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THE TRANSFORMATION OF EUROPE Chapter 17. Humanist Education and Literature Focused on secular themes Accepted classical beliefs (renew society)  Individualism:

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Presentation on theme: "THE TRANSFORMATION OF EUROPE Chapter 17. Humanist Education and Literature Focused on secular themes Accepted classical beliefs (renew society)  Individualism:"— Presentation transcript:


2 Humanist Education and Literature Focused on secular themes Accepted classical beliefs (renew society)  Individualism: emphasis on dignity & indiv. worth  Human Improvement: develop talents through activities  Recover ancient manuscripts (orig. sources) Wrote in common vernacular Petrarch: wrote sonnets about his lost love Lorenzo Valla: used textual-critical method  Falsely Believed and Forged Donation of Constantine  Annotations on the New Testament Machiavelli: (The Prince): analyzed politics

3 Machiavellian Quotes If an injury has to be done to a man it should be so severe that his vengeance need not be feared. Men are so simple and so much inclined to obey immediate needs that a deceiver will never lack victims for his deceptions. Men should be either treated generously or destroyed, because they take revenge for slight injuries - for heavy ones they cannot. Politics have no relation to morals. The new ruler must determine all the injuries that he will need to inflict. He must inflict them once and for all.

4 Spread of Renaissance Ideas First throughout Italy – then West. Europe Reshaped European civilization  Civic Humanism: service to the republic  Princely Ideal: study classics to properly rule  The Courtier – B. Castiglione City-Life (stronger in indep. Italian city-states)  Social groups: wealth and ability replace nobility  Middle-class: gained wealth and power  Peasants were still at the bottom of society  More opportunity to leave the manor

5 Italian Renaissance Governments Florence: originally a republic; controlled by the Medici  Medici brought in humanist ideas  Majority of tax burden was on the upper-class  Savanarola led a short-lived revolt against the Medici Rome: ruled by the pope  Cardinals made up the wealthiest portion of the pop.  Renaissance popes were viewed as corrupt  Promoted projects to beautify Rome Venice: ruled by a doge in a republican setting  Council of Ten helped govern/run the city  Gained prosperity through trade  Classical architecture; influenced by Byzantines and the West

6 Renaissance Art Expressed own values, emotions, attitudes Works were as life-like as possible Devoted to religion – had secular overtones Learned to give perspective/expression Architecture:  Return to classical style (arches, domes, columns)  Architects took credit for their work  Brunelleschi: the dome for the cathedral in Florence

7 Sculpture:  Return to classical style  Free-standing, nude figures  Best known sculptors:  Donatello: first to sculpt a nude sculpture  Michelangelo: began in Florence, moved to Rome  Ghiberti: baptistery doors in Cathedral of Florence Painting:  More realistic, less symbolic (capture human emotion)  Renaissance Painters  Giotto: first to paint realistically  Massacio: first to use lighting and perspective  Da Vinci: “Renaissance Man” ( Mona Lisa & Last Supper)  Michelangelo: painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel  Raphael: most notable was paintings of “Virgin Mary” Ren. Art Continued

8 Northern Renaissance 1400s: ideas spread throughout W. Europe  War helped with continued contact w/ others  Da Vinci was brought to Paris by Francis I  Trade fostered spread of ideas French Renaissance  Blended Gothic and Classical design  Writers were inspired by Petrarcha  Ronsard (sonnets); de Montaigne (essay); Rabelais (comic)

9 Northern Humanism Differences in Northern Humanism  Ideas were adapted to meet needs  Focused on Christian writing  Used textual-critical method to interpret patristic writings  Wanted to renew Church to 1 st Century purity Christian Humanism (wanted to reform the church)  Humanist learning combined with Bible study  Erasmus: “Go Back to the Sources”  Study Greek and Hebrew  Used biting humor to make his point  Translated the N.T. using Valla’s t-c method  Found inaccuracies in other translations

10 Northern Painters Relied on Medieval models rather than classical ones Jan & Hubert van Eyck  Painted scenes from the Bible  Developed the technique of oil on canvas

