Presentation on theme: "Deputy Executive Director PROBICOU"— Presentation transcript:
1Deputy Executive Director PROBICOU Biodiversity & Waste Management in Uganda’s oil and gas Sector. A civil society perspective/concernsTwebaze Paul,Deputy Executive Director PROBICOUChairperson – Environment, Land and other Natural Resources cluster , CSCOA Paper presented at the National Conference on oil and Gas – Imperial Golf View Hotel – Entebbe 20th -22nd Oct 2013
2Outline Key concepts The Challenge Aspects and biodiversity Impacts Waste managementGovernance concerns and observationsSummary of Recommendations
3Key concepts Impact – deviation from baseline situation Environment”- broadly interpreted: Physical factors of the surrounding of human beings including land, water, atmosphere, climate and the biological factors of animals and plants and the social factor of aesthetics of both the natural and built environmentBiodiversity – has three components – species diversity, genetic diversity and ecosystem diversity. Thus mitigating the potential impacts of oil and gas on biodiversity basically address environmental concerns.Waste - Remains of raw materials, substances or articles that are no longer of economic value to the waste generator and are intended or required to be recycled, reused, treated or disposed of.For oil and gas, the major potential environmental concerns are: Atmospheric impacts, ecosystem impacts – aquatic and terrestrial; impacts on species; human, socio-economic impacts
4The ChallengeThe O&G deposits and the sensitive ecosystem are in the same place at the same time!The Albertain Graben (Arua-Kanungu) is the most important eco - region in Africa as it hosts the continent's most endemic vertebrate species: -14% of all African reptiles19% of all African amphibians35% of African butterflies52% of all African birds39% of all African mammals70% of all Ugandan Protected areas are in the Graben
6Wild life (The Institute of Resource Assessment (IRA) and The Pan-African START Secretariat (PASS) University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (2007)
7Wildlife Protected Areas 39 wildlife protected areas including National Parks, wildlife reserves, community wildlife areas, and sanctuaries in Uganda.22 out of the total of 39 protected areas are national parks and wildlife reserves,10 out of these are found in the Albertine region.N/Parks in the Albertine Rift include Murchison Falls, Queen Elizabeth, the Rwenzori Mountains, Kibale, Semliki, Bwindi and Mgahinga.
8Wildlife Reserves Ajai East Madi Bugungu Karuma Tooro-Semliki Kabwoya KyamburaKigezi
9Fish ResourcesAquatic resources in Lake Albert, Lake Edward, Lake George and rivers -Albert Nile, Waki, Wambabya, Semliki and Kazinga Channel.Lake Albert is the richest in terms of the fish biodiversity.53 fish species, about ten of which are endemic, eg Alestes baremose (angara), Hydrocynus forsnkkahlii (ngasia).
10Further-Reading The sensitivity of this area and its detailed biodiversity is well articulated;-Plumptre, Behangana et al (2003), The biodiversity of the Albertine rift. Albertine rift technical reports no. 3 (Wild Life Conservation Society),The Institute of Resource Assessment (IRA) and The Pan-African START Secretariat (PASS) University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (2007) Building African Capacity for Conserving Biodiversity in a Changing Climate in the Albertine Region Baseline Assessment ReportNEMA (2009), Sensitivity Atlas etc
11Biodiversity - Aspects and impacts from oil and gas operations DecommissioningLicense Acquisition & divestingRefiningExploration SeismicProduction & ExportDrilling OperationsDevelopment
12Seismic Acquisition - Impact Physical Presence−Impact on local population / Wildlife−Habitat destruction−Impact on crops / sacred ground−Opening previously inaccessible areas−Large workforce – up to 600 on large shoots−Visual / Noise−Health−Damage to buildings•Waste−Camps Waste Handling /Disposal/•Oil Spills
13Seismic operations – Impact Frightening fauna, particular importance during breeding and nestingMarshes and coastal areas bird breeding and migration resting locationsCrushing of small invertebrates and plants by vehiclesVibration (vibrator truck generating vibrations of 8-28 mm/sec at source) Ground shaking causing physical disruption of small burrows – waking hibernating animalsExplosions frightening animals – nesting birds; indirect impacts greater exposure to predators
14Exploration - Drilling What are the Aspects and Impacts ?
15Drilling – Impact Penetration of aquifer Cuttings and Mud discharges Atmospheric EmissionsOther Wastes & DischargesUncontrolled releaseOil Spill
16Drilling – Impact Proximity to human habitation Proximity to sensitive habitats/ speciesVisual ImpactNoise (24 hours) - Drilling ops are very noisyEmissionsTransport - Increase in traffic volumesWorkforce (100+)−Itinerant workforce−Local workforceSite restoration (Usually a license condition to ‘leave it as you found it’ )
17Drilling – Emissions Main emissions sources Power Generation (Rig / vessels / helicopters)Flaring from Well TestingVehicles
19Production - Impact Oil well – what do we do with the gas ? Flaring / gas gathering Oil/water separation waste water (formation water)spills / leaks Location: Is the site rural or urban?Habitat: Where is it (e.g. forest, bush, marsh)?Footprint (Landtake): What is the size of site area (including temporary construction)?Noise Issues – especially in rural environmentLighting issues – especially in rural environmentTraffic – increase in volumes and in size of vehicles (i.e. more trucks)
20Production - ImpactWith such light pollution what would be the Impact on aquatic life?
