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The Internationalisation and Globalisation of Higher Education: Implications for China Stamenka Uvalić-Trumbić & Sir John Daniel Education Masters: DeTao.

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Presentation on theme: "The Internationalisation and Globalisation of Higher Education: Implications for China Stamenka Uvalić-Trumbić & Sir John Daniel Education Masters: DeTao."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Internationalisation and Globalisation of Higher Education: Implications for China Stamenka Uvalić-Trumbić & Sir John Daniel Education Masters: DeTao Masters Academy

2 Plan: 5 sessions 1.Internationalisation & Globalisation 2.Ranking universities 3.Access to higher education 4.Qualifications and credentials 5. Wrap-up and conclusions

3 Plan: 5 sessions 1.Internationalisation & Globalisation 2.Ranking universities 3.Access to higher education 4.Qualifications and credentials 5. Wrap-up and conclusions

4 DEFINITIONS Globalization Internationalization Cross-Border Higher Education

5 INTERNATIONALISATION

6 Between and among nations (e.g. inter-university agreements) Nation is basic unit (e.g. China Education Association for International Exchange)

7 GLOBALIZATION

8 Global economic integration (e.g. McDonald’s) World: a single Market (e.g. MOOCs, Rankings)

9 What is Cross-Border HE? “… teacher, student, programme, institution/provider or course materials cross national jurisdictional borders”

10 CROSS-BORDER  branch campuses  student mobility  joint programmes  online learning

11 International Branch Campuses International Branch Campuses distinct form of CBHE 32 international branch campuses in China (2014)

12 BUT Branch campuses remain a marginal phenomenon. In China branch campuses and joint programmes combined account for 1% of student enrolments.

13 STUDENT MOBILITY

14 4 million students abroad (2012) Majority Asian (53%) 700,000 Chinese students abroad (2012)

15 GRADUATE MIGRATION 30% of migrants to OECD countries (2010) are graduetes – total 27 m 20% of them from China, India and Philippines 70% increase since 2000

16 16 FACULTY MOBILITY DeTao Masters from the Whole World FACULTY MOBILITY DeTao Masters from the Whole World

17 ONLINE LEARNING

18 3,850 MOOCS are now available!

19 QUESTIONS? COMMENTS?

20 Mr Jiang Bo with Stamenka Uvalic-Trumbic Beijing, 2012

21 GROUP DISCUSSIONS What lessons from China’s experience of study abroad? What impact of internationalisation and globalisation on migration?

22 PLENARY DISCUSSION What are the most productive modes of educational cooperation between China and the rest of the world?

23 Plan: 5 sessions 1.Internationalisation & Globalisation 2.Ranking universities 3.Access to higher education 4.Qualifications and credentials 5. Wrap-up and conclusions

24 UNIVERSITY RANKINGS US News and World Report (beginning of 1980s – US only) Global Rankings: Academic Rankings of World Universities (ARWU) – 2003 THE Rankings – 2004 …and others followed

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29 WHAT DO RANKINGS MEASURE? Research output - articles, citations, Nobel Prizes… Industry innovation/finance Internationalism Teaching quality (hard to measure?)

30 NEW APPROACHES TO RANKINGS? Develop rankings that fit local situations (e.g. Nigeria / AU) U Multi-rank (Europe) Measure a variety of dimensions.

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32 BRITAIN’S TOP NINE UNIVERSITIES Quality Rankings of Teaching based on all subject assessments (Sunday Times University Guide 2004) 1CAMBRIDGE 96% 2LOUGHBOROUGH95% 3=LONDON SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS88% 3= YORK88% 5 THE OPEN UNIVERSITY87% 6 OXFORD86% 7 IMPERIAL COLLEGE82% 8 UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON77% 9 ESSEX77% …and OU top for student satisfaction

33 The top 20 most searched universities on Google: 1. University of Phoenix 2. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 3. Open University 4. University of Calicut 5. University of California, Los Angeles 6. Anna University 7. Stanford University 8. London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) 9. Columbia University 10. New York University 11. University of Mumbai 12. University College London (UCL) 13. University of Oxford 14. Florida State University (FSU) 15. Harvard University 16. University of Cambridge 17. Liberty University 18. University of Rajasthan 19. University of Michigan 20. Annamalai University Source: Google/BBC

34 WHAT POLICY TO ADOPT ? Dismiss rankings? Take them seriously? Use them intelligently?

35 “World Class” university or system?

