Presentation on theme: "The Peloponnesian War I can explain the causes of the Peloponnesian War and the effect the war had on the Greek city-states."— Presentation transcript:
The Peloponnesian War I can explain the causes of the Peloponnesian War and the effect the war had on the Greek city-states.
SET UP THE NEXT BLANK PAGE IN YOUR NOTEBOOK WITH THE FOLLOWING THINKING MAP. TURN YOUR NOTEBOOK SIDEWAYS AND MAKE SURE YOU HAVE 2 PAGES TO WORK WITH. THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR: Athens vs. Sparta PERICLES THE OUTBREAK OF WAR AFTERMATH As we go through the power point you will be taking notes. Write down underlined information in the correct spot on this thinking map. **You are responsible for taking all necessary notes. If you miss any notes you need to view the power point at home and finish. You will have an open note quiz on this information….AN EASY A IF YOU DO YOUR JOB. DISASTER STRIKES ATHENS THE WAR RAGES
PERICLES LEADS ATHENS After the Persian Wars one of Athens’ greatest leaders, Pericles, emerged. By 460 B.C., Pericles was the strongest leader in Athens. He remained the leader until his death 31 years later. He was so important that this time in Athens is often called the Age of Pericles. Pericles had three goals for Athens. 1) Strengthen Democracy: Pericles wanted to change the balance of power between the rich and the poor. He increased the number of public officials who were paid. Now even poor citizens could hold a public office if elected. To hold office, a person sill needed to be a free, white male, over 18, and the son of Athenian-born parents. Direct Democracy became the practice in Athens. All citizens could participate in running the government. 2) Expand the Empire: To protect oversees trade, the Greek city- states formed a league for mutual protection called the Delian League. Pericles used money from the Delian League to build a strong navy. The naval fleet made up of at least 300 war ships. This fleet was the strongest in the Mediterranean. Because of the strong navy, Athens took over leadership of the Delian League. The treasury was moved to Athens and Athens’ power was strengthened. Athens began treating others in the Delian league as conquered people, not allies. 3) Beautify Athens: Greek city-states paid a tribute to the Delian League. The funds were supposed to help build the power of the league. Instead, Pericles used these funds to beautify Athens, which was left in ruins after the Persian Wars. He did not ask approval from other members to do this. This action made other city-states angry. Pericles spent the money to purchase gold, ivory, and marble to create sculptures and construct beautiful buildings.
THE OUTBREAK OF WAR The Peloponnesian War broke out because of 3 main reasons. 1)Some city-states feared Athens because of its grab for power and prestige. 1)Under the leadership of Pericles, Athens grew from a city-state to a naval empire. 2)Athenian settlers began to move into lands of other city-states. The other city-states resented how Athens spent money from the Delian League, which was intended for the mutual protection of all the city-states. Several city-states wanted to break free from Athenian power. Pericles’ policy was to punish any city-state that resisted Athens. Sparta headed a league of city-states to stand up to the power of the Delian League. This was called the Peloponnesian League. In 431 B.C., Sparta declared war on Athens.
THE WAR RAGES Each side in the war had advantages and disadvantages. Sparta had the better land-based military force, and its location could not be attacked by sea. Athens had the better navy and could strike Sparta’s allies by sea. These differences shaped the war strategy of each side.
Over the course of the war many different battles were fought between Athens and Sparta and its allies. Along with battles, sieges of city-states were a common war strategy. Siege strategy included consistent attacking of one city and surrounding that city so that no one could leave. The hope would be that people would starve to death and/or begin fighting amongst themselves. Sieges would take years and be very devastating to a fallen city-state, whose residents would either be executed or forced into slavery.
Sparta’s strategy was to cut off the Athenian food supply by destroying crops. The Spartans did this by taking control of the countryside around Athens. The Spartans planned an annual invasion of Athenian lands to destroy the freshly planted crops. They were both trying to starve the people of Athens as well as antagonize the Athenian military to come out from behind the city fortifications and confront the Spartans in the open battle. Athens’s strategy was to avoid battles on land and to rely on sea power. Pericles persuaded the Athenians to allow Spartans to destroy the countryside. The Athenian navy was able to supply the city with food from the sea as well as land troops into Spartan territory to inflict similar damage. Pericles brought people from the areas surrounding Athens inside the city- walls. The people would be safe there and Athens would be supplied with food by the sea. With one side being a powerful land based army and the other being a dominant naval power, the war dragged on for decades with many of the battle outcomes being indecisive.
DISASTER STRIKES ATHENS Because of Pericles’ plan to bring people into Athens, the city became badly overcrowded. In the second year of the war, an outbreak of a plague took many lives in Athens. The plague was a disease that spread easily and usually caused death. Athens lost as many as one-third of its people and armed forces. Pericles, too, died from the plague. In 421 B.C., Athens signed a truce, or an agreement to stop fighting. Athens finally surrendered to Sparta in 404 B.C.
AFTERMATH To the north of the Greek city-states, King Philip II of Macedon came to power in 359 B.C. Planning to build and empire, he looked south toward the weakened Greek city-states.
THE KINGDOM OF MACEDONIA Macedonia was now the new power of Greece. King Philip II had plans to build an empire that included the lands of Greece and Persia. As a teenager, Philip had been a hostage in the Greek city of Thebes. There he observed its army and its military tactics. Philip learned of the advantages of a professional army. Philip organized a well-trained professional army. He devised new battle formations and tactics. He experimented with the combined use of cavalry and infantry. He supplied his soldiers with new weapons, like the catapult. His soldiers also used battering rams to smash through closed gates.
PHILIP CONQUERS GREECE Philip II focused on the Greek city-states, which has been severely weakened during the 50 years since the Peloponnesian War. The Greek city-states were too disorganized and weak to unite against Philip. In 338 B.C., Philip completed his conquest of the Greeks, and Philip became the ruler of all Greek city-states. His dictatorial rule ended Greek democratic practices. He brought Greek troops into his army and prepared to attack Persia. In 336 B.C, Philip was assassinated at his daughters wedding. They said at the time of his assassination that Philip was a great king. They also said that his son, Alexander was simply great.
STUDENT ASSIGNMENT Use pages to complete the Cause and Effect thinking map. THE PELOPONESSIAN WAR List 3 facts about the war itself. What happened during the war? Cause of the War Effect of the War. CAUSE: Everything before Sparta declares war on Athens. EFFECT: Everything after Athens surrenders to Sparta.