23Refinery What are the Aspects and Impacts? Heating of oil to separate the hydrocarbon fractionsFractional distillation gasoline kerosene heavy fuel oil
24Decommissioning What are the aspects and Impacts? Must plan aheadPlan for life-cyclePlan for decommissioningNot just engineering
25Waste Management Two main classifications Non-Hazardous Wastes e.g.,−food waste,−plastic,−wood..Hazardous Wastes:−Used oil,−medical waste,−explosives...
26Further Breakdown of Waste Liquid Waste from O&G:Produced waterHydrostatic testing waterCooling and heating systemsSewageDrainage and storm waterTank bottom waterFirewaterWash waterGeneral oily waterSolid Waste from O&GFoodPlasticPaintsOils and greases/ oily ragsMetal scrapBatteriesTyresWoodPaper / cardboardLight bulbsDrums and containersDrill cuttingsProduced sandMedical waste
27Summary impact of Waste Waste of resourcesGround contaminationGroundwater contaminationVisual impactHealth issues/vermin
28Waste Management Hierarchy Reduce –Generate less waste (be more efficient e.g. packaging return policies)Reuse – Select materials / products that are reusable in their original form.Recycling and Recovery – Convert wastes into useable materials and/or extract energy or materials from them.Treatment – Destruction, detoxification and/or neutralisation of residues.Disposal – Depositing wastes using methods appropriate to a given situation.
31GOVERNANCE -CAPACITY AND CURRENT PREPREDNESS Governance – ToolsNational policies, legislations and their scope and reviews;Implementation of international conventions, agreements protocols;Technical measures in place involved;Infrastructure and team work;Means and measures;Enforcement;Duties, responsibilities and rights (Govt, private sector, CSO);Research and data gathering.
32Governance -Technical Measures Preventive and protective measuresHazard analysis (identification and evaluation);Risk assessment;Identification of Specific categories of operators, handlers etc;Setting Standards and exposure limits;Surveillance and monitoring of the environment;Identification and implementation of Best Practices;Notification, authorisation, prohibition and control;Classification and labelling;Personal protective equipment;Safe methods for the handling, collection, recycling and disposal of hazardous substances.
33Governance - Infrastructure Aspects Competent authorityOrganizational frameworks, mechanisms and measures (lead agencies, departments etc);Mandates, powers, responsibilities, training;Team workInter-agency consultation, coordination, cooperation, collaboration;Inspection servicesType of system, functions of inspectors, duty facilitating resources;Environmental servicesPresence of – in various sectors.
34Governance - Means and Measures Surveillance - of public health in relation to emissions;Documentation and Records - establishment and maintenance of surveillance records, accidents and diseases arising from emissions;Emergency Preparedness and response;Studies and Research. Scope and frequency;Data, information gathering. Dissemination awareness;Transfer of information from operators to agencies and communities.
35LEGAL FRAMEWORK The National Environment Management Policy, 1994; The National Water Policy 1999;The National Oil and Gas Policy, 2008;The Energy Policy, 2001;Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act Cap 150;Petroleum Exploration and Production (Conduct of Exploration Operations) Regulations, 1993;The Investment Code Act, Cap 92;
36CURRENT LEGAL FRAMEWORK The Land Act Cap 227;The Local Government Act, Cap 243;The National Environment Act Cap 153;The National Environment (Noise Standards and Control) Regulations, 2003;The National Environment (Standards for Discharge of Effluents into Water or Land) Regulations,1999;
37CURRENT LEGAL FRAMEWORK The National Environment (Waste Management ) Regulations, 1999;The National Environment (Wetlands, River Banks, and Lake shore Management) Regulations, 2000;The Occupational Safety and Health act, 2006;The Public Health Act , Cap 281;The Traffic and Road Safety Act, Cap 361;The Uganda Wildlife Act, Cap 200;The Water Act Cap, 152;The National Guidelines on EIA;
38Current legislative Effort Review of the existing legislation is in progress: -The review and/or update of the following legislation has been initiated, to be completed by end of 2013:National Environment (EIA) Regulations, Statutory Instrument NoNational Environment (Waste Management) Regulations, Statutory Instrument NoNational Environment (Standards for Discharge of Effluent into Water or on Land) Regulations, Statutory Instrument NoNational Environment (Audit) Regulations, Statutory Instrument No. 12 of 2006National Environment (Noise Standard and Control) Regulations, Statutory Instrument No. 30 of 2003, to incorporate vibration pollutionNational Air Quality standards (NAQS)Draft Oil Spills Regulations and GuidelinesNational Environmental Act Cap. 153.
