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World War II CHAPTER 15. Section 1: The Allies Turn the Tide  The Axis powers do not have a coordinated strategy to defeat the Allies  Hitler wanted.

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Presentation on theme: "World War II CHAPTER 15. Section 1: The Allies Turn the Tide  The Axis powers do not have a coordinated strategy to defeat the Allies  Hitler wanted."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War II CHAPTER 15

2 Section 1: The Allies Turn the Tide  The Axis powers do not have a coordinated strategy to defeat the Allies  Hitler wanted to dominate Europe and eliminate “inferior” peoples  Mussolini harbored dreams of an Italian empire from the eastern Adriatic Sea to East Africa  Tojo wanted Japanese control of the Western Pacific and Asia  The Allies unify their strategy and decide to take a “Europe First” approach, making sure that until Hitler was defeated, the Pacific would be a secondary priority

3 Section 1: The Allies Turn the Tide  The Battle of Stalingrad: The starting point of Hitler’s plan invade the Soviet Union and then take over all of Europe  Soviet forces trapped Nazi troops and the Nazi armies were forced to retreat   Photo on page 467 in textbook  Allies then go to North Africa to force the Germans out of this area  American officer General Dwight Eisenhower (known as Ike), commanded the Allied invasion of North Africa

4 Section 1: The Allies Turn the Tide  Allied forces struggled fighting in desert conditions and needed aggressive officers and troops better trained for desert fighting  Read “Focus on Geography” on page 468  Eisenhower put American forces in North Africa under the command of George S. Patton, Jr.  Patton was known as “Blood and Guts Patton”  Read quote from Patton on page 469  “You usually will know where the front is by the sound of gunfire, and that’s the direction you should proceed. Now, suppose you lose a hand or an ear is shot off, or perhaps a piece of your nose, and you think you should walk back to get first aid. If I see you, it will be the last…..walk you’ll ever take” –George S. Patton, Jr. 1943

5 George S. Patton Video Clips  patton/videos/george-s-patton patton/videos/george-s-patton

6 Section 1: The Allies Turn the Tide  Germany was now on the defensive and the Allies wanted to keep it that way  Roosevelt and Churchill met in Casablanca, Morocco to plan their next move  Two important decisions were made: To increase the bombing of Germany and to invade Italy  The Allies invaded Sicily and then moved on to mainland Italy  After 38 days, Italy surrendered and the rule of Benito Mussolini came to an end  However, Hitler was not through with Italy

7 Section 1: The Allies Turn the Tide  Hitler rescued Mussolini from a mountain top fortress in Italy  Hitler then installed Mussolini as head of a puppet state in Northern Italy  In the southern part of Italy, German forces continued to fight against the Allies  Although the fighting continued in Italy until 1945, neither side gained ground due to heavy rains, mountain snow, and the criss-crossing rivers which made combat extremely difficult

8 Section 1: The Allies Turn the Tide  In early 1942 nonstop bombing attacks were launched on German cities  The attacks took place at night in order for the British planes to avoid being shot down  The goal of this “saturation bombing” was to inflict maximum damage on the Germans  During the day, American bombers targeted Germany’s key political and industrial centers  This was known as “strategic bombing”  An African-American fighter squadron, known as the Tuskegee Airmen, played a key role in this bombing campaign

9 Section 1: The Allies Turn the Tide  The Tuskegee Airmen escorted bombers and protected them from enemy fighter planes  They flew more than 1,500 missions over enemy territory in Europe, and they never lost a single bomber  This bombing mission cost the Allied forces dearly  Bomber crews suffered an incredibly high 20% casualty rate  This bombing campaign paved the way for an all-out Allied offensive  Infographic on pages

10 Bombing Campaign in Germany  y%20wwii&qs=n&form=QBVR&pq=bombing%20of%20germany%20w wii&sc=2-23&sp=- 1&sk=#view=detail&mid=68692E8D71E42DA0938C68692E8D71E42DA 0938C y%20wwii&qs=n&form=QBVR&pq=bombing%20of%20germany%20w wii&sc=2-23&sp=- 1&sk=#view=detail&mid=68692E8D71E42DA0938C68692E8D71E42DA 0938C 

11 Section 1: The Allies Turn the Tide  Although the Allies were pursuing their “Europe First” strategy, they did not forget about what was going on in the Pacific  The Japanese continued to have unstoppable momentum  They had attacked American, British and Dutch colonies, winning control of several areas including The Philippines, Hong Kong and Guam  Admiral Yamamoto, commander of the Japanese naval forces in the Pacific had a plan to take over Midway, an American naval base in the Central Pacific that was the vital defense to Hawaii  Losing Midway would then force American defenses back to the California coast  Yamamoto also planned to establish a Japanese military presence in the Aleutians, a string of Islands in Alaska

12 Section 1: The Allies Turn the Tide  Luckily, US Navy code breakers intercepted the Japanese plan and the US Navy was ready!  The Japanese launched their attack on June 4, 1942; however, they lost the battle, as well as many of its most experienced pilots and aircraft  The US lost only one aircraft carrier  The battle of Midway was the turning point of the war in the Pacific, as it stopped the Japanese advance  Although Japan maintained a powerful navy, never again would they threaten Hawaii or dominate the Pacific  Japan was now on the defensive

13 The Battle of Midway  FORM=VIRE9#view=detail&mid=F8DE54E59801C78E7591F8DE54E598 01C78E7591 FORM=VIRE9#view=detail&mid=F8DE54E59801C78E7591F8DE54E598 01C78E7591

14 Section 1: The Allies Turn the Tide  The US was now on the offensive  They first American offensive strike took place with an assault on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands  Read “Witness to History” on page 466  After 3 months of fighting, US Marines drove the Japanese off the Island  Guadalcanal was the first leg in a US strategy to approach Japan on two fronts  In the jungles, during monsoons and in the blistering sun, American servicemen began their slow painful trek toward Japan

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