4 Spreading seedsEmphasise to pupils that plants must disperse their seeds in order to survive, and that they are dispersed so that they have the best chance of survival. Plants will compete for light, water and nutrients. Therefore it is best for the seeds to grow as far as possible from the parent plant.
8 Will it grow?After seeds have been dispersed they start to grow a tinyroot and a tiny shoot. We call this germination.Seeds will only germinate under certain conditions…No! I refuse tostart growing unless I have my own dressing room, all my favourite foods, a personal assistant...What do you think a seed really needs to germinate?Water? Light? Warmth?Let’s plan a test to find out!
10 Will it grow?Remind pupils of the importance to put a number of seeds in each pot in order to get reliable evidence. Make sure pupils are clear that the seed in the dark germinated as well.Emphasise that light is not needed for germination, which is why we can see a shoot. Note that is looks less healthy than the other plants. This is because plants do need light for growth.Ask pupils to set up their own experiment like this one and write an account of how they set up the work. Bear in mind that some seeds can take some time to germinate, but they do not need to grow into adult plants in order for the experiment to be completed, so it can be done over a relatively short period of time.
14 Making new plantsLet’s take a closer look at the different parts of this flower.The stigma issticky to keep holdof the pollen.The petals attractinsects.The anther is thepart that makesthe pollen.The stylesupports thestigma andconnects it tothe ovary.The filamentholds up theanther.The ovary iswhere the ovules,or eggs, are.The sepal leaves protect the flower before it opens.
15 Making new plants There is something special about this flower; do you know what it is?The flower has both male and female organs!The stigma, style and ovary make up thefemale organ. This is called the carpel.The anther and filament make up themale organ. This is called the stamen.
17 Making new plantsAlthough they have male and female parts, flowers need tospread their pollen around to reproduce.Insects are attracted to flowers by their bright colours, lovely smell and sweet tasting nectar.Pollen from the stamen sticks to theinsects and gets carried to other flowers.Pollen brushes off the insect and onto the carpel.Image CreditPhotographs courtesy ofYou may wish to explain to pupils that plants can pollinate themselves, though this is not desirable as genes need to be spread apart. This is called self pollination.When pollen from one plant pollinates another, this is called cross pollination. Most plants are cross pollinated.This is the process of pollination. Let’s see it in action!
18 Making new plantsYou may wish to remind pupils here of the other methods of pollination i.e. wind, explosion and animals.
19 Making new plantsThe pollen gets stuck on the stigma. Then, the pollen grows atube down to the ovary. Fertilisation can now take place.Emphasise to pupils that a plant cannot be fertilised by any pollen; it must be of the right type.Explain to pupils that the ovule will be fertilised and then grow into a new seed.
23 Circle of lifePupils could research into the gestation periods of a number of mammals and draw a timeline to show the differences between species. If necessary briefly explain that the different gestation periods are largely due to the size of the animal.
25 Circle of lifeIt is important for animals and plants to reproduce. If they stopped reproducing, what do you think would happen?Eventually they would all die out.I’m a dodo bird.You might not have heardof me because my species diedout over 300 years ago. We used toroam free on our very own island butthen sailors discovered the island.They ruined our home and killedus for food. There weren’t manyof us left to reproduce andso we sadly becameextinct.