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2  Defining Legislative Drafting  Legislative Drafting between Common Law and Civil Law: An Exercise in Two Different Legislative Techniques in Parliamentary Acts, Court Decisions and Private Contracts.  The Nature of Legislation: Administrative, Civil and Commercial Acts  The Vagueness Doctrine in Criminal Matters  Drafting International Legislation S ESSION 1: L EGISLATIVE D RAFTING – A N INTRODUCTION


4 Civil Law LawyersCommon Law Lawyers Shop among case facts… Shop among legal definitions… Marbury v. Madison (1803) “Arrest” = A seizure or forcible restraint “Voidable contract” = A contract that can be affirmed or rejected at the option of one of the parties… Douglas v. Hello (2007)

5 Drafting Techniques Between Common Law and Civil Law C LASSIFICATION IN C IVIL LAW  Civil law lawyers understand items in terms of broad categories.  To solve a problem, they must first answer the question, “To which category does this problem belong?”  They then ask, “To which sub category does this problem belong?” followed by sub-sub category and so on… Is it an administrative contract or private contract? If private, is it a civil contract or commercial contract?

6 A French concept –Legal rules which are devised to govern activities and relations between private persons should not be held to apply automatically to activities or relations in which the state or some public agency of the state is a party. Examples of “public interest” contracts include –  Work contracts  Supply contracts  Transportation contracts  Public service concessions  Government procurements These are administrative contracts subject to administrative law which is a branch of public law and not private law. P UBLIC L AW : A DMINISTRATIVE L AW

7 The Nature of Administrative Law A number of special rules of public law follows: (1)The government, as a contracting party, enters into contract in its capacity as a sovereign entity. (2) The government as such has privileges which a private party does not have. (3) The government has the right to impose terms of the administrative contract to preserve public interest which prevails over private interest. (4) The government in these standard contracts has the authority to modify the terms of the contract unilaterally without obtaining the consent of the other contracting party. (5) The government has also the right to cancel the contract at any time unilaterally. So the rule of private contract law that a “contract is the law of the contracting parties which may not be modified or terminated except with mutual consent” does not apply to administrative contracts.

8 Civil Acts vs. Commercial Acts Commercial acts are different from civil acts in many ways: (1)As far as the applicable law, commercial acts are subject to commercial law, while civil acts are governed by the civil law. (2)Rules of evidence are different. While there are strict statute of frauds requirements regarding civil acts, commercial acts may be proved in addition to writing by other means of proof. For example, oral testimony or commercial records which are kept regularly by a merchant. (3)The statute of limitations is usually longer in civil transactions than commercial agreements. (4)Rules of bankruptcy applies to commercial acts while the law of insolvency governs civil acts. (5) Courts.

9 Drafting a Law CIVIL LAW “How different is this treaty. It lays down general principles, it expresses its aims and purposes, all in sentences of moderate length and commendable style. But it lacks precision. It uses words and phrases without defining what they mean. An English lawyer would look for an interpretation clause, but he would look in vain. There is none. All the way through the treaty there are gaps and lacunae. These have to be filled in by judges or by regulations or directives. It is the European way.” Bolmer v. Bollinger, 2 All. E.R. 1226 (1974), Lord Denning U.K. A civil law statute is drafted in “general principles”. It avoids definitions: It uses words and phrases without defining what they mean. It lacks specificity, specific rules are to be supplied by regulations or directives. The legal rule in a civil law family is not considered as merely a rule appropriate to the solution of a concrete case. The legal rule rises to a higher level of abstraction. It is viewed as a rule of conduct, endowed with a certain generality and situated above the specific application which courts may make of it in any particular case.

10  A Code does not attempt to provide rules that are immediately applicable to every conceivable concrete case, but rather an organized system of general rules from which a solution may be easily deduced. A Civil Code simply states the law, - Without justification - Without explanations - Without comparisons; and - Without examples  A common law statute states the law by providing, - Detailed definitions; - That each specific rule sets out lengthy enumeration of specific applications or exceptions; - They are based on the specific facts that they are intended to cover.

11 Hamburg Rules = Civilian Style E.g. The United Nations Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea adopted at Hamburg, March 31, 1978 and in force November 1, 1992 commonly known as the “Hamburg Rules”.  Rule of responsibility in one sweeping article.  Article 5(1) of the Hamburg Rules reads “the carrier is liable for loss” resulting from loss or damage to the goods, as well as from delay in delivery. If the occurrence which caused the loss, damage or delay took place while the goods were in his charge as defined in Article 4, unless the carrier proves that he, his servants or agents took all measures that could reasonably be required to avoid the occurrence and its consequences.” E.g. The International Convention for the Unification of certain Rules Relating to Bills of Lading, adopted at Brussels, August 25, 1924, commonly known as the “Hague Rules”  with responsibility in three very long and detailed articles: Article 3(1) on seaworthiness Article 3(2) on care of cargo Article 4(2)(a) to (j) on seventeen exculpatory exceptions. D RAFTING S TYLES IN I NTERNATIONAL C ONVENTIONS Hague Rules = Common Law Style

12 Drafting a Court Decision: Civil Law  Drafting a court decision is also different between the Civil law and the Common law. 1. Civil law judgments are written in a more formalistic style than common law judgments. 2. Civilian judgments tend to be shorter and are separated into two parts: (i) The motifs (reasons); and (ii) The dispositif (order) 3. The judge must supply a justification for his/her decision - These reasons are usually written in terms of “whereas es”, i.e., “attendus”

13  As to the substance or content/reasoning: (a)A civil law decision first identifies the legal principles that might be relevant; (b)Then verifies if the facts support their application; before (c)Applying the principle(s) to the facts; and (d)Reaching a conclusion.  As to the facts mentioned : (a) Only the facts relevant to the advanced principle need be stated. (b)In fact, even these facts are not stated in full and sometimes ignored.  As to facts of other cases: (a)These need not be mentioned at all, since a civil law judge is not bound by other cases and will not follow precedents he does not rely on them. The judge, in civil law systems, contributes to the law but does not create it, he/she merely engages in “statutory interpretation.”

14 Statutory Interpretation The Plain Meaning Rule Equivalent to old doctrine “Where the meaning is plain, clear and unambiguous, on its face, so that taken by itself, it is fairly susceptible of only one construction, that construction must be given to it and any inquiry into the purposes, background, or legislative history of the statute is foreclosed.” Reasoning by Analogy Common law principles of interpretation “statutory interpretation” include the legislative intent or the intention of the legislator. An historical interpretation clarifying present texts in light of previous circumstances may be the logical approach. Analogy extends the application of the statutes not only to those cases which it covers by its plain words but to cases which it plainly does not cover, and that is why, analogy in the traditional Civil law doctrine has been regarded as something fundamentally different from interpretation.  Analogy is one special technique of interpretation: Interpretation means implementing the law; Analogy means supplementing it.

15 Swiss Civil Code, Article 1 Venezuelan Civil Code, article 4 Can you do without a text in a Civil law jurisdiction? “The Code and Statutes govern all the matters to which the letter or the spirit of one of their provisions refer failing an applicable legal provision, the judge will decide according to customary law, and in the absence of a custom, according to the rules he would establish if he had to act as legislator. He draws inspiration from solutions sanctioned by the doctrine and the holdings of the Court.” “One must give to the Code and Statutes the sense which seems evident from the literal meaning of the words, in accordance with the links that exist between the words themselves and between the words and the intent of the legislator. When no Code or statutory provision controls, one must consider other provisions of law that regulate similar or analogous cases, and if the interpreter still has doubts, he shall apply the general principles of the law.”  So in Switzerland, the judge may apply the statutory provision or a customary rule or even a rule created by the judge and in Venezuela, the judge may apply the statutory provisions applicable to similar or analog cases or the general principles of the law in that order.

16 Drafting a Court Decision: Common Law  A common law judicial opinion is written differently. The emphasis is on the facts.  It involves a detailed discussion of the facts not only the facts of the particular case, but also facts of other cases presenting similar but not identical facts.  It is a process analogous to the process of statutory interpretation. This technique requires that the judgment – Step 1 - Expose the facts; Step 2 - Compare the facts; Step 3 - Distinguish the facts from the facts of previous case; Step 4 - Decide, if not create, the specific legal rule to the present facts.