11 English Renaissance Began in 1485 with Henry VII English Humanists were interested in social issues  Thomas More (Utopia): criticized his society by comparing it to “the ideal one”  William Shakespeare:  Drew on ideas from medieval heroes & classical legends  Wrote about universal human qualities Economic and Social change  Spain led the conquest to the Americas  Rapid population growth (1460 – 1560)  Agricultural price increase (1400s – 1600s):  Wages did not increase

12 The Protestant Reformation Martin Luther (1483-1546) attacks Roman Catholic church practices, 1517  Indulgences: preferential pardons for charitable donors Writes Ninety-Five Theses, rapidly reproduced with new printing technology Excommunicated by Pope Leo X in 1521 1520s-1530s dissent spread throughout Germany and Switzerland

13 The Demand for Reform Luther’s expanded critique  Closure of monasteries  Translations of Bible into vernacular  End of priestly authority, especially the Pope  Return to biblical text for authority German princes interested  Opportunities for assertion of local control Support for reform spreads throughout Germany

14 Reform outside Germany Switzerland, Low Countries follow Germany England: King Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547) has conflict with Pope over requested divorce  England forms its own church by 1560 France: John Calvin (1509-1564) codifies Protestant teachings while in exile in Geneva Scotland, Netherlands, Hungary also experience reform movements

15 The Catholic Reformation Roman Catholic church reacts  Refining doctrine, missionary activities to Protestants, attempt to renew spiritual activity Council of Trent (1545-1563) periodic meetings to discuss reform Society of Jesus (Jesuits) founded by St. Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556)  Rigorous religious and secular education  Effective missionaries

16 Witch Hunts Most prominent in regions of tension between Catholics and Protestants Late 15 th century development in belief in Devil and human assistants 16 th -17 th centuries approximately 110,000 people put on trial, some 60,000 put to death  Vast majority females, usually single, widowed  Held accountable for crop failures, miscarriages, etc. New England: 234 witches tried, 36 hung

17 Religious Wars Protestants and Roman Catholics fight in France (1562-1598) 1588 Philip II of Spain attacks England to force return to Catholicism  English destroy Spanish ships by sending flaming unmanned ships into the fleet Netherlands rebel against Spain, gain independence by 1610

18 The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1645) Holy Roman emperor attempts to force Bohemians to return to Roman Catholic Church All of Europe becomes involved in conflict  Principal battleground: Germany Political, economic issues involved Approximately one-third of German population destroyed

19 The Consolidation of Sovereign States Emperor Charles V (r. 1519-1556) attempts to revive Holy Roman Empire as strong center of Europe  Through marriage, political alliances  Ultimately fails  Protestant Reformation provides cover for local princes to assert greater independence  Foreign opposition from France, Ottoman Empire  Unlike China, India, Ottoman Empire, Europe does not develop as single empire, rather individual states  Charles V abdicates to monastery in Spain

20 Sixteenth-century Europe

21 The New Monarchs Italy well-developed as economic power through trade, manufacturing, finance Yet England, France, and Spain surge ahead in 16 th century, innovative new tax revenues  England: Henry VIII  Fines and fees for royal services; confiscated monastic holdings  France: Louis XI, Francis I  New taxes on sales, salt trade

22 The Spanish Inquisition Founded by Fernando and Isabel in 1478 Original task: search for secret Christian practitioners of Judaism or Islam, later search for Protestants  Spread to Spanish holdings outside Iberian peninsula in western hemisphere Imprisonment, executions  Intimidated nobles who might have considered Protestantism  Archbishop of Toledo imprisoned 1559-1576

23 Constitutional States England and Netherlands develop institutions of popular representation  England: constitutional monarchy  Netherlands: republic English Civil War, 1642-1649  Begins with opposition to royal taxes  Religious elements: Anglican church favors complex ritual, complex church hierarchy, opposed by Calvinist Puritans  King Charles I and parliamentary armies clash  King loses, is beheaded in 1649

24 The Glorious Revolution (1688-1689) Puritans take over, becomes a dictatorship Monarchy restored in 1660, fighting resumes Resolution with bloodless coup called Glorious Revolution King James II deposed, daughter Mary and husband William of Orange take throne  Shared governance between crown and parliament

