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Starter Unscramble each of the clue words. Take the letters that appear in boxes and unscramble them for the final message. C L I M A T EC H A N G E.

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Presentation on theme: "Starter Unscramble each of the clue words. Take the letters that appear in boxes and unscramble them for the final message. C L I M A T EC H A N G E."— Presentation transcript:

1 starter Unscramble each of the clue words. Take the letters that appear in boxes and unscramble them for the final message. C L I M A T EC H A N G E

2 Learning objectives Success criteria How is nitrogen recycled in ecosystems? What do you understand by the terms ‘ammonification’, ‘nitrification’, ‘nitrogen fixation’ and ‘denitrification’? Where does nitrogen enter the living component of the ecosystem? Where does nitrogen enter the n0n-living component of the ecosystem? Be able to construct a flow diagram of the nitrogen cycle in sufficient detail to illustrate the processes of ammonification, nitrification, nitrogen fixation and denitrification. Successfully answer an examination style question.

3 Nutrients are constantly recycled through the carbon cycle and the nitrogen cycle. What happens to nutrients? microbial decomposition of dead organisms and waste nutrients in the soil and atmosphere energy and biomass Producers Decomposers Consumers

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5 Why is nitrogen so important? Nitrogen is essential for growth because it is used by plants and animals to make proteins. Nitrogen makes up about 78% of the atmosphere. However, nitrogen deficiency is the most common cause of poor plant growth. How is atmospheric nitrogen changed into a useable form? Why are plants unable to use the nitrogen straight from the air? Nitrogen gas (N 2 ) is unreactive and is not easily converted into other compounds. Most plants can only take up nitrogen (by active transport) in the form of ammonia or nitrate.

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7 Nitrogen Fixation Nitrogen gas can be ‘fixed’ into ammonia by humans using the Haber process. This is then used in the production of fertilisers. A small amount of nitrogen is fixed to nitrate by lightning.

8 Nitrogen Fixation Nitrogen fixing bacteria reduce nitrogen gas to ammonia, which they then use to manufacture amino acids. Nitrogen rich compounds are released from them when they die. Nitrogen fixing bacteria may be free living in soil or water. Non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium Azospirrillum.

9 Nitrogen Fixation The nitrogen-fixing bacteria may live in colonies inside the cells of root nodules of leguminous plants such as clover or peas (mutualism). In return for sugars from the plant, the bacteria fix nitrogen which can be used by the plant for growth. The nitrogen in the plant proteins is passed on to animals through food chains.

10 Ammonification When living organisms excrete waste or die their nitrogen is returned to the soil in the form of ammonium compounds by saprobiotic microorganisms (bacteria and fungi). Microbial saprophytes break down proteins in detritus to form ammonium ions (ammonification or deamination). This is where nitrogen returns to the non-living component of the ecosystem.

11 Nitrification Plants can only take up nitrogen in the form of nitrate. Ammonium compounds are oxidised into nitrates by nitrifying bacteria in two stages: first forming nitrite ions (Nitrosomonas) then forming nitrate ions (Nitrobacter) This is an oxidation reaction and so releases energy. These are chemosynthetic bacteria, which means they use the energy released by nitrification to live.

12 Nitrification Nitrifying bacteria require oxygen to carry out these conversions so the soil needs many air spaces. Farmers can increase the aeration of soils by Ploughing Good drainage

13 Denitrification The anaerobic denitrifying bacteria convert nitrate to nitrogen gas, which is then lost to the air. These are present in greater numbers when the soil becomes waterlogged. This represents a constant loss of “useful” nitrogen from soil, and explains why fertilisers and nitrogen fixation by the nitrifying bacteria are so important.

14 The nitrogen cycle What does your diagram look like? Did you meet our success criteria? Be able to construct a flow diagram of the nitrogen cycle in sufficient detail to illustrate the processes of ammonification, nitrification, nitrogen fixation and denitrification. What does the person sat next to you think of your work? If in doubt see me for another blank and fix it?

15 Plenary - Exam question 1.(a)Wet moorland soils often contain low concentrations of nitrogen compounds, as a result of denitrification. Sundew is a plant which lives in wet moorlands. Its leaves have sticky hairs which can trap small insects that are then digested. (i)Describe the process of denitrification(2) (ii) Explain how digestion of insects helps the sundew to obtain additional nitrogen compounds. (2) (b)Samples of plant and animal tissue were analysed to determine the proportions of the elements, carbon and nitrogen. In the plant tissue the ratio of carbon to nitrogen was 40:1. In the animal tissue the ratio was 8:1. Explain why the ratio is much higher in the plant tissue than in the animal tissue. (2) (c)Describe how nitrogen in compounds in a dead plant is made available for use by other plants. (6) (Total 12 marks)

16 Plenary - Exam question (a)(i)Conversion of nitrates/any nitrogen compound to nitrogen (gas); by (denitrifying) bacteria;2 (ii)insects contain proteins; Digested to amino acids; which can be absorbed/diffuse into leaf2 max (b)High proportion of carbohydrate/starch in plant tissues; Cellulose (in cell walls); More protein in animal cells (such as muscle);2 max (c)Proteins/amino acids broken down; by saprophytes/decomposers; ammonification (deamination)/ammonium compounds/ammonia formed; Ammonia converted to nitrate; by nitrifying bacteria; Nitrite as intermediate; Nitrate can be absorbed by roots;6 max [12]

17 Plenary - Exam question 1.(a)Wet moorland soils often contain low concentrations of nitrogen compounds, as a result of denitrification. Sundew is a plant which lives in wet moorlands. Its leaves have sticky hairs which can trap small insects that are then digested. (i)Describe the process of denitrification(2) (a)(i)Conversion of nitrates/any nitrogen compound to nitrogen (gas); by (denitrifying) bacteria;(2) (ii) Explain how digestion of insects helps the sundew to obtain additional nitrogen compounds. (2) (ii) insects contain proteins; Digested to amino acids; which can be absorbed/diffuse into leaf 2 max

18 Plenary - Exam question (b)Samples of plant and animal tissue were analysed to determine the proportions of the elements, carbon and nitrogen. In the plant tissue the ratio of carbon to nitrogen was 40:1. In the animal tissue the ratio was 8:1. Explain why the ratio is much higher in the plant tissue than in the animal tissue. (2) (b)High proportion of carbohydrate/starch in plant tissues; Cellulose (in cell walls); More protein in animal cells (such as muscle);2 max (c)Describe how nitrogen in compounds in a dead plant is made available for use by other plants. (6) (Total 12 marks) (c)Proteins/amino acids broken down; by saprophytes/decomposers; ammonification (deamination)/ammonium compounds/ammonia formed; Ammonia converted to nitrate; by nitrifying bacteria; Nitrite as intermediate; Nitrate can be absorbed by roots; 6 max [12 marks]

19 Learning objectives Success criteria How is nitrogen recycled in ecosystems? What do you understand by the terms ‘ammonification’, ‘nitrification’, ‘nitrogen fixation’ and ‘denitrification’? Where does nitrogen enter the living component of the ecosystem? Where does nitrogen enter the n0n-living component of the ecosystem? Be able to construct a flow diagram of the nitrogen cycle in sufficient detail to illustrate the processes of ammonification, nitrification, nitrogen fixation and denitrification. Successfully answer an examination style question.


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