17  The Common law judge decides the case and in the process creates the law.  Another judge comes and may broaden or narrow the rule of law and thus extends or add new extensions to existing rules.  So the common law is a law defined in terms of past judicial decisions.  Common law lawyers fashion their arguments from a close study of prior cases. Their success as lawyers depends on persuading the judge in each case of the accuracy of the analogies between their client’s situation and that of the precedents they cite, or that their client’s situation is different from situations that arose in the precedents they hope to distinguish.  Facts thus are central to the very meaning and concept of law.  It implies dependency on argument and therefore common law judges’ skill lies in reasoning by analogy and distinction between a particular confluence of factual circumstances and legal issues. That is why the Common Law legal systems, unlike their Civil law counterparts, have developed a highly sophisticated methodology for “interpreting case law” or technique of distinguishing cases,

18 Drafting a Contract Rules embodied in a Civil Code are of two kinds: A. The compulsory rules – imperative, prohibitive B. The supplementary rules – interpretive, declaratory Therefore, in drafting a contract –  The terms and conditions must comply with the compulsory rules of a code, while a contract clause may provide for a contrary rule to a supplementary rule.  So an agreement which runs counter to a compulsory rule would be void. E.g. If you agree to a certain interest rate which violates the rule regarding interest, your agreement or at least the interest provision, shall be invalid. E.g. If you agree to a term which specifies a rule contrary to the Code rule that price shall be paid at time of delivery, that is okay. E.g. If you do not agree to the time of payment, the rule of “price upon delivery” which is merely supplementary in nature, shall apply.

19 Question: Are both types of rules binding on the contracting parties? The answer is yes, however, there is a condition of applicability which must exist before the application of the supplementary rule, that is “Absence of an agreement to the contrary.” Question: How would you know what type of rule do we have? A material method – the rule itself would provide “unless agreed otherwise...” or whether the rule relates to public order.

20 Which system is best? (1)Predictability:  It is said that the law in a civil law tradition is predictable and certain.  Because it is build on logical broad principles and general rules.  However, this is not entirely true because the less specialized the legal rule is, the greater will be the work of judicial interpretation and judicial discretion. The perceived difference between Common law and Civil law approaches is that one is bound by case precedent and the other wedded to an unyielding code…

21 2)Accessibility:  It is argued that the Civil law rules are easier to find.  The very concept of “legal rule” means that there are far fewer actual rules of law. By contrast, in common law, you have to research complex cases to find what the common law rule is. It follows that it is easier to acquire knowledge of civil law and thus a civilian lawyer would have less trouble than his English counterpart in telling his client what legal rule(s) will be applicable to his problem.  That is why the Restatement of the law was favorably looked upon by jurists of countries with codified systems. Because for them it was seen as a tool providing systematic exposition of American law in a form not dissimilar to their own aides.  But a Restatement is no more than a private compilation with no official authority although it is often cited in court decisions. Thus, it is not a code though you may call it a digest.

22 (3)Adaptability  It is argued that the Common law strength is its adaptability and that every case has a solution and that every decision adds to its richness. It is an “open system” every court decision adds a rule or extends the application of an existing rule while the civil law system is a “closed system”.  A civilian judge is not allowed to do more than apply the rule to the fact and cannot create a new rule. (4)Cost:  Judicial precedents build the system, one case at a time each different from the other. Most common law lawyers are therefore specialists only in certain area(s) or specific area(s) of the law. If they need an answer in a field outside their expertise, they usually have to consult a colleague specializing in that field. All of this makes the common law system very expensive and the cost of administering justice under a common law system becomes a grave injustice in itself.

23 What is the most obvious difference between the Common Law and the Civil Law? A quick answer is that – The Civil Law is based on Roman Law whereas the Common Law is relatively immune from Roman influence, but there are similarities between Roman Law and the English Law.  Both systems were built up through the discussion and decision of cases and law was perceived as essentially law discovered through debates among experts over particular sets of facts rather than as general rules laid down by a legislature.  In both systems, the major part of the law actually emerged out of recorded discussions of cases.  A second and related feature is that legal development centered around particular forms of action. Legal discussion was concerned with remedies rather than rules. In both systems, a plaintiff could only bring an action by obtaining a document from a magistrate identifying the precise type of claim that he was asserting.

24  In both systems, there were perceived to be two distinct bodies of law. (1) On the one hand, the traditional which became rigid and difficult to change. (2) On the other, a more flexible set of rules based on the idea of fairness and justice. Equity In many respects, modern Civil Law system seem much more alien to the Common Law lawyer than does ancient Roman Law… Both bodies of law were administered by the praetor but were recognized as belonging to separate jurisdiction: the ordinary and the extraordinary. Both bodies of law were administered by separate courts applying common law and equity respectively.

25 Drafting Private Contracts: Model Franchising Agreement








33 The Vagueness Doctrine in Criminal Matters  Unconstitutionality of Criminal Law for Vagueness  The 5 th Amendment and 14 th Amendment  Restrictions on Law Enforcement and Judicial Discretion.  Problems in Defining Vagrancy: Does it include loafing and strolling?  Problems in Defining Loitering  What constitutes credible and reliable identification?  Does a commercial sex act include pornography?

34 No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation U.S. Constitution Amendment 5 - Trial and Punishment, Compensation for Takings. Ratified 12/15/1791.

35 Amendment 14 - Citizenship Rights. Ratified 7/9/1868 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice- President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.


37 Compromise in International Legislation Article 16 (1) Until a contract is concluded an offer may be revoked if the revocation reaches the offeree before he has dispatched an acceptance. (2) However, an offer cannot be revoked: (a) if it indicates, whether by stating a fixed time for acceptance or otherwise, that it is irrevocable; or (b) if it was reasonable for the offeree to rely on the offer as being irrevocable and the offeree has acted in reliance on the offer. UN C.I.S.G. 1980 Iraq Ratification: Accession - 5 March 1990; Entry into force - 1 April 1991


39 The United Nations Protocol on Trafficking: Weak International Standards for the Sake of Creating International Consensus


41 (a) Appropriate housing; (b) Counselling and information, in particular as regards their legal rights, in a language that the victims of trafficking in persons can understand; (c) Medical, psychological and material assistance; and (d) Employment, educational and training opportunities. 4. Each State Party shall take into account, in applying the provisions of this article, the age, gender and special needs of victims of trafficking in persons, in particular the special needs of children, including appropriate housing, education and care. 5. Each State Party shall endeavour to provide for the physical safety of victims of trafficking in persons while they are within its territory. 6. Each State Party shall ensure that its domestic legal system contains measures that offer victims of trafficking in persons the possibility of obtaining compensation for damage suffered. Article 6. Assistance to and protection of victims of trafficking in persons 1. In appropriate cases and to the extent possible under its domestic law, each State Party shall protect the privacy and identity of victims of trafficking in persons, including, inter alia, by making legal proceedings relating to such trafficking confidential. 2. Each State Party shall ensure that its domestic legal or administrative system contains measures that provide to victims of trafficking in persons, in appropriate cases: (a) Information on relevant court and administrative proceedings; (b) Assistance to enable their views and concerns to be presented and considered at appropriate stages of criminal proceedings against offenders, in a manner not prejudicial to the rights of the defence. 3. Each State Party shall consider implementing measures to provide for the physical, psychological and social recovery of victims of trafficking in persons, including, in appropriate cases, in cooperation with non-governmental organizations, other relevant organizations and other elements of civil society, and, in particular, the provision of:


43 Article 7. Status of victims of trafficking in persons in receiving State 1.In addition to taking measures pursuant to article 6 of this Protocol, each State Party shall consider adopting legislative or other appropriate measures that permit victims of trafficking in persons to remain in its territory, temporarily or permanently, in appropriate cases. 2.In implementing the provision contained in paragraph 1 of this article, each State Party shall give appropriate consideration to humanitarian and compassionate factors.

44 Article 9. Prevention of trafficking in persons 1. States Parties shall establish comprehensive policies, programmes and other measures: (a) To prevent and combat trafficking in persons; and (b) To protect victims of trafficking in persons, especially women and children, from revictimization. 2. States Parties shall endeavour to undertake measures such as research, information and mass media campaigns and social and economic initiatives to prevent and combat trafficking in persons. 3. Policies, programmes and other measures established in accordance with this article shall, as appropriate, include cooperation with non-governmental organizations, other relevant organizations and other elements of civil society. 4. States Parties shall take or strengthen measures, including through bilateral or multilateral cooperation, to alleviate the factors that make persons, especially women and children, vulnerable to trafficking, such as poverty, underdevelopment and lack of equal opportunity. 5. States Parties shall adopt or strengthen legislative or other measures, such as educational, social or cultural measures, including through bilateral and multilateral cooperation, to discourage the demand that fosters all forms of exploitation of persons, especially women and children, that leads to trafficking.