25 The Dutch Republic King Philip II of Spain attempts to suppress Calvinists in Netherlands, 1566 Large-scale rebellion follows, by 1581 Netherlands declares independence Based on a representative parliamentary system

26 Absolute Monarchies Theory of Divine Right of Kings French absolutism designed by Cardinal Richelieu (under King Louis XIII, 1624-1642)  Destroyed castles of nobles, crushed aristocratic conspiracies  Built bureaucracy to bolster royal power base  Ruthlessly attacked Calvinists

27 Louis XIV (The “Sun King,” 1643-1715) L’état, c’est moi: “The State – that’s me.” Magnificent palace at Versailles, 1670s, becomes his court  Largest building in Europe  1,400 fountains  25,000 fully grown trees transplanted Power centered in court, important nobles pressured to maintain presence

28 Absolutism in Russia: The Romanov Dynasty (1613-1917) Peter I (“the Great,” r. 1682-1725)  Worked to modernize Russia on western European model  Developed modern Russian army, reformed Russian government bureaucracy, demanded changes in fashion: beards forbidden  Built new capital at St. Petersburg Catherine II (“the Great”, r. 1762-1796)  Huge military expansion  Partitions of Poland, 1772-1797  Social reforms at first, but end with Pugachev peasant rebellion (1773-1774)

29 The European States System No imperial authority to mediate regional disputes Peace of Westphalia (1648) after Thirty Years’ War European states to be recognized as sovereign and equal  Religious, other domestic affairs protected Warfare continues: opposition to French expansion, Seven Years’ War Balance of Power tenuous Innovations in military technology proceed rapidly

30 Europe after the Peace of Westphalia, 1648.

31 Population Growth and Urbanization Rapidly growing population due to Columbian Exchange  Improved nutrition  Role of the potato (considered an aphrodisiac in 16 th and 17 th centuries)  Replaces bread as staple of diet  Better nutrition reduces susceptibility to plague  Epidemic disease becomes insignificant for overall population decline by mid-17 th century

32 Population Growth in Europe

33 Urbanization

34 Early Capitalism Private parties offer goods and services on a free market Own means of production Private initiative, not government control Supply and demand determines prices Banks, stock exchanges develop in early modern period Joint-Stock Companies (English East India Company, VOC)  Relationship with empire-building Medieval guilds discarded in favor of “putting-out” system

35 Impact of Capitalism on the Social Order Rural life  Improved access to manufactured goods  Increasing opportunities in urban centers begins depletion of the rural population Inefficient institution of serfdom abandoned in western Europe, retained in Russia until 19 th century Nuclear families replace extended families Gender changes as women enter income-earning work force

36 Capitalism and Morality Adam Smith (1723-1790) argued that capitalism would ultimately improve society as a whole But major social change increases poverty in some sectors  Rise in crime  Witch-hunting a possible consequence of capitalist tensions and gender roles

37 The Copernican Universe Reconception of the Universe  Reliance on 2 nd -century Greek scholar Claudius Ptolemy of Alexandria  Motionless earth inside nine concentric spheres  Christians understand heaven as last sphere Difficulty reconciling model with observed planetary movement 1543 Nicholas Copernicus of Poland breaks theory  Notion of moving Earth challenges Christian doctrine

38 The Scientific Revolution Johannes Kepler (Germany, 1571-1630) and Galileo Galilei (Italy, 1564-1642) reinforce Copernican model Isaac Newton (1642-1727) revolutionizes study of physics Rigorous challenge to church doctrines

39 The Enlightenment Trend away from Aristotelian philosophy and Church doctrine in favor of rational thought and scientific analysis John Locke (England, 1632-1704), Baron de Montesquieu (France, 1689-1755) attempt to discover natural laws of politics Center of Enlightenment: France, philosophes Voltaire (1694-1778), caustic attacks on Roman Catholic church: écrasez l’infame, “erase the infamy”  Deism increasingly popular

40 The Theory of Progress Assumption that Enlightenment thought would ultimately lead to human harmony, material wealth Decline in authority of traditional organized religion

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