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Civil law and Procedures

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1 Civil law and Procedures
Business Law Ch 5 Civil law and Procedures

2 How do Crimes and Torts Differ
Tort – Private or Civil wrong It is an offense against an individual Person is injured and can sue and obtain a judgment for damages Damages – Monetary award intended to compensate the injured party for the harm done

3 Elements of a Tort Four elements of most torts: Duty Breach Injury

4 Elements of a Tort Four elements of most torts:
Duty - legal obligation to do or not to do something Three duties created by tort law Duty not to injure another (includes bodily, reputation, or invasion of privacy) Duty not to interfere with the property rights of others (trespassing) Duty not to interfere with the economic rights of other (contracts)

5 Elements of a Tort Four elements of most torts:
Breach - violation of the duty Intentional Torts – Defendant actually intended to inflict harm by their actions Negligence – Harm occurred as a result of neglect or carelessness of the defendant Strict Liability – Harm occurs when neither intent nor carelessness

6 Elements of a Tort Four elements of most torts:
Injury – A harm that is recognized by the law Injury must be proved

7 Elements of a Tort Four elements of most torts:
Causation – Breach of duty caused the injury Proximate Cause – Exists when a reasonably foreseeable breach of duty resulted in an injury

8 Responsibility for Another’s Tort
All people, including minors, are personally responsible for their torts Vicarious Liability – One person is responsible for the torts of another Example Parents give children “dangerous instruments” Guns without proper instruction

9 5-1 Assessment Turn to page 84 and complete the 12 questions

10 5-1 Assessment Answers True A (proximate cause) False
D (vicarious liability) Vicarious B (strict liability)

11 5-1 Assessment Answers Duties – Obey the posted regulations
Act reasonable Injuries – Damage to the cars and ferry Cause – Starting of the truck without brakes Yes. Proximate cause No, Loss income is not proximate No, not proximate

12 5-1 Assessment Answers Driver of the car for negligence
Rental car company for dangerous instrument Minor is liable. Dangerous instrument Maureen Patrick would be liable for negligence in allowing the hail damage, as he failed to fulfill his duty of taking reasonable care of the vehicle, but not for the hot oil and gravel nicks.

13 Most Common Intentional Torts
Intentional Tort – the defendant possessed the intent to inflict the resultant injury Assault – When one person intentionally puts another person in reasonable fear of an offensive or harmful bodily contact Can be words or gesture

14 Most Common Intentional Torts
Battery – harmfully or offensively touching of another intentionally. False Imprisonment – Intentional confinement of a person against the person’s will and without lawful privilege.

15 Most Common Intentional Torts
Defamation – False statement the injures a person’s reputation or good name. Slander – spoken Libel – written Statement must: Be false Be communicated to a third party Bring the victim into disgrace, contempt, or ridicule by others

16 Most Common Intentional Torts
Invasion of Privacy – Uninvited intrusion into an individuals personal relationships and activities in a way likely to cause shame or mental suffering in an ordinary person. Can result from unnecessary publicity regarding personal matters Includes freedom from commercial exploitation of one’s name, picture, or endorsement without permission.

17 Most Common Intentional Torts
Trespass to Land – Entry onto the property of another without the owner’s consent Intent is required Conversion – Personal property that is stolen, destroyed, or used in a manner inconsistent with the owner’s rights

18 Most Common Intentional Torts
Interference with Contractual Rights – A third party enticing or encouraging a person to break a contract Fraud – Intentional or recklessly made misrepresentation of an existing important fact. Made to induce someone to enter into a contract

19 Negligence Negligence - Careless behavior Defenses Most common tort
“Reasonable Person” standard Defenses Contributory Negligence – Both defendant and plaintiff are guilty of negligence No recover of losses

20 Negligence Defenses Comparative Negligence – Plaintiffs actions are partially at fault Damages are award in proportion to their percentage of responsibility Assumption of Risk – Plaintiff is aware of a danger or risk

21 Strict Liability Strict Liability - Defendant can be held liable if he or she merely engaged in a particular activity that resulted in an injury, regardless of whether or not he or she was negligent Only applies when someone has engaged in abnormally dangerous activities Ownership of dangerous of animals Activity of a sale that are unreasonable activity If the good is defective then it is dangerous Another name is Product liability

22 5-2 Assestment Turn to page 92 and complete the 5-2 Assessment

23 Remedies Available in a Civil Suit
Two types of remedies Injunction – court order for a person to do or not to do a particular act Damages – Monetary award by the court to a person who has suffered loss or injury because of an act or omission

24 Damages Two types of Damages
Compensatory – meant to replace the injured party in the position he or she was in prior to the injury or loss. Includes Lost wages Doctor’s Fees Monetary amount to compensate for the injured party’s pain and suffering

25 Damages Two types of Damages
Punitive Damages – Meant to punish the person who inflicted to injury Generally awarded in intentional torts Contingency fee – Lawyers are paid a percentage of the recovery 25% before Trial 33% win trial 40% won on appeal

26 Procedure use to try a civil case
Judge/Jury Judges decide issue of law Jury decides issue of facts Plaintiff – the party that initiates the lawsuit by filing a complaint Defendant – the party complained against Default judgment – defendant has 10 days to answer complain. If not answered, plaintiff wins judgment

27 Procedure in a civil case
Civil jury – 6 to 12 people After jury is seated the attorneys make opening statements State what they will try to prove Evidence – anything the judge allows to be presented to the jury that helps to prove or disprove the alleged facts.

28 Procedure in a civil case
Testimony – statements made by witnesses under oath Witness – someone who has personal knowledge of the facts Expert Witness – give an opinion fro superior knowledge about important facts Subpoena – written order by the judge commanding a person to appear, give testimony, and perhaps present evidence

29 Procedure in a civil case
Closing Arguments – each attorney summarizes the case, trying to persuade the judge/jury to favor his or her side Judge give the jury instructions – tells the jury what rules of law apply to the case and what issues of fact they must decide

30 Procedure in a civil case
The jury deliberates – jury retires to the jury room for deliberation in secret to decide the case Each jury member must determine whether a preponderance of evidence supports the plaintiff’s case 10 out or 12 jury members is needed for a conviction

31 Procedure in a civil case
Verdict – jury decision Judgment – the final results of the trial Writ of execution – court directing the defendant to pay the plaintiff Court may seize defendants property and be sold Money raised is paid to the plaintiff

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