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A pedagogical framework for teaching English as an international language(EIL) WEN Qiufang National Research Center for Foreign Language Education, BFSU.

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Presentation on theme: "A pedagogical framework for teaching English as an international language(EIL) WEN Qiufang National Research Center for Foreign Language Education, BFSU."— Presentation transcript:

1 A pedagogical framework for teaching English as an international language(EIL) WEN Qiufang National Research Center for Foreign Language Education, BFSU

2 EIL, ELF and EFL EIL: English as an international language EIL: English as an international language ELF: English as a lingua franca ELF: English as a lingua franca EIL=ELF EIL=ELF EFL: English as a foreign language EFL: English as a foreign language ELF≠ EFL ELF≠ EFL

3 ELF and EFL Teaching objectiveTeaching focus EFLNative-like speakersImitation, adoption ELF Effective communicators Adaptation, Accommodation

4 The focus of my talk A framework for teaching English as a lingua franca or an international language A framework for teaching English as a lingua franca or an international language From the teacher’s perspective From the teacher’s perspective

5 Topics to be addressed Motivation Motivation Two proposed solutions and their problems Two proposed solutions and their problems A pedagogical framework A pedagogical framework Advantages of the proposed framework Advantages of the proposed framework

6 1. Motivation Who owns English? Non-native speakers outnumber English native speakers Non-native speakers outnumber English native speakers The total number of native speakers ? The total number of non-native speakers?

7 380 million 300 million 1 billion Kachru’ three circles of English

8 Graddol (1997) Graddol (1997) –The center of authority regarding the language would shift from native speakers to nonnative speakers.

9 “English as a world language does not ‘ belong ’ to mother tongue speakers of English alone, but to all those who can make effective use of it. ” (Lee, 1981: 1)

10 Conceptual and practical Quite a number of scholars have made a strong argument against taking the native-speaker’s English as a norm for non-native speakers. In their view, we should teach English as a lingua franca rather than as a foreign language. We shoud promote ELF-oriented pedagogy. Quite a number of scholars have made a strong argument against taking the native-speaker’s English as a norm for non-native speakers. In their view, we should teach English as a lingua franca rather than as a foreign language. We shoud promote ELF-oriented pedagogy.

11 Conceptual and practical Conceptual Conceptual –Many people think this kind of revolutionary idea cannot be refuted easily. Practical Practical –What to be taught in classroom? –How to evaluate our students’ performance?

12 Topics to be addressed Motivation Motivation Two proposed solutions and their problems Two proposed solutions and their problems A pedagogical framework A pedagogical framework Its advantages Its advantages

13 Proposal 1 L2 user model ( Cook , 1999 ) L2 user model ( Cook , 1999 )

14 Vivian Cook (1999) The language used by successful L2 users can be a model for L2 learners. The language used by successful L2 users can be a model for L2 learners. Treat L2 users in their own right but not imitation of native speakers, deficient native speakers, failed natives. Treat L2 users in their own right but not imitation of native speakers, deficient native speakers, failed natives. Comparing the characteristics of native speakers and of L2 users is like comparing tomatoes and apples, useful only at a gross level. Comparing the characteristics of native speakers and of L2 users is like comparing tomatoes and apples, useful only at a gross level.

15 Tough questions Howe to differentiate successful L2 users from unsuccessful ones? What are the criteria? How can we describe and define “ successful ” ? – –Success in using English can be found in various fields, such as business, diplomacy, journalism, and education. Apart from the difficulty of identifying a viable non- native model, there is a strong doubt about the existence of essential differences between the English system used by successful L2 users and that used by native speakers (Gao 2008; Wen and Yu 2003; Yu 2006).

