Presentation on theme: "England Alone. Immediately after the defeat of France, Adolf Hitler ordered his generals to organize the invasion of Britain. The invasion plan was given."— Presentation transcript:
Immediately after the defeat of France, Adolf Hitler ordered his generals to organize the invasion of Britain. The invasion plan was given the code name Sea Lion. The objective was to land 160,000 German soldiers along a forty-mile coastal stretch of south-east England.
“We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender….” These words expressed the resolve of the British people to stand up to the onslaught of the German 3 rd Reich.British people to stand up to the onslaught of the German 3 rd Reich.
Within a few weeks the Germans had assembled a large armada of vessels, including 2,000 barges in German, Belgian and French harbors. Hitler's generals were very worried about the damage that the Royal Air Force could inflict on the German Army during the invasion.
Hitler therefore agreed to their request that the invasion should be postponed until the British air force had been destroyed.
By the start of what became known as the Battle of Britain the Luftwaffe had 2,800 aircraft stationed in France, Belgium, Holland and Norway. This force outnumbered the RAF four to one.
The British had the advantage of being closer to their airfields. German fighters could only stay over England for about half an hour before flying back to their home bases.
The RAF also had the benefits of an effective early warning radar system and the intelligence information provided by Ultra…a civilian observation corps.
The German pilots had more combat experience than the British and probably had the best fighter plane in the Messerschmitt Bf109. They also had the impressive Messerschmitt 110 and Junkers Stuka.
The commander of the RAF Fighter Command, Hugh Dowding, relied on the Hawker Hurricane and the Supermarine Spitfire.
On the 12th August, 1940, the German air force began its mass bomber attacks on British radar stations, aircraft factories and fighter airfields. During these raids radar stations and airfields were badly damaged and twenty-two RAF planes were destroyed. This attack was followed by daily raids on Britain.
As a result of the effective range of the Luftwaffe, the battle was mainly fought over southern England. This area was protected by Fighter Command No. 11 under Keith Park and Fighter Command No. 12 led by Trafford Leigh- Mallory.
Between 1st and 18th August the RAF lost 208 fighters and 106 pilots. The second half of the month saw even heavier losses and wastage now outstripped the production of new aircraft and the training of pilots to fly them.
Although greatly outnumbered the British were fighting for their homeland. Most pilots were between the ages of 18 and 22.
The fate of the world rested in the hands of these young pilots. For the first two months both sides suffered heavy losses German losses were too severe for daylight bombing to continue.
Luftwaffe commander Herman Goering orders nighttime raids to begin. September 7, 1940, Germans begin a brutal nightly assault on London— The Blitz.
The Blitz was designed to destroy the will of the British people to fight. It backfired—Britain is enflamed with the will to defeat the Germans. By the end of September the Germans had lost 2,700 planes.
On September 17, 1940, Hitler postpones Operation Sea Lion. Although sporadic attacks continued, it’s clear Germany has lost the Battle of Britain.
“Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.” These 17 words spoken by Winston Churchill, summed up the gallant efforts of the RAF.These 17 words spoken by Winston Churchill, summed up the gallant efforts of the RAF.
October 28, 1940—The Italians attack Greece and are humiliatingly defeated. Mussolini is tremendously angry as Italian soldiers are beaten back to Albania.
April 16, 1941—Hitler orders the invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece. Germany rolls through both countries like they are on maneuvers. Yugoslavia and Greece capitulate on April 17, 1941.
May, 20, 1941—The Germans move into Crete and after a bloody battle—take over. However, the hold up causes delay in the German invasion of Russia. Hitler’s insistence on conquering Greece and Crete would cost him Russia.
Operation Sea LionWinston Churchill Royal Air ForceBattle of Britain Radar SystemUltra Messerschmitt Bf 109Messerschmitt 110 Junker StukaHugh Dowding LuftwaffeHawker Hurricane Supermarine SpitfireKeith Park Trafford Leigh-MalloryHermann Goering The Blitz