Presentation on theme: "Improving Health in our Workplaces"— Presentation transcript:
1Improving Health in our Workplaces Chartered Institute of Personnel DirectorsScotland Annual ConferenceGlasgow, 5 March 2015Improving Health in our WorkplacesDame Carol BlackExpert Adviser on Health and WorkDepartment of Health and Public Health EnglandPrincipal, Newnham College Cambridge
2Workplace Health as a Business Issue CBI : GETTING BETTERWorkplace Health as a Business Issue“ The working world is getting ever more complex, with flexibility and globalisation beginning to break down the barriers of what we are used to.In the UK, we need to compete on the quality of what we do – and that makes staff performance and productivity vital. And workplace health is essential to both of those key factors. ”Neil CarberryCBI director of employment & skillsSponsor: Medicash
3What prevents us from working – or from working well and feeling good ? Common mental health problemsMusculo-skeletal problemsThe quality of work and the workplace- organisation of work- managerial behaviour and leadership- absence of ‘good work’Other important reasons- long-term conditions – mental and physical- psychosocial/ home-related problems- lack of education and/or skills.
4Common Mental Health Problems : What and Why Stress, anxiety, mild depression- high prevalence across populations- little or no objective disease or impairment- most episodes settle rapidly, though symptoms often persist or recur- essentially whole people, should be manageable.These symptoms are often an expression of, or reaction to, poor work, poor workplaces, and/or poor leaders or managers.Health interventions such as drugs, EAPs, CBT etc may help BUT not address the real root problem(s).
5Mental Health and Work Globally, a growing realisation that : Mental ill-health among working-age people is a priority challenge for the labour market and social policies ….... an issue neglected too long – with widespread fears and stigma.Employment opportunities for people with mental ill-health are low, many of those who are employed struggle in their jobs, and disability caused by mental ill-health is frequent and rising.The costs of mental ill-health, for individuals, employers and society, are very large. (The ILO estimates the cost conservatively at 3 to 4% of Gross Domestic Product in the EU).Governments recognise - this situation is not sustainable.OECD 2011
6Measures of productivity loss and mental ill health Percentage of workers with various productivity losses in past 4 weeks due to a mental health problem :Source: OECD calculations based on Eurobarometer Survey of 21 countries 2005
7Well-being and Engagement Approximately 25% of the variation in reported levels of employee productivity is predicted by a combination of:- psychological well-being- perceived commitment of the organisation to the employee- access to appropriate resources, and- good communication.Donald et al, 2005Robertson and Cooper have shown that the top driver for employee engagement is the extent to which employees believe that their senior management has a sincere interest in their well-being.High levels of staff engagement are not sustainable unless well-being is maintained, through good work and good workplaces.Engagement without well-being can lead to a burned-out workforce.
8The Bottom LineMental illness costs employers about £ 28 billion per year:prevention and early identification of problems should save employers at least 30%, or £ 8 bn a year.NICE Costing tool available atcalculates the overall cost of mental health in the workplace (all aspects) and potential savingscalculates that for a company with 1,000 employees, mental ill health costs about £835,000 per yearreduction by 30%, through taking simple steps, would save £250,000 per annumNovember 2009 NICE guidance presents the business case.8
9Key players : workers’ health and productivity Health professionals(Primary and secondary care)Public Health (professionals, local councils)Non-governmental bodies and charitiesEmployees(Patients)EmployersShort-term (i.e. first 28 weeks) costs tend to fall on employers and individuals:Employers typically find Statutory Sick Pay (SSP) and Occupational Sick Pay (OSP);Individuals lose out if only receive SSPState funds ESA for individuals on very low earnings (below the Lower Earnings Limit);Longer term costs fall on individuals and the taxpayer:State funds ESA for those who are out-of-work or sick beyond 28 weeks.Individuals receive ESAOH professionals Trade UnionsGovernments to make policy, initiate, support,encourage, and where necessary legislate.99
10The crucial interfaces The interfaces, between patient/employee, health professionals and employer, need to satisfy all parties.Essential ingredients:well-informed, work-knowledgeable health professionalsemployers that create good work and good workplacesemployees well, and engaged.
11Essential Enablers of Health, Wellbeing and Resilience Early appropriate intervention by health professionalsGood work and workplacesProactive ‘reformed’ OHStaff engagementEmpowering leadershipSupportive managersPromotion of health and wellbeingIntegration of Health, Safety, OH and Wellbeing programmesAttention to positive mental health and resilienceAll the above also improve safety and patient care.
