2Ottoman MandatesMany of the Arabs of the Middle east worked with the Allies against the Central Powers during WWI. They were promised independence after the war.After WWI the allies partitioned the old Ottoman Empire into mandates, or territories. The mandates included: Palestine Transjordan Mesopotamia Syria TurkeyTurkey was occupied by French, British, and Italian and other Western powers.
3Turkey and Atatϋrk: Mustafa Kemal led Turkish nationals to defeat western occupationTook the name Atatϋrk, or father of the turks.Primary Goal:Rid Turkey of foreign influence and occupation. Then protect it from imperial forces.
4Battle for independence Atatϋrk and his forces spent two years battling the forces of France, Britain, Armenia, Italy and Greece. In September 1922 the last of the occupying forces was finally expelled.
5Turkey is at the crossroads of Europe and Asia, making a valuable location for trade, and sought after by imperial powers. What do you think Mustafa should do with his newly independent nation?Hint: Think about Japan, Thailand and EthiopiaMODERNIZE
6Modernizing Turkey Before After Islamic law Law code based on European modelsMuslim CalendarWestern Calendar (Gregorian/ Christian)Robes, women veiledWestern clothing- veils outlawedArabic Script (الأبجدية)Western Latin based (Alphabet)PolygamyMonogamous marriage onlyReligious led government (Muslim)Secular government separate from religion
7Mixed feelingsMany Turks look at Mustafa Atatϋrk as a hero who freed Turkey from foreign influence and established a strong Turkish nation.Others condemn Atatϋrk for because he replaced the Quran led government with secular authority.
8IranIran was independent, but was occupied by two spheres of Influence:-British South -Russian NorthIn 1925 Reza Khan, a military soldier, overthrew the Shah (ruler) and seized powerLike the Turks, Khan begins a push to modernize Iran to become independent.
9Modern Iran Not all supported Khan, who may disagree with his actions? Under Reza Khan, Iran built factories and improved infrastructure (roads, bridges, communication systems)Iranians adopted Western clothing, written language and culture.Khan also introduced European based law codes.Not all supported Khan, who may disagree with his actions?
10Oil AgreementsAs Iran modernized they forced the British oil companies to give more profit to Iranians, and hire qualified Iranians in all oil production jobs.Over the rest of the 1900s Iran’s oil fields will become a source of contention between the Iranians and the Western powers.
11Broken Promises During WWI the allies made 2 promises: The Arabs would have their own kingdoms in the former Ottoman Empire (including Palestine)Britain issued the Balfour Declaration to win support of European Jews. The document promised support for a “national home for the Jewish people” in Palestine.What is the problem with these promises?They promise Palestine to two separate groups, the Arab Muslims and the Jewish people
12Conflict reignsAs growing anti-Semitism spreads across Europe, many Jews are forced to seek safety in Palestine. At first they are welcomed because they bring money and technology with them.The Jewish immigrants built factories and irrigated the desert to grow crops. Soon industrial cities developed with large Jewish population.Over time, however, the Jews began to purchase land then evict the Arab tenants. Many Jewish factory owners refused to hire Arab workers.Conflict brewed between the Muslims Arabs and the Jewish immigrants
16ResentmentDuring WWI many British subjects, including the Indians, were sent to the front lines to fight for Britain and the Allies. Millions died, but the subjects believed their work in the war would be rewarded with freedom and equality.Instead, the British continued to exploit their colonists. By 1918 protests were common in India. In response, the British ban public gatherings of natives.
18Amritsar MassacreApril 13, thousands of Indians gather in a walled field in Amritsar for a peaceful protest. They were protesting British control and unfair treatment.General Reginald Dryer ordered his troops to fire into the crowd. The crowd was trapped by the walls and for 10 minutes the firing continued.379 perished, and over 1100 were wounded: men, women and children“My intention was to inflict a lesson, that would have an impact throughout India”General Dyer
19Considering it was war time, and the British needed Indian support, was it ok or not ok for the General to act as he did?
20Mohandas GandhiGandhi was a leader among the Indians for independence.-at 19 he studied law in England -worked in South Africa to help Indian emigrants -in Africa Gandhi developed the idea of nonviolent (passive) resistance or “soulforce”-when he returned to India, Gandhi led by exampleGandhi rejected western ideals, including their clothing
21Civil DisobedienceGandhi believed in civil disobedience; the refusal to obey unjust laws.He launched non-violent actions like boycotting British goods, especially textiles.Women took up sewing and created clothes for their familiesOne of Gandhi’s biggest successes was the Salt March
22The Salt March- 1930Britain claimed exclusive rights to produce salt. However, salt was free from the sea and it was illegal to use it.Gandhi told the British he would break the law and get salt from the sea.He started his march with 78 followers. By end of the 240 mile trek he had thousands.
23ArrestedGandhi and hundreds more were arrested as they continued to get salt from the sea. Hundreds more were beaten as they attempted to get salt… non of the beaten raised a hand in defense.
24What do you think the British had to lose from the Salt march? Why is the Salt march so important as a symbol of Indian nationalism?
25Outcome of Gandhi India became an India for Hindus Pakistan is created for Muslims
27What countries might be the knife? China“In comparison with other nations, we have the greatest population and the oldest culture, of 4,000 years’ duration. We are the poorest and weakest state in the world. While other countries were the carving knife and the serving dish we are the fish and the meat.” -Sun YixianWhat countries might be the knife?
28ChinaSun Yixian had led a revolt ending the Qing Dynasty. He envisioned a democratic China, and asked for help from foreign powers. Only the Soviet Union would help.Sun led the Goumindang (nationalist) partyWhy would the western powers not help?
29Jiang JeishiJiang took over when Sun passed away in He was supported by the rich business leaders.Began a campaign to unite China under his control.Viewed communism as a threat- he ordered thousands of communists killed
30Mao Zedong A communist who escaped Jiang’s brutal attacks. He sought to spread communism through the proletariat AND large peasant masses.How does Mao’s plan to spread communism differ from Karl Marx’s beliefs?
31The Long MarchJiang was determined to oust the communists (red bandits)He began a campaign to exterminate them. Using troops he repeatedly attacked the communistsTo survive, the communists led by Mao retreated throughout China, over 6,000 miles!Of the 100,000 communists who start the march, only 20,000 survive.
33Gaining popularityThough Mao and his men are fleeing for their lives, the Long March becomes an excellent opportunity to gain more support.Mao instructs his men to “not take a single needle or a piece of thread from the people”The communists had to pay for goods, avoid damaging crops, and be polite to local peasants.In contrast, Jiang’s troops created damage and often plundered.If you were a peasant, who would you support? Why? Mao or Jiang?
34Japan InvadesWhile Jiang is pursuing the Communists, Japan takes advantage and invades Northeast China (through Manchuria).China is pulled by three forces: -Communists -Jiang and the Goumindang -JapanJiang has to work with the Communists to get rid of Japan
35How did Iran and Turkey get rid of foreign occupation? They modernized and educated their populations, then forced better trade terms and independence.What does Gandhi mean by soulforce? Civil disobedience?Nonviolent or passive resistance. By using nonviolence and civil disobedience the Indians would win independence. Civil Disobedience is refusal to follow unjust laws (Salt Production)How does Mao Zedong envision communism growing in china?Mao thinks the proletariat AND the peasant masses must work together to bring communism to China.