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GENERAL INTRODUCTION LECTURE I : Intestinal Ca 2+ -binding protein!

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Presentation on theme: "GENERAL INTRODUCTION LECTURE I : Intestinal Ca 2+ -binding protein!"— Presentation transcript:

1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION LECTURE I : Intestinal Ca 2+ -binding protein!

2 INTRODUCTION Poverty/kemiskinan Unemployment/tdk punya pekerjaan Environmental Degradation/lingkungan yang berdegradasi Catastrophes (Flood & Drought)/bencana alam, musim kemarau Diseases (Avian Flu)/penyakit Food Shortage/Starvation (Kwashiorkor) /kekurangan makanan, mati kelaparan Do you want to solve/memecahkan problems of life ?, at what level ?

3 HOW TO SOLVE THE PROBLEMS ? It is important first to understand living systems (how the system works) –the chemical elements which make up plant body –the function of each element in the life process –the interaction between elements in the life process A better understanding of living systems would help to identify a problem in the life process, and to initiate a way to solve the problem

4 THE BUILDING ELEMENTS OF LIFE Plant Level –Leaves, Stems/batang & Roots Organ Level –Chloroplasts, Mitochondria, Nucleus etc. Molecular Level –Enzymes, Carbohydrates, Energy Molecules, etc

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8 What is Plant Biochemsitry/biokimia ? Definition. –Biochemistry is the study of the process of plant life on a chemical/kimia level –Plant Biochemistry, or the chemistry of living plants, is the study of molecular basis/dasar of plant life or the study of the way in which chemical components are synthesized/berkumpul and utilized/digunakan by plants in the life process (growth & development/berkembang).

9 ABSTRACT The core/inti of biochemistry is the conversion/perubahan of substrates to be products through/selesai biochemical reactions which catalyzed by enzymes in most cases/kotak2. Therefore/oleh karena itu, the course/rangkaian of plant biochemistry is started with the discussion/pembicaraan of enzymes which is then followed by carbohydrate metabolism, energy molecule metabolism, nitrogen metabolism (amino acids), lipid metabolism, nucleic acid/asam nukleosida metabolism, protein synthesis.

10 Objectives and Competency Objectives /tujuan –The main objectives of this course is to consolidate/menggabungkan the knowledge of students on the basic molecules of plant life, and to increase/tambahan their understanding on the metabolism of the basic molecules. Competency/kemampuan –Students taking this course would be competent in describing the life of plants from the standpoint/sudut of biochemistry which competency could be used to initiate/memulai ways to improve/memperbaiki the growth of plants or to solve problems in plant growth.

11 The Core/inti of Plant Biochemsitry 1.Isolation/pengasingan and Identification –Biochemistry is firstly concerned/memperhatikan with the isolation and identification of all different substances which make up plant and animal organisms –A living organism is composed/susunan of more than just fats/lemak, carbohydrates and protein. Hundreds of other substances are necessary/kebutuhan to the proper/tepat functioning of the organisms

12 2.Chemical Changes –Secondly, biochemistry is concerned/memperhatikan with all chemical changes which take place in the cells to provide/menyediakan for energy, growth, reproduction, and aging. –Protoplasm is an aqueous/encer solution of certain/pasti substances with other colloidally/koloid dispersed/mengedarkan substances

13 BASIC PRINCIPLE Living organisms, whether/tahukah they are plants, animals or microbes, are made up basically of the same chemical components Biochemical Reactions SUBSTRACT(S) + ENZYME PRODUCT(S)

14 Breakthroughs/pemecahan in Biochemistry 1.Discovery/penemuan of the role/peran of enzymes as catalysts 2.Identification of nucleic acids as information molecules Two notable/khusus breakthroughs in the history of biochemistry Flow/arus of information: from nucleic acids to proteins DNARNAProtein

15 COURSE/bagian SUBJECTS 1.ENZYME 2.CARBOHYDRATE 3.METABOLIC ENERGY 4.NITROGEN 5.BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION 6.LIPID 7.NUCLEIC ACID 8.PROTEIN

16 REFERENCES 1.Conn, E.E. & Stumpf, P.K., Outlines of Biochemistry. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 2.Goodwin, T.W. & Mercer, E.I., Introduction to Plant Biochemistry. Pergamon Press, Oxford. 3.Stryer, L., Biochemistry. W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco 4.Wood, W.B., Wilson, J.H., Benbow, R.M., & Hood, L. E., Biochemistry A Problems Approach. 5.Wood, J.H, Keehan, C.W., Bull, W.E. and Bowman, N.S., Fundamentals of College Chemistry. A Harper International edition, Harper & Row, NY, Evanston & London and John Weatherhill, Inc., Tokyo

17 Examples of Plant Biochemistry

18 What is Cloning? Cloning is to make a genetically identical organism through non-sexual means. Cloning of African violets: Take a leaf from a plant Immerse/celupkan the stalk/tangkai in water

19 What is Cloning? Roots start to form after a week Pot/ the plant A new plant is produced

20 How Dolly was cloned?

21 Removed : dihilangkan Enucleated : Udder : ambing Fused : digabungkan Implant : penanaman Surrogate : ibu pengganti Lamb : anak domba

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23 Sel telur dengan inti dari induk yang berkembang menjadi anak domba yang sama dengan induknya Sel induk Sel telur

24 ADENIUM OBESUM ' CHERRY' Grafted/cangkokan Desert Rose Family : Apocynaceae Origin : East Africa Size : 5' Light Requirements/syarat : Full Sun/Light Shade/tempat Water Requirements : Keep Dry Min. Temp. : 35° Flower : Year Round/sepanjang tahun

