement (ongoing)Beej Bachao Andolan (late 1980s-)Maiti Movement (1995-)Jal Andolan (1997-)struggles against mines, dams, development-induced displacementlocal community regeneration & development campaigns
18Dam Struggle shifts to Rehabilitation 2002- Bahuguna, Chipko veteran gives up struggleMatu People’s organization continues agitating for proper rehabilitationProtracted struggle leaves little desire for repeat
20Uttarakhand Movement, 1994-2000 Mobilization of practically entire populationWomen again at the forefront, with 80% participationLargely non-violent, met with police repressionStruggle for autonomy, self-determination, development
21Renewed Mining Struggles, 2001- Henwal Valley in Tehri District witnesses successful 1980s protests against miningEstablishes landmark constitutional environmental guaranteesMining pressures resume around Kataldi village, courts support mining companyWomen-led protests met with intimidation, veteran Chipko activists arrested
22Ironies of ChipkoState deployed environmental narrative to strengthen control over natural resources, while ignoring the demand for the repatriation of land and forest rights to local communities.In Gaura Devi’s own community, this led to large-scale dispossession in the name of conservation through the creation of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve.
23A Look at the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve Core Zone 640 km2Buffer Zone 1600 km2Altitude Range 1900–7817m12 peaks over 6400mDiverse variety of microclimatesBiodiversity hotspotComplete ban on access
24Jhapto Cheeno,Creation of national park created enormous hardship for local communities.Unilateral imposition of western model, draconian ban on local access & end to tourism industry alienated villagers, turning them against government-led conservation efforts.In 1998, Lata village launched the Jhapto Cheeno (“Swoop and Grab”) movement, involving direct action against the ban.
30Campaign Press Coverage “Ecotourism Awards 2nd Runner-Up”Conde Nast Traveler July 2004Feature Article: “Peasants deprived of their landin the name of ecology” GEO January 2005“Paradise Regained”National Geographic AdventureJune/July 2005
31Bali Devi in Nairobi, 2004 First Chipko woman to travel outside India Shared dais of opening plenary with Wangari MaathaiSpoke & sang in local dialect about unity of strugglesReaffirmed roots of contemporary struggles in history of resistance.
32Many thanks to the communities of Lata & Henwalghati — uttarakhand.net — — nandadevi.org —