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The War for Independence Originally entitled Yankee Doodle painted by A. M. Willard came to be known as The Spirit of '76 it is a familiar symbol of American.

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Presentation on theme: "The War for Independence Originally entitled Yankee Doodle painted by A. M. Willard came to be known as The Spirit of '76 it is a familiar symbol of American."— Presentation transcript:

1 The War for Independence Originally entitled Yankee Doodle painted by A. M. Willard came to be known as The Spirit of '76 it is a familiar symbol of American patriotism

2 War for Independence The shot heard ‘round the world has been fired The first battle, The Battle of Bunker Hill, has taken place Independence has been declared

3 The British Strategy The British dispatched to America the largest force Great Britain had ever assembled anywhere –Such a large force would mean a quick victory Capture major American cities –New York City –Capture the capital, Philadelphia Isolate New England colonies/divide the colonies Blockade the coast Win a big military victory in one battle –A clear cut military victory would bring about regaining colonial allegiance

4 The Patriot Plan Only fight when could/had a good chance to inflict damage Use Native American attack method for fighting –Hit and run Take out the Native American scouts –Wouldn’t know the land Start targeting British officers –Leave the foot soldiers leaderless Fight a war of attrition

5 The American Army Young single and footloose enlisted for long periods of time Farmers with families enlisted for short periods of time Northern states turned to blacks (free and slaves) –Most slaves in the north won their freedom Women followed the camps are cooks, nurses, launderers –Mary Hays = Molly Pitcher At home women run the farms and shops so that the men could fight Mary “Molly Pitcher” at the battle of Monmouth

6 American Strengths Washington’s leadership –No all out major battle –lost most of his battles BUT leadership saved his army to fight anther day Fighting on home ground Inspiring cause Help from other nations –France (navy)

7 The British problems Defeats on the battlefield did not lead to the abandonment of colonial political aim of Independence Only 5% of the population lived in the cities captured by the British The Americans would not fight a conventional European war – they were trained in open battlefield Did not take the Patriots seriously Hessians –Relied too heavily on them –No real reason to fight – except $$$ –Colonist hated them for their brutal reputation Long distance from home/supplies Unfamiliar with land Weak military leadership British General Howe

8 Fighting in the New England British Attack New York –Largest invasion fleet at that time (D-day) –Biggest attack on New York (until 9/11) –Washington losses New York Surprise Battle of Trenton –Crossing the Delaware River –On Christmas night/day –Surprised garrison of Hessians –Modest victory raised the sprits of the troops

9 Washington Crossing the Delaware

10 Fighting in the Middle Colonies Battle of Princeton –Washington inflicted heavy casualties on British troops –“It is a fine day for a hunt” –Becomes a hero by rally his troops by riding out in front of them –Raised moral and encouraged more men to enlist Washington lost Philadelphia –Continental Congress on the run

11 Washington at the Battle of Princeton

12 Battle of Saratoga Turning point of the war Players –British General Johnny Burgoyne –British General St. Leger –British General Howe –American General Ethan Allan –American General Arthur Sinclair –American General Horatio Gates –Daniel Morgan and his widow makers –American General Benedict Arnold

13 Battle Saratoga Burgoyne would march towards Saratoga following the Hudson River Meet up with St. Leger and Howe Cut the colonies into two parts Gen Johnny Burgoyne

14 Burgoyne’s Problem “Gentlemen” Johnny Burgoyne Terrain –dense forest hard to cut through –Patriots cut down trees for road blocks –Advance just one mile a day They created enemies where ever they went –Poor treatment of the locals and farmers New type of American Solider –Daniel Morgan and his sharp shooters –New technology American long rifles –Light weight –Grooves inside the barrel which spins the shot giving the marksmen greater accuracy –Can hit a target 250 yards away – twice the range of the British musket Daniel Morgan

15 What Saratoga does for the cause America had proof they would beat the British regulars British confidence takes a blow French recognizes America independence –Openly support the war effort –Navy forces the British to fight on land and sea General Burgoyne surrenders to General Gates

16 The British Move South After Saratoga, England changes strategy and moves South –Could serve as a vase for attacking the North –Many Loyalist in the South Howe is replaced with Clinton Early victories convince him Southern strategy is the way to go! Charleston, SC falls to the British Clinton goes back to New York – replaced with Cornwallis Gen Horatio Gates and Nathanael Greene is in charge of American forces in South

17 At Cowpens Little Battle – 3, 000 men American Gen Daniel Morgan vs. British Gen Tarleton (Patriot movie) Morgan picked a spot so that the men had to fight Victory for Americans

18 Guildford Court House Took place in Greensboro, NC Pyrrhic victory for Cornwallis Most of army has been destroyed Greensboro, NC National Park

19 Cornwallis leaves South Carolina Headed for Virginia Joined with Benedict Arnold (Am traitor) Washington and French General Rochambeau discuss going after Cornwallis Word comes from West Indies, “de Grasse will arrive with French fleet!” American troops head for Virginia with 16,000 men

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21 Yorktown Lay siege to Yorktown Cornwallis is trapped British navy not coming Cornwallis sues for peace “The World Turned Upside Down” News reaches England –We have had enough –Parliament votes to cease offensive and begin peace negotiations

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