46  The influence of the Majelle  The influence of the Egyptian Civil Code  The work of Al-Sanhuri  The Personal Status Law S ESSION 2: T HE D EVELOPMENT OF L EGISLATION IN THE A RAB W ORLD

47 The Separation of Figh (Islamic Law) and Qanun (Positive Law) 19251950 1830 Ottoman Empire: Adopts French Commercial Code 1948 Egypt: Al-Sanhuri drafts Civil Code 1934 Lebanon: Code of Obligations and Contracts 1938 Al-Sanhuri publishes the “Need to Revise the Egyptian Civil Code” 1949 Egypt: Egyptian Civil Code 1949 Syria: Syrian Civil Code 1804 French Civil Code 1926 Al-Sanhuri publishes Le Califat 1992 Yemen: Adopts Civil Code based on Shari’a 1949 Iraq: Iraq Civil Code

48 Iraqi Civil Code The Iraqi Code was “the first modern code to join together Islamic jurisprudence and modern Western law on an equal basis” and it was “the most important experience in modern civil codification”. Al-Sanhuri (1962) p.24  Followed the Egyptian Model in terms of divisions used to organise material.  Takes the Majalla as its main source, supplemented with several recently enacted Iraqi laws (i.e. Land Law/Property Laws)

49 Shari’a as a Source of Law Qatar, Article 4, Civil Code and Commercial Code Shari’a Law shall apply in the absence of express legislation, provision or custom. Applicable sources of law: 1.Mandatory Legislative Provision 2.Special Agreements concluded by the Contracting Parties 3.Commercial Customs 4.The Laws concerning civil matters 5.Adjudication and deduction from judgments based on the principles of Islamic Law Bahrain, Article 2, Law of Commerce 1987

50 In the absence of any applicable legislation the judge shall decide according to the custom and failing the custom according to the principles of Islamic law. Egypt, Article 1, Civil Code P ROVISIONS T HAT C ONFIRM I SLAMIC L AW AS A S OURCE OF C IVIL L AW (1)The Code governs all questions of Law which come within the letter or spirit of any of the provisions. (2)If the Code does not furnish an applicable provision, the court shall decide in accordance with Islamic Law, if not, with customary rules; if not, with the principles of natural law and equity. Algeria, Article 1, Civil Code 1975

51 J UDICIAL I NTERPRETATION ACCORDING TO S HARI ’ A The judge will resort to Islamic principles of figh and the works of fugaha in applying the legislative text. For understanding and interpretation, the judge shall decide according to the rules of figh. Jordan, Article 3, Civil Code 1976 Failing appropriate legislation, the judge will decide according to the principles of Shari’a based on the teaching of the Malikites Hanabelite, then the Shafi and then the Hanafi… Provisions of public order are those concerning personal states such as marriage, inheritance and paternity; provisions concerning state order, freedom of commerce, the movement of capital and private property, and rules and principles on which society is founded, on condition that all these prescriptions do not contradict the imperative provisions and fundamental principles of the Shari’a. United Arab Emirates, Article 1 and Article 3 Civil Code

52 The Development of Legislation in Iraq  The 1869 Majelle in the Othman Empire : 16 Books on various legal relations  The Application of the Majelle in Iraq during the English Mandate 1920  The Influence of the 1949 Egyptian Civil Code  The first phase of the codification movement in Iraq in 1933  The second phase of codification in Iraq 1936  Al-Sanhuri drafting the Iraqi Civil Code  The Iraqi Civil Code December 8, 1951 entered into force December 8, 1953  The Iraqi Personal Status Law 1959  The Constitution of Iraq, Article 2: Any impact on the sources of legislation  The Constitution of Iraq, Article 41: Should the 1959 Law be abolished?

53 Iraq Constitution: Article 2 المادة (2): اولاً :ـ الاسلام دين الدولة الرسمي، وهو مصدرٌ اساس للتشريع: أ ـ لا يجوز سن قانونٍ يتعارض مع ثوابت احكام الاسلام. ب ـ لا يجوز سن قانونٍ يتعارض مع مبادئ الديمقراطية. ج ـ لا يجوز سن قانونٍ يتعارض مع الحقوق والحريات الاساسية الواردة في هذا الدستور. ثانياً :ـ يضمن هذا الدستور الحفاظ على الهوية الاسلامية لغالبية الشعب العراقي، كما ويضمن كامل الحقوق الدينية لجميع الافراد في حرية العقيدة والممارسة الدينية، كالمسيحيين، والايزديين، والصابئة المندائيين. Article 2: First: Islam is the official religion of the State and is a foundation source of legislation: A. No law may be enacted that contradicts the established provisions of Islam B. No law may be enacted that contradicts the principles of democracy. C. No law may be enacted that contradicts the rights and basic freedoms stipulated in this Constitution. Second: This Constitution guarantees the Islamic identity of the majority of the Iraqi people and guarantees the full religious rights to freedom of religious belief and practice of all individuals such as Christians, Yazidis, and Mandean Sabeans.

54 Iraq Constitution – Article 41 المادة (41): العراقيون احرارٌ في الالتزام باحوالهم الشخصية، حسب دياناتهم أو مذاهبهم أو معتقداتهم أو اختياراتهم، وينظم ذلك بقانون. Article 41: Iraqis are free in their commitment to their personal status according to their religions, sects, beliefs, or choices, and this shall be regulated by law.


56  The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) was created by the General Assembly in 1966 to play a more active role in reducing or removing legal obstacles to the flow of international trade and to promote a process of harmonization and unification of the law of international trade.  The Commission itself decided in its first session in 1968 to adopt nine topics for future work: 1. International sale of goods 2. International commercial arbitration 3. Transportation 4. Insurance 5. International payments 6. Intellectual property 7. Elimination of discrimination 8. Agency 9. Legalization of documents UNCITRAL

57 The following are the techniques used by the Commission to promote harmonization and unification of the law of international trade: 1. International Conventions 2. Model Treaty Provisions (Model Treaties)- to be incorporated in future treaties or to be used in revisions of existing treaties. 3. (Model Legislation) Uniform legal rules designed to serve as models for legislation by states; Model Laws 4. (Standard Contracts) Sets of uniform rules to be incorporated by parties in their contracts. 5. Legal guides, identifying legal issues arising in a particular area of international trade 6. Recommendation encouraging governments to eliminate unnecessary legal obstacles to trade.  Priority Status was accorded to: 1. International sale of goods 2. International commercial arbitration 3. International payments

58 The UNIDROIT principles have been deeply influenced by the CISG although there is a difference. The Sales Convention is an international treaty. 1 - Binding Effect: States may incorporate as national law while the Principles are a set of rules without binding effect for either individuals or states. 2 - Revision and Adoption: It may be revised and adapted easily unlike the Sale Convention, which was drafted by the U.N. Commission of International Trade Law “UNCITRAL”. 3 – Scope/Application: As we said, both texts may apply to a business transaction although the scope of the Convention is limited in scope to sale contracts. UNIDROIT v. CISG – The Differences

59 4 – Style v. Restatement of Code: The Principles, on the other hand, are a general Code intended to be applicable to any kind of commercial contract of an international nature. Although the Principles resemble the Restatement, more than a Code, and include comments and illustrations, the Convention, on the contrary, has no such comments and like the Restatement, the Principles are not binding. Therefore, the UNIDROIT Principles are the “International Restatement” of the general principles for international commercial contracts. Of importance to us is the UNCITRAL Model Law on international commercial arbitration. One of the important international conventions is the U.N. Convention on Contracts for International Sale of Goods, the CISG. In 1980, the Final Convention, on unified international sale law, was prepared and by September, 1981, 21 countries had signed the agreement. The United States ratified CISG on January 1, 1987. CISG formally entered into force on January 1, 1988. By the early 1990s over 30 countries had ratified CISG. Now, we have 63 countries that ratified the sale convention.

60 The Hague Conference on Private International Law  Intergovernmental organization aims at unification of the rules of private international law.  Examples of Conventions: International Adoption of Children International Child Abduction Recognition of Divorce  The last Hague Convention is the 2005 Convention on Choice of Court Agreements which is similar to the 1958 United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in the area of arbitration.