39OTHER EFFORTS (LEAD AGENCIES) A draft General Management Plan for Queen Elizabeth National Park has been prepared incorporating oil & gas issues;A draft General Management Plan for Murchison Falls National Park is being prepared;A forest Management Plan for Maramagambo Central Forest Reserve has been finalized;Fisheries frame surveys on Lake Albert & Albert Nile to establish fisheries baseline have been carried outPhysical Planning in areas facing intense pressure from oil and gas has been initiated
40Institutional Framework The National Environment Management Authority (NEMA), Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA) and the Petroleum Exploration and Production Department (PEPD) are the core institutions.Others include: - Directorate of Water Resources Management National Forestry Authority Directorate of Environmental Affairs Directorate of Physical Planning and Land use The Department of Fisheries Resources Districts in the Albertine Graben
41OBSERVATIONS On Policy: Significant level of effort; Lack of substance and subject specificity on O&G in the NEMP;Patchy coverage and inadequate implementation in other related policies;Silence in the major planning policies, andInadequate linkages between Policy and Implementing Laws.The Policies should be reviewed, harmonised and strengthened to eliminate the above observations.
42OBSERVATIONS On Legislation: Significant level of effort; When overlaid, there are Gaps and Patches;Lack of the rule of law: Inadequate enforcement;Inadequate linkages between institutions established in the laws; andLack of specificity on O&G: subject and substance.The legislation should be reviewed in a harmonised coordinated way, and strengthened.
43OBSERVATIONS On Institutional Framework Inadequate linkages, consultation, and cooperation – compartmentalised -no team work ;Insufficient staffing;Inadequate facilitation.Additional measures still required to improve performance, eg capacity and team building.
44OBSERVATIONS On Data, Information, etc: There is some data on O&G from different sources.It is not enough, Often unavailable to the public, inaccurate and not disseminated enough to cause public change;There is a need for generation of Adequate information
45OBSERVATIONS On Technical Infrastructure: Inadequate;Inadequate attention to biological and eco monitoring; incompetent laboratoriesThere is a need to develop: -Technical capabilities of existing institutional laboratories with a view to competently implement a mitigation programme.
46OBSERVATIONS On Technical Personnel: Inadequate number of trained personnel;Inadequate training for experts;There are gaps in the scope of required disciplines;Inadequate team work across sectors.There is need to produce more experts in the relevant disciplines: -Clinical, Environmental and Industrial toxicologyControl technology and safety engineeringRisk assessmentTechnological DisastersWaste DisposalEcotoxicologyAnalytical Chemistry (trace analysis).
47OBSERVATIONS On Research Capability: Research capability is inadequate and largely ignored;There is no concerted research programme dedicated to establish the full impact of O&G industry;Epidemiological research is minimal.There is a need to establish ecological characteristics of the sensitive interaction between O&G and the ecosystem that we have.
48OBSERVATIONS On Information and Awareness: There is a need for: - Awareness of impacts and this will lead to suprises;Responsible institutions are weak, and operationally urban;The information that is available is in a form that is not consumable by the majority of community members and the waste operators;There is a need for: -A massive awareness campaign to be mounted (all stakeholders) through an IEC programme aimed at vulnerable communities.Complete information and a user-friendly communication system operational at community level
49OBSERVATIONS- ON OIL AND GAS WASTE MANAGEMENT StorageStorage for waste is still inadequate;Safety data sheets unavailable down the chain;Inadequately supervised;Not reasonably covered in law.There is a need for subject and substance specific legislation covering among others:-Good design, construction and location;Separation of incompatible materials;Physical conditions of storage (temp, humidity etc);Provision of local and general ventilation;Safe methods of work.
50OBSERVATIONS On Transport: Concerned about transportation of hazardous materials;Carriers inadequately labelled for hazard identification;Inadequately supervised - loading, unloading, transit;Not reasonably covered in law.Need for subject and substance specific legislation covering: -Integrity of packaging especially bulk goods;Criteria of classification of wastes and substances;Training and informing of operators;Segregation of dangerous goods and decontamination of carriages.
51OBSERVATIONS On Emergency Response and Preparedness: No preparedness on the ground; Limited supervision;Major Hazard Installations - not registered/monitored;Ill defined, unfunded emergency services other than Fire Brigade;No legal provisions managing emergence and operation of Major Hazard Installations.There is a need for: -Explicit, comprehensive and strictly enforced legislation;Establishment of efficient Major Accident Preparedness and response System operational at national, district and plant levels; andEstablishment of a registry and inventory of dangerous processes, goods, and wastes.
52Summary of Needed Actions Improve management systems;Review legislation;Carry out research;Mount information and awareness;Develop technical capacity;Develop Preparedness and response for technological disasters; andEstablish economic justification for action.
53CONCLUSION There is recognisable effort towards O&G impacts. However legislative, technological and administrative measures in place are still inadequate for protecting human health and the environmentThe risk is high: vulnerability is high; manageability is still low .Main constraint is inadequate funding