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Plenary Lecture: Corrosion Standards- Who Needs Them?

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1 Plenary Lecture: Corrosion Standards- Who Needs Them?
Sheldon W. Dean, Jr. Dean Corrosion Technology, Inc Corrosion 2010, San Antonio, TX NACE International

2 What is a Standard? Document that provides specific procedures or set of requirements for a commercial product or process that attains a consensus of knowledgeable people. Compliance with standards is voluntary unless mandated by law.

3 International Society of Testing Materials- 1880’s.
History of Standards International Society of Testing Materials- 1880’s. ASTM founded ~1898. NACE founded 1948. ISO ~1960.

4 History of Corrosion Standards
• ASTM- 1904 - Steel vs. wrought iron in atmosphere • ASTM-1939 - Salt Spray Test, B117 • NACE- Cathodic protection issues

5 History of Corrosion Standards, Continued
ASTM Reorganization Created Committee G-1 on Corrosion of Metals NACE ~1960s Created Technical Practices Committee ISO 1978 Created TC156 on Corrosion of Metals 11 Working Groups

6 3 Examples of Standards ASTM G 5 Potentiodynamic Polarization
NACE SP0294 Sulfuric Acid Storage Tanks ASTM G186/G188 Leak Detection Fluids

7 Potentiodynamic Polarization
Corrosion is electrochemical Potentiostats became available (1960s) Passive-active behavior of stainless steels revealed with potentiostat Issues with reliability and reproducibility

8 ASTM G5 Reference Method 1969
430 stainless steel in 1.0 N H2SO4 Single lot of stainless steel Carefully designed procedure 10 mV per min from Ecorr Many participants Reproducibility range shown


10 ASTM G 5 Potentiodynamic Composite

11 ASTM G 5 Crevice Effect

12 ASTM G 5 Standard Reference Method
First reference method Results demonstrated reproducibility Method widely used to qualify labs Basis of many potentiodynamic studies Method upgraded and improved several times

13 Who Needs ASTM G5? New researchers learning electrochemical methods
Technicians learning electrochemical techniques Lab managers overseeing labs using electrochemical methods Technical reviewers judging laboratory qualification to run electrochemical methods

14 Sulfuric Acid Storage Tanks
Sulfuric acid widely used chemical Common grades: 93%, 96%, 98 to 99% Carbon steel is tank material of construction Corrosion rate low and manageable Catastrophic failures have occurred Other problems occur

15 Storage Tank Design API 650 is the basis for flat bottom tanks
API 650 is not adequate for sulfuric acid Many problems have occurred with this design Modifications are required for success A design standard was needed



18 Problems with Concentrated Sulfuric Acid
Velocity accelerated corrosion of steel Corrosion rate increases catastrophically when acid is diluted Hydrogen corrosion product caused problems Increased temperature increases corrosion rate

19 163C 325F 107C 225F 52C 125F 24C 75F

20 Issues with C Steel Tanks
Corrosion allowance Nozzle problems Inlet/outlet design Hydrogen grooving Inspection frequency

21 NACE SP 0294 Original RP in 1994 Revision in 2006
Covered vertical and horizontal designs RP 0205 covered spent alkalation acid Fatal accident occurred earlier


23 Who Needs SP 0294? Sulfuric acid producers Sulfuric acid users
Tank inspectors Plant maintenance engineers Plant engineers Consultants and contractors

24 Failures in High Pressure Gas Systems
Cylinder valve/pressure regulator connections Cracking failures Brass components, CDA 360 Older systems

25 Failure Analyses Intergranular cracks found Multiple branched cracks
Strain hardened alloy structure External corrosion products Bluish color noted Mottled appearance

26 Probable Cause Stress corrosion cracking Ammonia or amines likely
Source- leak detection fluid (LDF) Ammonia used to adjust pH of LDF Brass strained through repeated tightening of components

27 Need: To Qualify LDFs Old MIL Spec not relevant
Non corrosive = <100mpy Test to detect ammonia difficult How much NH3 is needed to reject? Method should simulate service Performance test

28 Path Forward Find an SCC test for LDFs
Find a susceptible brass specimen Test to verify susceptibility Design atmospheric exposure program Need to qualify atmosphere Ammonia fumes are common in labs May cause unrelated failures

29 Result: ASTM G 186 C-ring specimen of UNS C27200
Hard drawn temper, H80 0.65% strain 5 replicates required LDF with copper powder added Wick of fiber glass, apply and air dry 15 cycles to pass Pass = no cracks

30 Qualification of Specimens
Run preliminary test with Mattsson’s solution ASTM G 37 1 cycle to fail specimen Must complete test before running LDF samples Ammonia from Mattsson’s solution will contaminate atmosphere


32 Control Test Solution: DI water plus copper powder
Run simultaneously with LDF samples Same specimens as LDF 15 cycles required No cracks means LDF test valid

33 LDF Specification: ASTM G188
Requirement for LDF to pass ASTM G186 Responsibility of LDF manufacturer Sampling plan required Label to show that LDF meets ASTM 188 required

34 Who Needs ASTM G 186/188? LDF manufacturers and suppliers
Users of compressed gas systems Labs Hospitals Users of welding equipment Industrial gas companies Independent labs desiring to do qualifications of LDFs

35 Types of Standards Test methods (TM) Standard Practice (SP) aka RP
ASTM G186 ASTM G 5-Reference Method Standard Practice (SP) aka RP NACE SP 0294 NACE RP 0205 Specification ASTM G188

36 Summary: Who Needs Corrosion Standards?
Industries dealing with corrosive situations Engineers and designers Governments specifying materials for projects Academics teaching how to use materials in the real world

37 Why Use Corrosion Standards?
Improve safety of equipment and systems Improve reliability Minimize unplanned shutdowns Reduce cost of operation Improve efficiency Avoid duplication of effort

38 Thank You! Wayne France Len Rowe Bob Baboian Harvey Hack Sally Ketcham
Alan Fabiszewski Florian Mansfeld Sankara Papavinasam Ed Hibner Scott Whitlow Steve Brubaker Bob Smallwood Kang Xu Bill Watkins John Scully

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