61 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (C.I.S.G.) 1980 1. Exclusions by Law

62 2. Exclusions by Agreements

63 3. Gaps

64 4. Reservations

65  General Principles, Sentence Formation and Word Choice  Determining the “Legislative Address”  “Legislative Finding”  The “Legislative Purpose” and the Purpose Clause.  The “Legislative Structure”  The “Legislative Annexes”  The “Legislative Policy”  The “Legislative Language”  The “Legislative Draft” S ESSION 4: LEGISLATIVE D RAFTING : T HE F ORM, L ANGUAGE AND S TRUCTURE

66 (1)Write simply but precisely  Precision means that words chosen must express accurately and unequivocally the meaning intended to be communicated.  The drafter must know exactly what he wants to say.  Upon completion, the drafter must look at the draft as objectively as possible and assess whether what has been said means exactly what was intended. L ANGUAGE AND S TRUCTURE (2) Draft for users with their various standpoints always in mind/Know your audience  There are three groups of persons that drafters should consider when drafting legislation: The lawmakers The persons who are affected by the law ** The members of the judiciary  This helps determine what level of language to use. i.e. specialized terms or common words. It is most important that legislation is drafted with group 2 in mind. Words must be chosen and a style adopted which those whose interests are affected should be able to comprehend without unnecessary difficulty. General Rules

67 (3) Be very clear about the purpose of the legislation and make sure that purpose is manifest  Such a provision establishes a context clarifying the scope of the law and intended effect.  There is debate as to whether it is best to use an opening ‘Statement of Purpose’ or to limit the purposive statement to a Part, a section or some other specified element of the law. The most useful purpose clauses are those introducing particular sentences, which offer the advantage of focused specificity. Must be carefully drafted. It is difficult to draft a general ‘statement of purpose’. Too much tension between generalities and particularities. Critics argue that the purpose of a well drafted act is apparent from the substantive provisions themselves and that the inclusion of such a clause will do no more than introduce unnecessary and possibly inconsistent and confusing words.  Five Rules of Drafting Purpose Provisions: (1) Should be drafted early in the drafting process. (2) Must state accurately and unambiguously the purpose and objectives of the provisions to which it relates. (3) The language must be consistent with the language of the substantive provisions of the Act. (4) The specificity of the purpose provision must be clearly stated and appropriate. (5) A purpose provision and the later text of the law should not say the same thing but in different words.

68 (4) Organize material logically, and chronologically where appropriate, at every level.  An orderly approach is invaluable to intelligibility. A logical sequence will make the legislation more readable.  Consider whether the legislation will benefit from a formal division into Parts.  Develop a statement of headings (table of contents), plan the number and content of the clauses considered necessary to deal with the topic adequately.  Procedural steps should be expressed in their order of occurrence. The general should precede the particular, the permanent should precede the temporary and the more important before the less important.  However, it is common practice for provisions establishing a council or other statutory body to precede the statement of the functions of the body even though those functions may constitute the underlying principle of the Act.  The general desirability is that provisions of principle should be presented as early in the Bill as is possible.  The use of Schedules can aid in clearing away the procedural provisions in order to present the main provisions of the statute more prominently and in a less cluttered manner.  Sometimes matters of detail or procedure are better kept aside for subordinate legislation.  Distinct and different matters should not be contained in the one Act.

69 (5) Consider the use of supplementary aids to facilitate communication (diagrams, examples)  Supplementary aids may or may not form part of the legislation. It is critical that drafters leave no doubt in this area.  Drafter should consider whether the complexity of the subject matter of the draft or the sheer quantity of it is such that the text would benefit from supplementary assistance.  Supplementary aids may take the following forms:  Explanatory and signposting provisions  Other explanatory notes  Examples  Flow charts  Graphics incl. formulas, diagrams, pictures, maps, charts and graphs  indexes (6) Develop consistency of style and approach  The law should be consistent in style with previous legislation on the same topic.  Consistency of word choice and usage is desirable.  Be consistent in stylistic practices such as numbering, spelling, capital usage and presentation.  Consistency as to the level of penal sanctions.

70 (7) Revise the text with simplicity and precision in mind.  A succession of revised drafts is necessary.  Drafter must attempt a detached attitude about the draft as far as is possible and invite criticism.  Each draft must be scrutinized extensively. There is no limit on the number of drafts. (8) Test the draft in relation to comprehensibility.  Questions the drafter must ask: Does the draft achieve all those objectives that the drafter believes to be the intended objects of the proposal? Does the draft fit harmoniously into the general body of the law? Does the law comply with basic principles of the legal and constitutional system? Does the draft form a coherent well-structured whole and does the material flow in logical sequence? Are the content and the language of the draft as clear and comprehensible as the drafter can make them?

71 Rules for Drafting Sentences (1)The Who and the What  Consider the actor and the action in every sentence. (2) Draft in the present tense  Statutes are to be regarded as always speaking. (3) Avoid long sentences (particularly if unparagraphed)  The short term memory of users cannot cope accurately with a large quantity of material.  While it is important to be as concise as possible, there is a danger also in too much brevity. The drafter should beware that he does not become obscure. He will be much more familiar with the topic than his readers and should not therefore assume too much knowledge on their part.

72 (4) Prefer the active voice to the passive.  The passive voice either omits, or reduces the emphasis on, the person performing the action. In many legislative contexts, the subject of the sentence is given a power or a duty and that person must be identified clearly. E XAMPLE Passive: Notice of the sale or disposal of a licensed printing press must be given to the Registrar within 14 days. Active: The transferor must give notice to the Registrar within 14 days of the sale or disposal of a licensed printing press. (5) Prefer the positive to the negative.  An affirmative statement is usually more direct and straightforward than a negative one and is therefore easier to understand. When a sentence can be expressed either way, it should be expressed affirmatively. E XAMPLE Affirmative: Every payment of money by the Council must be authorized by a prior resolution. Negative: A payment of money must not be made by the Council unless it has been authorized by a prior resolution.

73 (6) Avoid double negatives and beyond.  The general rule is that two negatives cancel each other out and produce an affirmative meaning. E XAMPLE Double Negative: Employers, other than those who do not employ apprentices, must…. (7)Follow conventional word order  The conventional word order is subject-verb-complement. (8) Do not split verb forms unnecessarily.

74 (9) Paragraph with restraint and care.  Careful paragraphing is beneficial in four ways: (i) The structure of the sentence is made more apparent to the reader. (ii) Paragraphing is an analytical tool for the drafter; (it demands the study and analysis of the structure of the sentence) (iii) Needless repetition is avoided. (iv) Syntactic ambiguity is removed.  Paragraph is a flexible device.  Do not paragraph unnecessarily. It is only useful if the sentence is of sufficient length and complexity to require the illumination of its structure. If the structure is manifest without paragraphing, there is nothing to be gained by paragraphing and it amounts only to pointless artificiality. E XAMPLE Premises includes: A caravan; and A mobile home; and A houseboat. It is preferable to say: Premises includes a caravan, a mobile home, and a houseboat.

75  Avoid two series of paragraphs in one sentence.  Avoid sandwich clauses. A sandwich clause is one in which a series of paragraphs is preceded and succeeded by other text.  Every paragraph must flow grammatically and naturally from the introductory words. E XAMPLE (paragraph (c) should not begin with that) A person who shows to the satisfaction of the registrar that the person Is of good character; and Holds a Commonwealth qualification in veterinary surgery; and That has the requisite practical skill and experience. Take care when linking paragraphs in a series.  It must be apparent to the reader whether the paragraphs are conjunctive or disjunctive. Use ‘and’ or ‘or’ only when you want to show that the series is conjunctive or disjunctive.

76 (10) Avoid sub-paragraphs and sub-subparagraphs. Subparagraphs are just too complicated to be readily understood and should therefore be avoided. (11) Avoid nominalizations.  A noun derived from a verb is called a nominalization. Such nouns should not be used when a sentence using the verb form would be more direct and clearer. E XAMPLE The Commissioner must investigate every complaint lodged in writing. Not The Commissioner must conduct an investigation of every complaint lodged in writing. (12) Use cross-references with restraint.  A cross-reference should only be included if it is either useful or necessary. Multiple cross- references, while precise, can be irritating to the reader and make the document appear too ‘legal’.

77 (13) Punctuate conventionally and with restraint.  Punctuation is a mechanical aid serving to make the relationship of the parts of a sentence more readily apparent to a reader.  Four rules: Punctuate sparingly and with purpose. Punctuate for structure and not for sound. Be conventional. Be consistent.  It is particularly important that commas are used correctly.

78 Word Choice (1)Omit unnecessary words.  Courts will presume that the legislators chose each word with care and thus each has a specific meaning. A superfluous word is therefore a potential source of contention.  Phrases that add nothing to the meaning should be avoided. E XAMPLE The company may make reasonable charges for carrying passengers, animals, goods, merchandise, minerals and parcels. In this Act, the following expressions have the following meanings respectively,...  Words such as “above” and “below” should be avoided. They are imprecise and vagaries of pagination may cause confusion. In the example below, the word “above” is unnecessary as reference to subsection (1) creates a precise and unambiguous meaning. E XAMPLE (2) Any payments under subsection (1) above may be made subject to conditions regulating the Commissions functions.