16 Divided views about the use of English in China China English as an independent variety China English as an independent variety –Supporters, e.g. Jiang & Du, 2003 ; Li , 1993 ) –Opponents, e.g. Gao , 2008 ; Yu , 2006 ; Wen & Yu , 2003 ) No empirical evidence No empirical evidence

17 Empirical studies: Examples A small-scale study of nativized features in China ’ s English newspapers (Wen & Yu, 2001) A small-scale study of nativized features in China ’ s English newspapers (Wen & Yu, 2001) The use of evaluative adjectives in China ’ s English newspapers (Yu, 2006) The use of evaluative adjectives in China ’ s English newspapers (Yu, 2006) The use of creation-and- transformation verbs in China ’ s English newspapers (Gao, 2007) The use of creation-and- transformation verbs in China ’ s English newspapers (Gao, 2007)

18 Empirical studies: Examples Instead of identifying individual successful users for description, study the collective product, i.e. English used in the official media such as The 21st Century, China Daily, TV script Instead of identifying individual successful users for description, study the collective product, i.e. English used in the official media such as The 21st Century, China Daily, TV script –To what extent English has been nativized in Mainland China?

19 Research questions What are the linguistic features (semantic, lexical and grammatical features) of the top eight creation-and-transformation verbs (TECVs) in China ’ s English newspapers? What are the linguistic features (semantic, lexical and grammatical features) of the top eight creation-and-transformation verbs (TECVs) in China ’ s English newspapers? To what extent are the nativized features of TECVs intelligible and acceptable to native and non-native speakers of English? To what extent are the nativized features of TECVs intelligible and acceptable to native and non-native speakers of English? Develop , grow , make, change, produce, transform, create, build

20 Data-collection An established corpus of China’s English newspapers (CCEN), composed of 1860 articles from three English newspapers (China Daily, Shanghai Star and Beijing Review Published in 2002, with 1,058,961 tokens and 20,338 types. Only comprises articles about domestic events from first-hand sources.

21 Questionnaire Intelligibility and acceptability Intelligibility and acceptability –Five-point scale on intelligibility –Ask them to write down what they have understood –Five-point scale on acceptability

22 Major findings The distribution of senses of some of the TECVs varied in CCEN and NBNC. The distribution of senses of some of the TECVs varied in CCEN and NBNC. Semantic broadening and subtle semantic variations are found Semantic broadening and subtle semantic variations are found In regards to semantic prosody, positive senses of the TECVs more frequently used in CCEN In regards to semantic prosody, positive senses of the TECVs more frequently used in CCEN

23 Major findings Some collocations more frequent and a few unique Some collocations more frequent and a few unique Grammatical features: intransitive use of TECVs more frequently, Verb + Noun + Preposition more frequently Grammatical features: intransitive use of TECVs more frequently, Verb + Noun + Preposition more frequently

24 Major findings Most of nativized English in China ’ s context can be understood and accepted by both native and non- native speakers of English. Most of nativized English in China ’ s context can be understood and accepted by both native and non- native speakers of English. Native and non-native English speakers ’ interpretations of the verb collocations varied. Native and non-native English speakers ’ interpretations of the verb collocations varied.

25 Major findings Native speakers tend to show higher degree of acceptability than non- native speakers. Native speakers tend to show higher degree of acceptability than non- native speakers. The nativized features tend to be more intelligible to female respondents than to male respondents. The nativized features tend to be more intelligible to female respondents than to male respondents.

26 General conclusions More quantitative differences than qualitative ones More quantitative differences than qualitative ones Almost all the qualitative differences being lexical rather than grammatical Almost all the qualitative differences being lexical rather than grammatical

27 Proposal 2 ( Seidlhoufer,2001) ….the result of the description of how English is being used in the international context could be potentially used as a model for L2 learners ( Seidlhoufer,2001) the assumption underlying this proposal has been challenged by several scholars (Alptekin 2010; Canagarajah 2007; Ferguson 2009).