12Early action by health professionals Understanding by all health professionals of the social determinants of healthProper use of the electronic Fit Note, with more use of “.. may be fit to work if ..”(current usage about 15% of written Notes)Return to work regarded as a desirable clinical outcome, and measured as such by the clinical regulatorFull use of the new Fit for Work Service, available in Scotland through the NHS.
13UK Government Response 2013 to Sickness Absence Review 2011 Accepted a recommendation to introduce a state-funded health and work assessment and advisory service [now Fit for Work: in Scotland NHS delivered, as Fit for Work Scotland]The Service has been designed to intervene in sickness absence at the four-week point.On 1 January 2015 a recommended tax exemption came in on medical treatment recommended by Fit for Work or employer-arranged OH services.Department for Work & PensionsFitness for work: theGovernment responseto ‘Health at work – anindependent review ofsickness absence’Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of Statefor Work and Pensions by Command of Her MajestyJanuary 2013
14Fit for Work Scotland… is being introduced to support a reduction in the length of sickness absence from work and reduce the impact that absence has on individuals, employers and the State.The service aims to:support people to reduce the length of sickness absencereduce the chances of people falling out-of-work and on to benefitsincrease awarenesss of the benefits of working to a person’s healthincrease the positive actions taken by employers, employees and GPs in contributing to a change in attitudes towards health and work.
15Fit for Work Scotland : Why? Currently in Scotland, each year :130 million days are lost to sickness absence, costing economy £15 bnemployers face bill of about £9 bn for lost production and sick payindividuals absent sick lose around £4 bn in earnings.It is estimated that Fit for Scotland will :reduce employers’ sick pay costs by a thirdreduce cost of out-of-work benefits by a third, to £6 m per yearincrease Scottish tax and NI revenues by £10 m to £21 m per year
16Early intervention: Scotland EASY sickness absence service Cost effectiveness study after four years (2008 to 2012), NHS Lanarkshire compared with NHS in rest of ScotlandIs the service effective in reducing sickness absence?Does the service offer net economic benefits?J.Brown et al, Scand J work Environ Health, on-line.Easy Access to Support for You (EASY)Biopsychosocial approach to case managementLine Manager immediately informs EASY call centre of the absenceCentre aims to call employee on first day of absence (FDA)Reference to OH services on tenth day of absence
17NHS sickness absence rates, 2007-12 Lanarkshire vs Rest of Scotland EASY service, telephone early in absence, provided in Lanarkshire only(EASY = Early Access to Support for You)Rest ScotlandJ.Brown et al, Scand J work Environ Health, on-line.In 2009 Lanarkshire rates came below those in rest of Scotland, for first time.
18EASY evaluation - outcome Although sickness absence in NHS Lanarks was falling beforehand, following EASY’s introduction absence reduced by 21%.Nonspecific tightening of sickness absence policies in rest of Scotland NHS reduced sickness absence by about 9% in same period.There were commensurate economic benefits, cumulative from 2007 to 2012, greatest at the outset and diminishing over time.MSK and Mental Health problems accounted for 23 and 19% of days lost.Absences due to MSK problems reduced from 32 days on average in year one to 20 days in year four – no significant change for other diseasesBy 2012 NHS Lanarks absence rates were close to those in rest of NHS Scotland – so is EASY still producing economic benefit?
19Good WorkplacesKey features common to those organisations which have achieved success in promoting physical and mental health and well-being:Senior visible leadershipAccountable appropriately-trained managers throughout the organisationIntegration of traditional Health and Safety with promotion of Health and WellbeingMonitoring and measurement to ensure continuous improvementEmpowering and facilitating employees to care for their own healthEnabling staff engagement
20National Health Service England Board Leadership :National Health Service EnglandBoard level involvement will make the differenceWhere NHS Boards live the values they want to achieve, staff will take those values seriously.A named board member responsible for H&WB and reviewing progress every 6 months will drive this agenda forward.Example: York Teaching Hospitals NHS FTUsed board engagement to drive progress across the TrustBoard visibly involved in events to promote better health and well- being, and communicated this to staff.Delivered sickness absence savings of £2.7m yearly, and 72% reduction in long-term absence.