79 After Subsequent to BeforePrior to BeginInitiate, Inaugurate, Institute EndTerminate, Conclude Find outAscertain GiveFurnish, Accord InformAcquaint, Apprise SendTransmit TryEndeavour UseUtilization, Usage HappenTranspire, Eventuate (2) Prefer the familiar word.  Words that are familiar are more easily communicated and understood. E XAMPLE The words in the first column should be preferred to those in the second.

80 (3) Choose the exact word.  The preference for familiar words must give way to the requirement that the exact word to fit the context must be used.  Legislation regulating human conduct must frequently fix a standard of general application, a degree of conduct which the law requires or permits. Consider the following words: o Acceptable o Adequate o Appropriate o Due o Equitable o Expedient o Fair o Fit o Just o Necessary o Normal o Ordinary o Proper o Reasonable o Requisite o Satisfactory o Sufficient o Suitable  The deliberate use of vague words can sometimes create a paradox whereby more humane laws are created and greater justice served.

81 (4) Avoid archaic and legalese words.  For example, “hereby”, “thereby”, “advise and consent”, “full and complete”, “null and void”.  “Herein”, “Hereinafter”, “Hereto” etc. are all vague as to which part of the law is referred to. Specific reference is preferable.  “Whosoever”, “Whatsoever”, “Wheresoever” and “Whomsoever” are all archaic – All these words are improved by deleting the affix “so” resulting in “whoever”, “whatever”, “wherever” and “whomever”. “Whatsoever” is frequently unnecessary. (5) Avoid non-English expressions.  French and Latin words were used in the interested of precision in older times. (6) Avoid emotive words.  The language of the statute should not possess any emotional overtones. E XAMPLE The abominable crime of buggery. The landing may be prohibited of a person who is suffering from a contagious disease which is loathsome or dangerous.

82 (7)Use informal and recently coined words with discretion.  Legislation must keep pace with social and technological needs arising from the passage of time and when appropriate must use the new words that social and technological change has spawned. E.g. “laptop”, “modem”, “software”.  Words must have obtained some apparent stability as standard English (i.e. not just slang) before being used.  The increasing preference for familiar everyday language has increased the acceptability of new popular terms as well as new words for technology.

83 becauseBecause of the fact that becauseBy virtue of the fact that becauseFor the reason that BecauseOn the grounds that ifIn the event that ifIf it should happen/eventuate/transpire that ifUnder circumstances in which byBy means of thinkOf the opinion that whileDuring such period as ExceptExcept for the fact that NearIn close proximity AboutIn connection with AboutConcerning the matter of AboutAs regards AboutIn reference/relation to AlthoughNotwithstanding/ despite the fact that UsuallyThe majority of instances WhenAt the time when DuringDuring such time as MayIs entitled to UntilUntil such time as (8) Use one word and not more if one word will do. E XAMPLE Bad: “Passengers are urged to refrain from smoking.” Good: “No Smoking” The preferred word precedes the phrase to be generally avoided:

84 (9) Use words consistently.  Different words should not be used to express the same meaning and, conversely, the same word should not be used to express different meanings. (10) Allow for some flexibility as to interpretation of the word when necessary.  Some words may be left slightly unclear but must only be done so if discretion as to implementation was intended. Over precision can cause inflexibility to a fault.

85 Legislative Finding: Example 1 Trafficking Victims Protection Act 2000, Sec 102 FINDINGS.—Congress finds that: (1) As the 21st century begins, the degrading institution of slavery continues throughout the world. Trafficking in persons is a modern form of slavery, and it is the largest manifestation of slavery today. At least 700,000 persons annually, primarily women and children, are trafficked within or across international borders. Approximately 50,000 women and children are trafficked into the United States each year. (2) Many of these persons are trafficked into the international sex trade, often by force, fraud, or coercion. The sex industry has rapidly expanded over the past several decades. It involves sexual exploitation of persons, predominantly women and girls, involving activities related to prostitution, pornography, sex tourism, and other commercial sexual services. The low status of women in many parts of the world has contributed to a burgeoning of the trafficking industry. (3) Trafficking in persons is not limited to the sex industry. This growing transnational crime also includes forced labor and involves significant violations of labor, public health, and human rights standards worldwide. (4) Traffickers primarily target women and girls, who are disproportionately affected by poverty, the lack of access to education, chronic unemployment, discrimination, and the lack of economic opportunities in countries of origin. Traffickers lure women and girls into their networks through false promises of decent working conditions at relatively good pay as nannies, maids, dancers, factory workers, restaurant workers, sales clerks, or models. Traffickers also buy children from poor families and sell them into prostitution or into various types of forced or bonded labor. (5) Traffickers often transport victims from their home communities to unfamiliar destinations, including foreign countries away from family and friends, religious institutions, and other sources of protection and support, leaving the victims defenseless and vulnerable. (6) Victims are often forced through physical violence to engage in sex acts or perform slavery-like labor. Such force includes rape and other forms of sexual abuse, torture, starvation, imprisonment, threats, psychological abuse, and coercion. (7) Traffickers often make representations to their victims that physical harm may occur to them or others should the victim escape or attempt to escape. Such representations can have the same coercive effects on victims as direct threats to inflict such harm.

86 (8) Trafficking in persons is increasingly perpetrated by organized, sophisticated criminal enterprises. Such trafficking is the fastest growing source of profits for organized criminal enterprises worldwide. Profits from the trafficking industry contribute to the expansion of organized crime in the United States and worldwide. Trafficking in persons is often aided by official corruption in countries of origin, transit, and destination, thereby threatening the rule of law. (9) Trafficking includes all the elements of the crime of forcible rape when it involves the involuntary participation of another person in sex acts by means of fraud, force, or coercion. (10) Trafficking also involves violations of other laws, including labor and immigration codes and laws against kidnapping, slavery, false imprisonment, assault, battery, pandering, fraud, and extortion. (11) Trafficking exposes victims to serious health risks. Women and children trafficked in the sex industry are exposed to deadly diseases, including HIV and AIDS. Trafficking victims are sometimes worked or physically brutalized to death. (12) Trafficking in persons substantially affects interstate and foreign commerce. Trafficking for such purposes as involuntary servitude, peonage, and other forms of forced labor has an impact on the nationwide employment network and labor market. Within the context of slavery, servitude, and labor or services which are obtained or maintained through coercive conduct that amounts to a condition of servitude, victims are subjected to a range of violations. (13) Involuntary servitude statutes are intended to reach cases in which persons are held in a condition of servitude through nonviolent coercion. In United States v. Kozminski, 487 U.S. 931 (1988), the Supreme Court found that section 1584 of title 18, United States Code, should be narrowly interpreted, absent a definition of involuntary servitude by Congress. As a result, that section was interpreted to criminalize only servitude that is brought about through use or threatened use of physical or legal coercion, and to exclude other conduct that can have the same purpose and effect. (14) Existing legislation and law enforcement in the United States and other countries are inadequate to deter trafficking and bring traffickers to justice, failing to reflect the gravity of the offenses involved. No comprehensive law exists in the United States that penalizes the range of offenses involved in the trafficking scheme. Instead, even the most brutal instances of trafficking in the sex industry are often punished under laws that also apply to lesser offenses, so that traffickers typically escape deserved punishment. (15) In the United States, the seriousness of this crime and its components is not reflected in current sentencing guidelines, resulting in weak penalties for convicted traffickers. (16) In some countries, enforcement against traffickers is also hindered by official indifference, by corruption, and sometimes even by official participation in trafficking.