36 Students’ Choices UNESCO Forum, 2011

37 Students’ statements “Huge shortcomings regarding the provision of comparable information on HE and programmes”. (Allan Pall, Estonia) “University rankings are a useful tool for making choices” but “University rankings should not be singular” (Vimonmas Vachatimanont, Thailand) “Cambridge and Oxford are not best in all disciplines”(Lydienne Machi, Cameroon).

38 RANKINGS: QUESTIONS Rankings = quality? What does “world class” mean?

39 QUESTIONS? COMMENTS?

40 GROUP DISCUSSIONS Are rankings a measure of quality? What is a world-class university?

41 The Internationalisation and Globalisation of Higher Education: Implications for China Stamenka Uvalić-Trumbić & Sir John Daniel Education Masters: DeTao Masters Academy

42 Plan: 5 sessions 1.Internationalisation & Globalisation 2.Ranking universities 3.Access to higher education 4.Qualifications and credentials 5. Wrap-up and conclusions

43 INCREASING DEMAND Global enrollment: 2000 = 97 million 2007 = million 2012 = million (Asia m) million (estimate) million (estimate)

44 TERTIARY GROSS ENROLMENT RATE

45 TERTIARY ENROLMENTS - CHINA 2012 = 32 million 2020 = 37 million (estimate) (India 28 m, US 20 m, Brazil 9 m)

46 ACCESS: TO SUCCESS? Successful completion Success in employment Fulfilling work

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51 UNDEREMPLOYMENT? China has shown little evidence of rising unemployment despite the slowest growth rate since the global financial crisis—and is nowhere near the jobless rates seen in some of the countries hardest hit by the euro-zone debt crisis. But slowing growth underscores a fundamental challenge to China's economic development: the underemployment of huge numbers of graduates that Chinese colleges are churning out. Wall Street Journal 2012

52 QUESTIONS? COMMENTS?

53 ONLINE LEARNING

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55 US Universities Data

56 A Guide to Quality In Online Learning Authors: Neil Butcher & Merridy Wilson-Strydom Editors: Stamenka Uvalić-Trumbić & Sir John Daniel

57 A Guide to Quality in Online Learning

58 POST-TRADITIONAL HIGHER EDUCATION Open Educational Resources, Open Badges, MOOCs, etc.

59 What is a MOOC? Massive Open Online Course

60 Course x6002 Circuits and Electronics 155,000 registrations 23,000 tried first test 9,000 passed mid-term 7157 passed = < 5%

61 MOOCs ventures outside North America

62 3,850 MOOCS are now available!

63 What is higher education? Teaching Learning Credentials

64 A Guide to Quality in Post- Traditional Online Higher Education Authors: Neil Butcher & Sarah Hoosen Editors: Stamenka Uvalić-Trumbić & Sir John Daniel

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66 QUESTIONS? COMMENTS?

67 GROUP DISCUSSIONS How should higher education respond to a changing labour market? What good practices can be shared?

68 PLENARY DISCUSSION How are Chinese universities responding to the labour market? How can Chinese universities become world-class?

69 Plan: 5 sessions 1.Internationalisation & Globalisation 2.Ranking universities 3.Access to higher education 4.Qualifications and credentials 5. Wrap-up and conclusions

70 …to create the most dynamic and attractive higher education system in the world… (1999)

71 THE BOLOGNA PROCESS IN EUROPE Bologna Declaration signed by 47 Ministers by EHEA Main objectives: - easily comparable degrees (Bachelors, Masters, PhDs) - quality assurance frameworks (European Standards and Guidelines) -fair recognition of foreign degrees

72 MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF QUALIFICATIONS THE LISBON RECOGNITION CONVENTION (1997) - Europe THE TOKYO RECOGNITION CONVENTION (2011) - Asia - Pacific FEASIBILITY OF A GLOBAL CONVENTION (2014)

73 CONVENTIONS AND QUALIFICATION FRAMEWORKS TO FACILITATE STUDENT MOBILITY

74 The Death of the Degree Allan Pall, ESU Higher Learning to be more focused on validating the learning process and its outcomes What we really need is liberation from the degree Employers need the right mix of skills and competences matched with job requirements New credentials appearing

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76 NANODEGREES

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83 DeTao Masters Academy pioneering Open Badges in China

84 QUESTIONS? COMMENTS?

85 GROUP DISCUSSIONS Are Open Badges an opportunity for China? Are employers content with existing credentials?

86 PLENARY DISCUSSION Are qualifications structure changing in China? Are new credentials emerging in China?

87 Plan: 5 sessions 1.Internationalisation & Globalisation 2.Ranking universities 3.Access to higher education 4.Qualifications and credentials 5. Wrap-up and conclusions

88 THANK YOU Stamenka Uvalić-TrumbićSir John Daniel For text and slides:


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