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27 Sex & Genetics The traits/sifat inherited/mewarisi from both parents are determined/menentukan by genes in DNA

28 Genetic Inheritance & DNA

29 Short segment/ruas of a DNA molecule Two polynucleotides associate/sekutu to form a double helix Genetic information is carried/diangkat by the sequence/rangkaian of base/dasar pairs/pasangan

30 Penyakit encok (gout) yang mengakibatkan radang pada persendian adalah akibat akumulasi asam urat Radang sendi dipicu oleh presipitasi kristal urat natrium (sodium urate crystals) Penyakit Ginjal dapat juga terjadi karena deposisi kristal urat dalam organ tersebut

31 Gugur daun Perusakan dinding sel pada lapisan absisi oleh aktivitas enzim Cellulase dan Polygalacturonase Sintesis kedua enzim tersebut terhambat jika kadar hormon tumbuh auxin cukup tinggi Auxin Ethylene Cellulase/Polygalacturonase Transpor auxin dari tempat pembentukan pada bagian ujung daun ke lapisan absisi dihambat oleh hormon ethylene

32 THE NARCOTIC/obat bius ANALGESICS Narcotics block the transmission of the nerve/urat syaraf signal across/jarak lintas nerve gaps/celah, [the minor/kecil analgesics blocked prostaglandin synthesis] The more important ones: –Morphine, codeine, –oxycodone (PERCODAN), hydromorphone (DILAUDID), methadone, + heroin [ = not legal] –meperidine (DEMEROL), pentazocine (TALWIN), –fentanyl (SUBLIMAZE), buprenorphine (BUPRENEX)

33 Morphine: –Opium/candu [est. ~ 10,000 tons] extracted from the poppy/bunga madat Papaver somniferum, Afghanistan spring/musim semi tons alone.

34 Morphine goes to receptors (opiate receptors) which control passage/penerima of Ca 2+ and K + through/terusan channels, which in turn/giliran control acetylcholine (nerve/syaraf transmitter) flow/aliran across/jarak lintas synapses. DEPRESSES/tekanan RESPIRATORY/pernapasan SYSTEM - usual overdose effect; some euphoria - plus is addictive/bahan tambahan

35 Cyanide/sianida Poisoning/racun Disrupts/mengganggu metabolism by inhibiting/menghalangi metal/logam containing/berisi enzymes, most notably/khususnya, cytochrome oxidase. Cytochrome A 3 catalyzes O 2  H 2 O Blocks ability/kemampuan of mitochondria to use O 2 O 2 saturation/penjenuhan may be normal Poisoning can occur/terjadi through/terusan percutaneous absorption and inhalation/pernapasan. Degree/sedikit demi sedikit of symptoms/gejala depends/bergantung on severity/kekerasan of exposure./pencahayaan

36 Cyanide Poisoning Antidote/penangkal racun –Nitrites and Sodium Thiosulfate Sodium Nitrite CYTOCHROME OxyhemoglobinMethemoglobinOXIDASE CN Rhodanase Cyano-methemoglobin Sodium Thiosulfate ThiocyanateKidneys

37 What is Biodiesel? Alternative fuel/bahan bakar for diesel engines Made from vegetable oil or animal fat Meets health effect testing (CAA) Lower emissions/pengeluaran, High flash point (>300F), Safer Biodegradable, Essentially non-toxic. Chemically, biodiesel molecules are mono-alkyl esters produced usually from triglyceride esters Fatty Acid Alcohol Glycerin Vegetable Oil Biodiesel FA

38 Biodiesel Samples

39 Chemistry of Triglycerides Biodiesel is made from the combination of a triglyceride with a monohydroxy alcohol (i.e. methanol, ethanol…). What is a triglyceride? Made from a combination of glycerol and three fatty acids:

40 Transesterification While/walaupun actually a multi-step process, the overall reaction looks like this: CH2OOR1 catalyst CH2OH |  | CHOOR2 + 3CH3OH  3CH3OORx + CHOH | CH2OOR3 CH2OH Triglyceride 3 Methanols Biodiesel Glycerin R1, R2, and R3 are fatty acid alkyl groups (could be different, or the same), and depend on the type of oil. The fatty acids involved determine the final properties of the biodiesel (cetane number, cold flow properties, etc.)

41 Individual step of Transesterification First step, triglyceride turned into diglyceride, methoxide (minus Na) joins freed FA to make biodiesel, Na joins OH from water (from methoxide formation) to make NaOH. Other H joins the diglyceride. H O H | | | HCOR1 H HCO H O | | | | | HCOOR2 + HCONa +H 2 O  CHOOR2 + HCOR1 + NaOH | | | | HCOR3 H | | | | H O H O Triglyceride + Methoxide + H 2 O  Diglyceride + Biodiesel + NaOH

42 NOTES TO REMEMBER

43 Functional groups in biochemistry Functional groups - specific parts of molecules involved/meliputi in biochemical reactions Figure 1.2 shows the general formulas of: (a) Organic compounds (b) Functional groups (c) Linkages/hubungan common/keadaan in biochemistry (R represents/mewakili an alkyl group (CH 3 CH 2 ) n -)

44 Fig 1.2 (a) General formulas

45 Fig 1.2(b) General Formulas

46 Fig 1.2 (c) General Formulas

47 Many Important Biomolecules are Polymers Biopolymers - macromolecules created by joining many smaller organic molecules (monomers) Condensation reactions join monomers (H 2 O is removed in the process) Residue - each monomer in a chain/rantai


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