87 (17) Existing laws often fail to protect victims of trafficking, and because victims are often illegal immigrants in the destination country, they are repeatedly punished more harshly than the traffickers themselves. (18) Additionally, adequate services and facilities do not exist to meet victims’ needs regarding health care, housing, education, and legal assistance, which safely reintegrate trafficking victims into their home countries. (19) Victims of severe forms of trafficking should not be inappropriately incarcerated, fined, or otherwise penalized solely for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked, such as using false documents, entering the country without documentation, or working without documentation. (20) Because victims of trafficking are frequently unfamiliar with the laws, cultures, and languages of the countries into which they have been trafficked, because they are often subjected to coercion and intimidation including physical detention and debt bondage, and because they often fear retribution and forcible removal to countries in which they will face retribution or other hardship, these victims often find it difficult or impossible to report the crimes committed against them or to assist in the investigation and prosecution of such crimes. (21) Trafficking of persons is an evil requiring concerted and vigorous action by countries of origin, transit or destination, and by international organizations. (22) One of the founding documents of the United States, the Declaration of Independence, recognizes the inherent dignity and worth of all people. It states that all men are created equal and that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights. The right to be free from slavery and involuntary servitude is among those unalienable rights. Acknowledging his fact, the United States outlawed slavery and involuntary servitude in 1865, recognizing them as evil institutions that must be abolished. Current practices of sexual slavery and trafficking of women and children are similarly abhorrent to the principles upon which the United States was founded. (23) The United States and the international community agree that trafficking in persons involves grave violations of human rights and is a matter of pressing international concern. The international community has repeatedly condemned slavery and involuntary servitude, violence against women, and other elements of trafficking, through declarations, treaties, and United Nations resolutions and reports, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery; the 1948 American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man; the 1957 Abolition of Forced Labor Convention; the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; United Nations General Assembly Resolutions 50/167, 51/66, and 52/98; the Final Report of the World Congress against Sexual Exploitation of Children (Stockholm, 1996); the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995); and the 1991 Moscow Document of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.

88 (24) Trafficking in persons is a transnational crime with national implications. To deter international trafficking and bring its perpetrators to justice, nations including the United States must recognize that trafficking is a serious offense. This is done by prescribing appropriate punishment, giving priority to the prosecution of trafficking offenses, and protecting rather than punishing the victims of such offenses. The United States must work bilaterally and multilaterally to abolish the trafficking industry by taking steps to promote cooperation among countries linked together by international trafficking routes. The United States must also urge the international community to take strong action in multilateral fora to engage recalcitrant countries in serious and sustained efforts to eliminate trafficking and protect trafficking victims.

89 Legislative Finding: Example 2 Iran and Libya Sanctions Act 1996, Sec 2 FINDINGS. The Congress makes the following findings: (1) The efforts of the Government of Iran to acquire weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them and its support of acts of international terrorism endanger the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States and those countries with which the United States shares common strategic and foreign policy objectives. (2) The objective of preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and acts of international terrorism through existing multilateral and bilateral initiatives requires additional efforts to deny Iran the financial means to sustain its nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile weapons programs. (3) The Government of Iran uses its diplomatic facilities and quasi-governmental institutions outside of Iran to promote acts of international terrorism and assist its nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile weapons programs. (4) The failure of the Government of Libya to comply with Resolutions 731, 748, and 883 of the Security Council of the United Nations, its support of international terrorism, and its efforts to acquire weapons of mass destruction constitute a threat to international peace and security that endangers the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States and those countries with which it shares common strategic and foreign policy objectives.

90 Legislative Policy: Underlying Principles in Investment and Trade 1.Combating Corruption UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST CORRUPTION 2003 Iraq Ratification: 17 Mar 2008 Article 15. Bribery of national public officials Article 16. Bribery of foreign public officials and officials of public international organizations

91 Article 17. Embezzlement, misappropriation or other diversion of property by a public official. Article 18. Trading in influence Article 19. Abuse of functions Article 20. Illicit enrichment

92 Article 21. Bribery in the private sector Article 22. Embezzlement of property in the private sector Article 23. Laundering of proceeds of crime Article 24. Concealment

93 Article 25. Obstruction of justice Article 26. Liability of legal persons Article 27. Participation and attempt Article 28. Knowledge, intent and purpose as elements of an offence

94 Article 29. Statute of limitations Article 30. Prosecution, adjudication and sanctions Article 31. Freezing, seizure and confiscation Article 32. Protection of witnesses, experts and victims

95 Article 33. Protection of reporting persons Article 34. Consequences of acts of corruption Article 35. Compensation for damage Article 36. Specialized authorities

96 Article 37. Cooperation with law enforcement authorities Article 38. Cooperation between national authorities Article 39. Cooperation between national authorities and the private sector Article 40. Bank secrecy

97 Article 41. Criminal record Article 42. Jurisdiction

98 The Principle of Free Competition WTO P RINCIPLES :  Trade without discrimination - 1. Most-favoured-nation (MFN): treating other people equally. 2. National treatment: Treating foreigners and locals equally. Iraq "has all the components to be able to accede" to the Geneva- based multilateral body. Trade Minister Abdul Falah al-Sudany said in a statement after a meeting with U.S. officials in Baghdad, March 2009

99  Freer trade: gradually, through negotiation “Lowering trade barriers is one of the most obvious means of encouraging trade. The barriers concerned include customs duties (or tariffs) and measures such as import bans or quotas that restrict quantities selectively.”  Predictability: through binding and transparency “Sometimes, promising not to raise a trade barrier can be as important as lowering one, because the promise gives businesses a clearer view of their future opportunities. With stability and predictability, investment is encouraged, jobs are created and consumers can fully enjoy the benefits of competition — choice and lower prices.”  Promoting fair competition “The WTO is sometimes described as a “free trade” institution, but that is not entirely accurate. The system does allow tariffs and, in limited circumstances, other forms of protection. More accurately, it is a system of rules dedicated to open, fair and undistorted competition.”  Encouraging development and economic reform “The WTO system contributes to development. On the other hand, developing countries need flexibility in the time they take to implement the system’s agreements. And the agreements themselves inherit the earlier provisions of GATT that allow for special assistance and trade concessions for developing countries.”

100 Legislative Policy: Underlying Principles in the Protection of Human Rights  Gender Equality  Role of Civil Society  Enhancing Participation

101 As a summary analysis of the foregoing reading of international law, the following general international principles on the protection of the rights of persons belonging to minorities may be emphasized: Prohibition against discrimination on the basis of race, national or ethnic origin, religion, thought or belief;  Protection of the basic human rights of an individual and an individual as a member of a group;  A positive obligation upon the State to provide the necessary protective measures to minority groups;  A recognition of ethnic, religious, and linguistic rights of persons belonging to a minority. General International Principles on the Protection of the Rights of Persons Belonging to Minorities

102 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Article One defines “Discrimination” “Discrimination against women shall mean any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.”

103  Distinguishes three types of acts: - Penalty for adultery; - Penalty for a male who commits an act of “honor killing”; - Penalty for crimes of passion.  Exclusions: - Acquiring nationality through the father only; - Exclusion from participating in sports.  Restriction: - Right to travel; - Right to work; - Right to be a judge.  Article One adopts an “effect” or “purpose” test - The act has the effect or purpose of “impairing” or “nullifying” the “recognition” “enjoyment” or “exercise” of the right. A RTICLE 1

104  The legislative Intent at the Time of Drafting the Legislation or the Time of Application.  Methods of Interpretation.  The Defective Legislative Text: Material Error, the Vague Provision, the Incomplete Provision, the Contradictory Provision.  The Material Sources of the Text and the Legislative History.  Interpretation of Criminal Laws: Narrow Interpretation and Avoiding Reasoning by Analogy.  Sexual Harassment. S ESSION 5: I NTERPRETATION OF THE L EGISLATIVE T EXT

105 Legislative Intent Issue: Whether the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits employment discrimination outside the United States? Rule  Legislative Intent must be explicit.  Absent an indication of the intention of Congress, intention shall not be presumed or inferred. Two ways to determine legislative intent: 1.I NTERNAL M ETHOD – The plain words of legislation. 2. E XTERNAL M ETHOD – Legislative History: Early Drafts; Reports of the Drafting Committee’s work.

