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What political change did Fidel Castro undergo after taking power and how did this impact the U.S.? Cuba in crisis and the U.S. response Berlin Crisis.

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Presentation on theme: "What political change did Fidel Castro undergo after taking power and how did this impact the U.S.? Cuba in crisis and the U.S. response Berlin Crisis."— Presentation transcript:

1 What political change did Fidel Castro undergo after taking power and how did this impact the U.S.? Cuba in crisis and the U.S. response Berlin Crisis Homework: 28 Section 2 November 29, 2010

2 The Election of 1960 Mood of Voters: Economy in recession USSR’s launch of Sputnik USSR development of long range missiles U-2 incident Cuba aligns with Soviet Union The Candidates had similar policies but Kennedy had two key factors on his side Television Civil Rights

3 The Candidates Republican: Richard Nixon Democrat: John F. Kennedy

4 Televised Debate: Launching TV in Politics Kennedy Well-organized Wealthy family background Handsome and charismatic 43 and inexperienced Roman Catholic Coached by TV producers Nixon Expert on foreign policy and hoping to expose opponent’s inexperience Current Vice President

5 Kennedy and Civil Rights October 1960: Police Arrest Martin Luther King, Jr. in Atlanta, GA 33 other demonstrators released King sentenced to hard labor Eisenhower (and Nixon) refused to do anything Kennedy called King’s wife to express sympathy Robert Kennedy persuaded judge to release King on bail. African-American Voters heard of this

6 The Camelot Years: Kennedy’s inauguration set tone of grace, elegance, and wit He and his wife invited artists and celebrities to the White House JFK’s Mystique: Many took speed-reading classes First ladies fashion sense Family constantly televised and photgraphed

7 Kennedy’s Team: McGeorge Bundy – Harvard Dean as National Security Advisor Robert McNamara – Ford Motor Company President as Secretary of Defense Dean Rusk – President of Rockefellor Foundation as Secretary of State Robert Kennedy – brother as Attorney General

8 New Military Policy Eisenhower – brinksmanship (edge of nuclear war) Kennedy – Flexible Response Strengthen ability to fight nonnuclear war Increase defense spending to boost conventional military in order to create elite branch of the army (green berets) Tripled nuclear capabilities across the U.S.

9 Crisis over Cuba: Eisenhower cut off diplomatic ties with Cuba because of Fidel Castro He gained power by promising democracy and toppled dictator Batista Promised to eliminate poverty, inequality, & dictatorship U.S. supported until he took over oil refineries

10 Castro broke up Commercial Farms and American Sugar Companies Congress started a trade embargo Castro relied on aid from Soviet Union Some saw Castro as great while others saw him as tyrant 10% Cuban population going into exile

11 Bay of Pigs March 1960 – Eisenhower allowed CIA to train Cuban exiles for invasion Hoped to trigger revolution Kennedy learned of this 9 days after becoming president

12 What Went Down? April 17, 1961 – Cuban rebels and U.S. military landed on the Bay of Pigs (Cuba) What went wrong? Air strike failed to take out Cuban air force Small force sent to distract Castro’s forces did not reach the shore When the commando landed they faced 25,000 Cuban soldiers backed by Soviet tanks and aircrafts

13 Thoughts? Cuban media sensationalized the defeat of “North American mercenaries” U.S. comments were that the U.S. “looked like fools to friends, rascals to enemies, and incompetent to the rest”

14 What Happened Afterwards? Kennedy paid a ransom of $53 million in food and medical supplies for surviving commandos Kennedy condemned communism in Western Hemisphere but Cuba continued with Soviet aid

15 Cuban Missile Crisis Nikita Krushchev promised to protect Cuba with Soviet arms Summer 1962 – flow of weapons to Cuba from the Soviet Union increased (including nuclear missiles) Kennedy warned America won’t tolerate offensive weapons in Cuba October 14 – photographs reveal Soviet missile bases in Cuba with missiles ready to launch October 22 – Kennedy informed the nation of such missile sites and of plans to remove them Any attack would result in war

16 Cuban Missile Crisis (cont’d) The world faced the possibility nuclear war How did we prepare? Soviet ships in Atlantic U.S. ships block Cuba How did it end? U.S. agreed not to invade Cuba & remove missiles from Turkey USSR agreed to remove missiles from Cuba

17 Both World Leaders Criticized Khrushchev Prestige in Soviet Union fading Kennedy Practiced brinksmanship not flexible response or diplomacy Others said he passed up chance of taking over Cuba Castro: Closed Cuba’s doors to exiles in November 1962 Banned all flights to and from Miami 3 years later he allowed Cubans to join families in the U.S. until 1973

18 Crisis over Berlin The Berlin Wall – a concrete wall topped with barb wire that severed the city in two East Germany proving to fail as people flee communism and enter West Berlin Weakened the economy of East Germany

19 Summit Meeting in Vienna Khrushchev threatens treaty with East Germany to close off all roads to West Berlin U.S.n refuses to give up West Berlin The threat of nuclear war prevented Khrushchev from closing roads to West Berlin August 1961 – he began the construction of the wall separating East Germany from West Germany The Wall ended the Berlin crisis but strengthened Cold War tensions

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21 Searching for ways to ease Tensions 1963 – Kennedy announced that the two nations had established a hot line between the two Allowed communication between the two leaders Limited test ban Treaty – barred nuclear testing in the atmosphere

22 Essay Question: Explain how the Bay of Pigs invasion, the Cuban missile crisis, and the Berlin crisis each placed the U.S. in conflict with the Soviet Union. What happened in each event? How did Kennedy handle the event? How was Kennedy viewed after the event?


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