Presentation on theme: "Physical Science. What do you see? Understanding the Difference Science is Observations AND Inference Not just a list of facts We need to think and."— Presentation transcript:
What do you see?
Understanding the Difference Science is Observations AND Inference Not just a list of facts We need to think and judge also We have difficulty knowing the difference We will practice to make us better at knowing when we are making observations & inferences
What do you observe here?
What are Observations? Gathering of information by using our five senses sight, smell, hearing, touch, taste
What do you observe here?
Observations are facts! These look to be foot prints of some kind Some prints are wider/some are narrow The first image, the sets of prints were separate The second and third images, the sets of prints had separate regions and also a region where prints were together Some prints were more /less spaced from others Prints all had 3 “point” sections to them We could count the number of each kind of print in all the pictures Prints are black on a white background
What if you said…? Two different animals were going to the same spot. The two animals got in a scuffle or played or one was chasing/hunting another The animal with the smaller prints flew away / was carried by the other animal / was killed by the other animal The two animals came at separate times and were smelling or searching the same area and we see their footprints.
Definition of Observation Observation: when studying something describe only facts that you can see, touch, taste, smell and hear. you are not making any guesses. NOT AN OPINION!! “indesputable” Ohh… This liquid is green and it is leaking from a brown can. It smells like a sewer.
What else is important? What test must an observation pass to be considered a scientific fact Must be repeatable (can be done over & over again & everyone agrees – “indisputable”) What are some factors that may lead to an incorrect observation? Incompetent observer Poor conditions Find the two types of observations qualitative and quantitative
Quantitative Observations: Quantitative Observation: when studying something describe only facts that you can measure (usually numbers). you are not making any guesses. scientists use SI units! THIS IS NOT AN OPINION!! Ohh… 5 liters of liquid has leaked from a 2-kiloliter can. It is leaking at a rate of 5 mL/sec.
Qualitative Observation: Qualitative Observation: when studying something describe only facts that you can see, touch, taste, smell and hear. you are not making any guesses. NOT AN OPINION!! Ohh… This liquid is green and it is leaking from a brown can. I also smell it.
What is an Inference? an explanation for an observation you have made What does an inference do? it tries to make sense of what you have observed What are your inferences based upon? based on your past experiences and prior knowledge may change when new observations are made
What are some inferences we can say here?
Definition of Inference Inference: using your observations to make a guess about an object or an outcome based on prior knowledge or experience. THIS CAN BE A SCIENTIFIC OPINION. Based on my observations, I think that this can is old and is leaking a toxic substance.
EXAMPLE #1 Observation: The grass on the school’s front lawn is wet. Possible inferences: It rained. The sprinkler was on. There is dew on the grass from the morning. A dog urinated on the grass! All of these inferences could possibly explain why the grass is wet but we can’t say for sure which is correct without actually viewing the grass becoming wet. They are all based on prior experiences. We have all seen rain, sprinklers, morning dew, and dogs going to the bathroom.
EXAMPLE #2 Observation: The school fire alarm is going off. Possible inferences: The school is on fire. We are having a fire drill. A student pulled the fire alarm. These are all logical explanations for why the fire alarm is going off.
Group Practice List some observations and inferences about the following picture.
Individual Practice On your notes, please write down 2 observations and 2 inferences about the following picture.
Write 3 observations and 3 inferences on your exit slip for the picture below.