106 Harassment: “where an unwanted conduct related to the sex of a person occurs with the purpose or effect of violating the dignity of a person, and of creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment” Sexual Harassment: “where any form of unwanted verbal, non-verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature occurs, with the purpose or effect of violating the dignity of a person, in particular when creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment” Harassment: “where an unwanted conduct related to the sex of a person occurs with the purpose or effect of violating the dignity of a person, and of creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment” Sexual Harassment: “where any form of unwanted verbal, non-verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature occurs, with the purpose or effect of violating the dignity of a person, in particular when creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment” Council of Europe Directive 2002/73/EC Sexual Harassment

107 Countries Surveyed that Prohibit Sexual Harassment do so as follows: 35.5 % Gender Equality Legislation 25.8% Penal Codes 25.8% Labor Codes 9.68% Comprehensive Law 3.23% Related Law (E.g. Human Rights Legislation) ** Survey so far incorporates 27 countries: Albania, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belize, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Lithuania, Moldova, Pakistan, Philippines, Slovenia, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine ** Some countries prohibit sexual harassment in more than one type of legislation

108 What Constitutes Sexual Harassment? Algeria: Penal Code, Law 04-15; abusing the authority conferred by one ’ s function or profession in order to give orders to, threaten, impose constraints or exercise pressure on another person for the purpose of obtaining sexual favors. A person convicted is subject to imprisonment of two months to one year and a fine of 50,000 to 100,000 dinars. Armenia: Penal Code, Article 140; “ Forcing a person to engage in sexual intercourse, homosexuality, lesbianism or other sexual actions, by means of black mail, threats to destroy, damage or seize property, or using financial dependence or other dependence of the aggrieved, is punishable by a fine in the amount of 200 to 300 minimal salaries, correctional labor for up to two years, or imprisonment for the term of up to one year ” Azerbaijan: Criminal Code, Article 151; Coercion of the person to the sexual relations, buggery or to committing of other actions of sexual nature by threat of destruction, damage or withdrawal of property or with use of material or other dependency of the victim. Bangladesh: Penal Code Section 509; Intent to insult the modesty of any women, utters any word, make any sound or gesture or exhibits any object, intending that such word or sound shall be heard, or that such gesture or object, shall be seen, by such women, or intrudes upon the privacy of such women, shall by punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine or with both France: Criminal Code 222-33; The act of harassing anyone using orders, threats, or constraint, in order to obtain favors of a sexual nature, by a person abusing the authority that functions confer on him. Greece: Criminal Code, Article 337; The perpetration of indecent gestures or proposals regarding indecent act. Tunisia: Penal Code, Law No. 2004-73; Persistent harassment of another person through humiliating or offensive actions, words or gestures that are intended to cause the victim to submit to one ’ s one sexual overtures or those of a third party or to weaken the victim ’ s efforts to resist those overtures. A person shall be subject to imprisonment of one year, and a fine of three thousand dinars and doubles the punishment where the victim is a child, or a person with mental disabilities. Turkey: Penal Code, Art 105; Exploitation of a hierarchical or work relationship shall be subject to three years imprisonment; considered an aggravated offense. Penal Codes

109 Gender Equality Legislation Bosnia & Herzegovina: Law on Gender Equality, 2003; “ is any behavior that in word, action or psychological effect of a sexual nature in intent or effect inflicts injury on the dignity of a person or gives rise to intimidation, hostility, or demeaning, threatening or similar situations and which is motivated by belonging to another gender or different sexual orientation and which to the victim represents inappropriate physical, verbal, suggestive or other behavior. ” Iceland: Act on the Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men, 2000; “ Sexual behavior that is unreasonable and/or insulting and against the will of those who are subjected to it, and which affects their self-esteem and is continued in spite of a clear indication that this behavior is unwelcome. Behaviour can be physical, oral or symbolic. ” Moldova: Law on Ensuring Equal Opportunities for Women and Men, 2006; “ any form of physical, verbal, or nonverbal behavior, of sexual nature, which abases a person or creates an unpleasant, hostile, degrading, humiliating, or insulting environment. ”

110 Labor Codes Croatia: Labor Act No. 137/2004; “shall mean any verbal, non-verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature intended to, or actually undermining the dignity of a person seeking employment and worker and creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading or offensive environment” Greece: Law No. 3488 Implementing the Principle of Equal Treatment of Men and Women as regards Access of Employment, Vocational Training and Promotion, the terms and conditions of labor, 2006; “when any kind of undesirable verbal, non-verbal or physical behavior of sexual nature is manifested, aiming at or resulting in the insult to an individual’s dignity, especially by creating an intimidating, hostile, ignominious, humiliating or aggressive environment”


112 General Clauses in Agreements - Definitions -The Language Clause - The Applicable Law - The Modification Clause -The Obligations of the parties -The Termination of the agreement - The Enforcement of the Act - Arbitration or Court - Liability and Indemnification

113 World Bank Guidelines on the Treatment of Foreign Direct Investment 1. Disputes between private foreign investors and the host State will normally be settled through negotiations between them and failing this, through national courts or through other agreed mechanisms including conciliation and binding independent arbitration. 2. Independent arbitration for the purpose of this Guideline will include any ad hoc or institutional arbitration agreed upon in writing by the State and the investor or between the State and the investor's home State where the majority of the arbitrators are not solely appointed by one party to the dispute. 3. In case of agreement on independent arbitration, each State is encouraged to accept the settlement of such disputes through arbitration under the Convention establishing the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) if it is a party to the ICSID Convention or through the "ICSID Additional Facility" if it is not a party to the ICSII) Convention. A RBITRATION

114 1. Each State will encourage nationals of other States to invest capital, technology and managerial skill in is territory and, to that end, is expected to admit such investments in accordance with the following provisions. 2. In furtherance of the foregoing principle, each State will: (a)facilitate the admission and establishment of investments by nationals of other States, and (b) avoid making unduly cumbersome or complicated procedural regulations for, or imposing unnecessary conditions on, the admission of such investments. 3. Each State maintains the right to make regulations to govern the admission of private foreign investments. In the formulation and application of such regulations, States will note that experience suggests that certain performance requirements introduced as conditions of admission are often counterproductive and that open admission, possibly subject to a restricted list of investments (which are either prohibited or require screening and licensing), is a more effective approach. Such performance requirements often discourage foreign investors from initiating investment in the State concerned or encourage evasion and corruption. Under the restricted list approach, investments in nonlisted activities, which proceed without approval, remain subject to the laws and regulations applicable to investments in the State concerned. A DMISSION

115 Saudi Arabian Foreign Direct Investment Law







122 Jordan Foreign Direct Investment Law











133 Iraqi FDI Law






















155 S ESSION 7: L EGISLATIVE D RAFTING AND C ONSTITUTIONAL C ONSTRAINTS  Constitutional Legislation versus Ordinary Legislation: The Legislative Delegation.  Iraqi Constitution, ‘legislative delegation’.  Criteria for Unconstitutionality of a Legislation  Case Studies: Freedom of Contract and Arbitration cases, Court Jurisdiction and the Right to Association, Freedom of Movement and Restriction on Wives Travel, and Positive Discrimination in Favor People with Special Needs.

156 T WO TYPES OF M OSLEM C ONSTITUTION 1.I SLAMIC C ONSTITUTION 2. W ESTERN - S TYLE C ONSTITUTION T HAT USES I SLAM F OR C OSMETIC E FFECT In the Name of Allah, most merciful…(Preamble) The people are the source of all power. National sovereignty belongs to the people… The President is required to be a Moslem…(Article 7) Islam is the state religion…(Article 2) Algerian Constitution, 1989 The Islamic Republic is a system based on belief in the one God as stated in the phrase – There is no God except Allah, and his exclusive sovereignty and the right to legislate and the necessity of submission to His commands. Iranian Constitution 1979, Article 2(1)

157 1. Sovereignty is for God  Unlike a secular constitution, it does not derive authority from the people nor require their consent.  It adheres to the elements of constitutionalism as outlined in the Quran and the tradition of the Prophet. Where as sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to Almighty God alone, and the authority to be exercised by the people by Him in a sacred trust. Pakistani Constitution 1973, Preamble Elements of an Islamic Constitution

158 2. Islam as the Religion of the State  Principle of Non- Separation of Mosque and State Al – Islam din wa dawla (1)The State protects Islam, (2)It implements its Shariah, (3)It orders people to do right and to shun evil, (4)It fulfills the duty regarding God’s will Saudi Arabian Basic Law, Article 23  Iran’s Association for the Propagation of Virtue and the Deterrence of Vice (Ali Mutawwain)

159  Fisher v. Immigration and Naturalization Service (1994) Facts: Iranian women successfully convinced the American Judiciary that the fact she was stopped by Iranian government agents because she was not wearing a chador, a veil, was sufficient grounds for religious persecution.

160  Compare to the U.S. “establishment clause” in the First Amendment. -The establishment clause forbids a State religion. -It bars government sponsorship of religion, government financial support of religion, and active involvement of government in religious activities. - A statute should have a secular purpose and a primary effect that neither advances nor inhibits religion (Lemon v Kurtzman 1971). Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

161 3. Declare the supremacy of the Quran and the Sunnah T HREE R ULES : 1.The Islamic Rule has no legislative power. - “Islamic legislation” as declared by God has been confined to the personal status laws as specified in the Quran. - Islamic criminal punishments have been suspended and Islamic economic principles have been ignored. 2. The Quran and the Sunnah are at a higher norm than the Constitution itself. - A constitutional provision may not contradict a provision of the Quran. This (supremacy) principle applies absolutely and generally to all articles of the constitution as well as to all other laws and regulations. Iranian Constitution, Article 4

162 3. Islamic Shari’ah is supreme to any law or regulation. - Thus, principles contained within the Islamic sources constitute the supreme law and provides the basics for invalidating existing and proposed legislation. All civil, penal, financial, economic, administrative, cultural, military, political and other laws and regulations must be based on Islamic criteria. Iranian Constitution, Article 4 All legislation passed by the Islamic Consultative Assembly must be sent to the Guardian Council. Iranian Constitution, Article 94 - The Guardian Council must review all legislation within a maximum of 10 days from its receipt with a view to ensuring its compatibility with Islam and the constitution.