28 Misconceptions Function ≠ Product Function ≠ Product “ LFE is intersubjectively constructed in each specific context of interaction. The form of this English is negotiated by each set of speakers for their purposes. ” (Canagarajah, 2007: 925) “ ELF is an international medium of communication. It has no native speakers and no proper culture of its own to speak of. ” (Alptekin, 2010: 101)

29 Misconceptions Impossible and unnecessary to codify an ELF but possible and necessary to research the use of ELF Impossible and unnecessary to codify an ELF but possible and necessary to research the use of ELF

30 Misconceptions What to be learned ≠what to be achieved What to be learned ≠what to be achieved

31 Conceptual issues There is a danger that the overemphasis on the nativized variety will move non- native variety further and further apart until a stage is reached where English can no longer be served as lingua franca

32 Many layers of English At the center At the center The common core shared by all speakers of English The common core shared by all speakers of English On the periphery On the periphery the nativized features from a variety of cultures which shadow on the first layer the nativized features from a variety of cultures which shadow on the first layer

33 Topics to be addressed Motivation Motivation Two proposed solutions and their problems Two proposed solutions and their problems A pedagogical framework A pedagogical framework Its advantages Its advantages

34 3. A pedagogical framework

35 Three types of linguistic variety taught in relation to the learner ’ s proficiency

36 Common core and peripheral features of English Common core Native variety Non-native varieties including the interlocutor ’ s own variety Peripheral features

37 Requirements on L2 learners ’ Output Linguistically Linguistically On the phonological level: allow to have a foreign accent while emphasizing mutual intelligibility On the phonological level: allow to have a foreign accent while emphasizing mutual intelligibility On the morphological level: more tolerant of morphological errors but do not encourage On the morphological level: more tolerant of morphological errors but do not encourage On the syntactic level: correct sentence structures (SVO) On the syntactic level: correct sentence structures (SVO)

38 Requirements on L2 learners ’ Output On the lexical level: more tolerant of mixed use of British and American words: expect to learn nativized lexical words and phrases On the lexical level: more tolerant of mixed use of British and American words: expect to learn nativized lexical words and phrases

39 3. A pedagogical framework

40 Cultural component Introduce the world to China Introduce China to the world

41 Wen, 2004: 175

42 Intercultural competence Speaking ability Speaking ability Flexibility Clarifying/Negotiating Willing to comprise Willing to comprise Tolerance Empathy Egalitarian attitude Egalitarian attitude Listening ability Listening ability Sensitivity Multi-perspective Knowledge of dif. cultures Knowledge of dif. cultures

43 A model of cross-cultural communicative competence (Wen, 1999) A model of cross-cultural communicative competence (Wen, 1999) In a book entitled “ Spoken English Testing and teaching ” in Chinese In a book entitled “ Spoken English Testing and teaching ” in Chinese Present a paper entitled “ Globalization and intercultural competence ” at a conference “ English and globalization: Perspectives from Hong Kong and Mainland China by the Chinese University of HK in 2002 Present a paper entitled “ Globalization and intercultural competence ” at a conference “ English and globalization: Perspectives from Hong Kong and Mainland China by the Chinese University of HK in 2002 Paper published in English in 2004 Paper published in English in 2004

44 3. A pedagogical framework

45 Pragmatic Universal rules Universal rules Target language rules Target language rules Rules of other non-natives Rules of other non-natives

46 Pragmatic Pragmatic What kind of English will be used here? What kind of pragmatic rules will be used?

47 Setting for ELF

48 Pragmatic Open, dynamic, on-line generated

49 Pragmatic objective Abilities to generate appropriate communicative rules and strategies Abilities to generate appropriate communicative rules and strategies

50 Topics to be addressed Motivation Motivation Two proposed solutions and their problems Two proposed solutions and their problems A pedagogical framework A pedagogical framework Advantages of the proposed framework Advantages of the proposed framework

51 Advantages Balancing globalization and localization Balancing globalization and localization –Unlike the traditional view that the native variety is the only norm –unlike the radical view that the model is that created by successful non-native speakers or the codified ELF Making a clear distinction between what is to be taught and what is to be achieved Making a clear distinction between what is to be taught and what is to be achieved –Specifying the three components of teaching: linguistic, cultural and pragmatic –All the objectives having the same focus, the successful accomplishment of communication in English

52 Thank you !


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