21Leaders and back pain : predictors not always ‘medical’ After adjustment for age, sex, skill level, back pain severity and other potential confounders, the most consistent predictors of back pain were:decision control at work (lowest OR 0.68;99% confidence interval (CI): ),empowering leadership at work (lowest OR 0.59; 99% CI: )fair leadership at work(lowest OR 0.54; 99% CI: ) Christensen JO, Knardahl S. 2012Do not forget leadership and other psycho-social factors
22on Employee Well-being Effect of Managerson Employee Well-beingA longitudinal interventional study (n = 188) in a large Danish local government organisation, where poor social support, lack of role clarity and lack of meaningful work were significant problems.Intervention (measured at entry and 18 months later) :- improved team working with a degree of self-management- Question: Did active middle management support for the intervention mediate its impact on well-being etc. ?Results :- structural equation modelling showed that active middle-manager involvement, as perceived by employees, correlated with job satisfaction and well-being.K. Neilsen. National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark
23Train your Managers Good line management is key to employee Wellbeing. Managers should focus on:– effective communication with the employee and other members of staff– awareness of the issues and the ability to empathise– developing open culture with employees feeling able to discuss their problems.Learning about mental health enables managers to judge when they need to refer employees to outside help.There are many sources of advice and good training courses.
24Re-integration into Work : after Mental Ill-health OECD Report 2011 :Globally, employment opportunities for people with mental ill-health are low, many of those who are employed struggle in their jobs, and disability caused by mental ill-health is frequent and rising.Time to Change, survey of the public, October 20147% rise in willingness “to work with someone with a mental health problem” (69 to 76%)Managers are crucial to successful re-integration.
25Integration : Total Worker Health Traditionally, workplace Health and Safety has been separated from Health Promotion.NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, USA) is now emphasising Total Worker Health :“ Growing evidence supports the effectiveness of combining these efforts through workplace interventions that integrate health protection and health promotion. ”“ Integrating health protection and promotion will create synergy, enhance overall health and wellbeing of the workforce, and decrease the likelihood of workplace injury and illnesses.”“ Having a psychologically-healthy workplace and having a profitable and sustainable business are linked.”
26Integration : Total Worker Health DateIntegration : Total Worker HealthGains in company performanceGains in health wellbeing, fitness for dutyOrganisational Health and SafetyStrategic, integratedAbsence of illness or injury incidentsCost minimisationExpanded value chain goes beyond absence of injuryAdd note Slide courtesy of Anne-Marie FeyerHarm MinimisationCompliance, systems, cultureLoss ControlIllness/injury incidentsSlide courtesy of Anne-Marie Feyer and Niki Ellis
27Health and Wellbeing Programmes Depend on circumstances – place, time, organisationConsult staff – then design.Mental Health : Prevention 1st, 2nd and 3rd !- counselling, mediation, yoga, stress management, resilience training, mindfulnessPhysical Health : (also benefits mental resilience)- health assessments, running clubs, discount on gym membership, fit bug, smoking cessation, dietary changes in canteens, Well Point, physiotherapy, pilates, reflexology, etc.Lifestyle : - make the most of money, well done letters, flexible retirement policies, lifewise flexible working, reading clubs, choirs, garden allotments .
28The gradient in health and motivation in workplaces Overall organisational productivity depends critically on workers’ aggregate performance- their contribution is essential to success.In particular, there is a need to understand the degree of linkage, in typical pyramid-shaped organisations, between, on average, poorer health (mental and physical) and lower motivation and engagement at work.Recognition of this needs to be properly factored in to management thinking about health to enhance productivityTop managementUsually declining income and healthWorkforce, many more at the foot, is not uniform in health, wellbeing or motivation
29Heart Age and Health Inequalities A simple online tool to find out your estimated Heart Age based on input of personal information on risk factors.Marketing Site :Factory Site :Inequalities of health !0 Heart Age above actualProportion of people in sample with heart ages in different ranges above their actual age – very different distributions at the two sites.
30Do Workplace Wellness Programs Work? Johns Hopkins study, JOEM, September 2014- considering programmes in the US system.Best and promising practice:Health educationSupportive social and physical environmentsIntegration with HR, infrastructure and environmental health and safetyLinks between HP and related programmes e.g. EAPWorks if:Goals aligned to businessProgramme design is evidence-basedEvidence-based implementationOngoing evaluationIf only goal is to save money, maybe not worth itJournal of Occupational and Environmental MedicineModified from Niki Ellis
31The King’s Fund 2015 : NHS Staff Engagement NHS providers with high levels of staff engagement tend to have lower levels of patient mortality, make better use of resources, and deliver stronger financial performance (West and Dawson 2012)Engaged staff are more likely to have the emotional resources to show empathy and compassion, despite the pressures they work under.So Trusts with more engaged staff tend to have higher patient satisfaction, with more patients reporting that they were treated well (Review of Staff Engagement and Empowerment in NHS, 2014)
32Six building blocks for a highly engaged workforce Shared directionDistributed leadershipSupportive stylesTransforming toolsTrustful cultureOn Board agendaThe King’s Fund 2015