163 Constitutional Review The ability of an independent judiciary to review whether the law is constitutional is an important element of democracy. However, allowing judges to review legislation’s conformity to Islam carries real risks – Should the constitutionality clause be limited to the legislator? The Courts will apply the rules of the Islamic Shari’ah to the cases that are brought before them, in accordance with what is indicated in the Book and the Sunnah and the statutes decreed by the ruler which do not contradict the Book or the Sunnah. Saudi Arabia, Basic Law, Judiciary Article 48 The regulatory authority lays down regulations and motions likely to meet the interests of or remove what is bad in the affairs of the state in accordance with the Islamic Shari’ah. Saudi Arabia, Basic Law, Legislator, Article 67

164 The Saudi Arabian Experience  The policy expressed in the Basic Laws has not always been adhered to… Why? Rapid growth of the Oil industry and commercial activities in the 1950s.

165 F OR E XAMPLE : Saudi Labor Law: Was totally based on the Egyptian Labor Law with the exception that of Article 160: “in no case may men and women commingle in the place of work…” Saudi Commercial Papers Regulation 1963: Incorporated the Geneva Uniform Law of Bills of Exchange (1970) and Checks (1971), but omitted provisions dealing with interest which is prohibited under Islamic law. Saudi Statute of Registration and Trademarks: Was careful to rule out the registration of a trademark which contradicts morality or undermines Islamic decency or religious practices.

166 The Constitutional Clause Islam is the official religion of the union, Islamic Shari’ah shall be a main source of legislation. United Arab Emirates, Constitution, Article 7 (1971)  The Shari’ah is not just a material source of law but also a formal source of law with binding force. Any person caught in a public place or public road in a state of apparent drunkenness should be punished by imprisonment of 2 months to 1 year in addition to a fine… United Arab Emirates, Article 17 of Law No. 8 (1976)  By contrast, the Hadd punishment for the same crime is 80 lashes.  Is Article 17 constitutional?

167 Y ES T HE U NITED A RAB E MIRATES S UPREME C OURT S TATED :  The punishment prescribed in Article 17 is for a special crime of drunkenness in a public place.  For such a crime, a special discretionary punishment is allowed by the Shari’ah.  There is nothing to prohibit the application of the Hadd punishment to Moslems in addition to the Article 17 punishment. ADD TWO ADDITIONAL CASES – ISLAMIC LAW COURSE

168 The Egyptian Experience: Example 1 DECISION: COURT DISAGREED WITH FATHER A ruler may enact rules which achieve public interest, and in the absence of a Quranic verse indicating a complete veil from head to toes, a ruler may require that the veil should not cover a woman’s face since: - where there is no Quranic verse prohibiting a matter, permissibility or Ibah is the norm, and - ijtihad or interpretation is permitted within the limits of the general objectives of the Shariah. Facts: In May 18, 1996 case, an Egyptian father, on behalf of his two daughters, filed a lawsuit against the Secretary of Education asking for a repeal of a decision of the Ministry which stated that a school uniform may include a veil and a female student may not wear a veil which covers her face. The school dismissed the two daughters who insisted on wearing a veil with nothing showing but their eyes. The father argued the unconstitutionality of the decision on the ground that it contradicts Article 2 of the Egyptian constitution which provides that “Islam is the religion of the state and Islamic Sharia is the main source of legislation.

169 The Egyptian Experience: Example 2 DECISION: THE COURT AGREED WITH THE MOTHER The 1938 Regulation was held unconstitutional. The Egyptian pope agreed in a memorandum he submitted to the court he stated that the bible was silent as to the age of custody, and thus this is an issue which should be decided in accordance with the circumstances of the society. He further stated that the orthodox Coptic church of Egypt does not mind a uniform age to achieve equality of all Egyptians. FACTS: Nabil Ramzi filed a lawsuit against his Christian wife, asking for his right to the custody of their child Mathew who reached the age of seven. Under the Christian regulation, custody of a child by the mother terminates when the boy reaches the age of seven and the girl, at the age of nine. The custody of the child is then transferred to the father. The mother, in this case, argued that this provision was unconstitutional because it violated Article 2 of the Egyptian Constitution and that Moslem personal status laws are and should be applicable to all Egyptians, regardless of their religion, and that the application of the 1938 regulation amounts to discrimination between citizens of one country since a Moslem mother may have her child till the age of fifteen or until she gets married, if the child is a female.

170 Iraqi Constitution الديباجة بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم { وَلَقَدْ كَرَّمنَا بَني آدَمَ } نَحْنُ أبناء وادِي الرافدينِ، مَوْطِن الرُسُلِ وَالأنبياءِ، وَمَثْوىَ الأئِمَةِ الأطْهَارِ، وَمَهد الحضارةِ، وَصُنَّاع الكتابةِ، وَرواد الزراعة، وَوُضَّاع التَرقيمِ. عَلَى أرْضِنَا سُنَّ أولُ قانُونٍ وَضَعَهُ الإنْسَان، وفي وَطَنِنا خُطَّ أعْرَقُ عَهْدٍ عَادِلٍ لِسياسةِ الأوْطان، وَفَوقَ تُرابنا صَلَّى الصَحَابةُ والاولياءُ، ونَظَّرَ الفَلاسِفَةُ وَالعُلَمَاءُ، وَأبدَعَ الأُدَباءُ والشُعراءُ. عِرفاناً منَّا بحقِ اللهِ علينا، وتلبيةً لنداءِ وَطَنِنا وَمُواطِنينا، وَاسْتِجَابَةً لدعوةِ قِياداتِنَا الدِينيةِ وَقِوانَا الوَطَنِيةِ وَإصْرَارِ مَراجِعنا العظام وزُعمائنا وَسِياسِيينَا، وَوَسطَ مُؤازَرةٍ عَالميةٍ منْ أَصْدِقائِنا وَمُحبينَا، زَحَفْنا لأولِ مَرةٍ في تاريخِنَا لِصَنادِيقِ الاقتراعِ بالملايين، رجالاً وَنساءً وَشيباً وَشباناً في الثَلاثين منْ شَهرِ كَانُون الثَانِي منْ سَنَةِ أَلْفَين وَخمَْس مِيلادِيَة، مُستذكرينَ مَواجِعَ القَمْعِ الطائفي من قِبَلِ الطُغْمةِ المستبدةِ، ومُسْتلهمين فَجَائعَ شُهداءِ العراقِ شيعةً وسنةً، عرباً وَكورداً وَتُركُماناً، وَمن مُكَوِنَاتِ الشَعبِ جَمِيعِها، وَمُستوحِينَ ظُلامةَ اسْتِبَاحَةِ المُدُنِ المُقَدَسةِ وَالجنُوبِ في الانتِفَاضَةِ الشَعْبانيةِ، وَمُكَتوينَ بِلظى شَجَنِ المَقاَبرِ الجَمَاعيةِ وَالأَهْوارِ وَالدِجيلِ وَغيرها، وَمُسْتَنْطِقينَ عَذاباتِ القَمْعِ القَومي في مَجَازرِ حَلَبْجةَ وَبارزانَ وَالأنْفَال وَالكُوردِ الفَيلِيينَ، وَمُسْتَرجِعينَ مَآسِي التُركُمَانِ في بَشِير، وَمُعَانَاةِ أَهَالي المنْطَقَةِ الغَربيةِ كبقيةِ مَنَاطِقِ العِراقِ منْ تَصْفيةِ قيِاداتها وَرُمُوزها وَشُيوخِها وَتَشريدِ كفاءاتها وَتَجفيفِ مَنابِعها الفِكْرِيَةِ وَالثَقافيةِ، فََسَعينَا يَدَاً بيَدٍ، وَكَتِفاً بِكَتفٍ، لِنَصْنَعَ عِراقَنَا الجَديدَ، عِراقَ المُسْتَقبلِ، منْ دونِ نعرةٍ طَائِفِيةٍ، وَلا نَـزْعَةٍ عُنْصُريةٍ، وَلا عُقْدَةٍ مَنَاطِقِيةٍ، وَلا تَمْييز، وَلا إقْصَاء.

171 لمْ يُثْنِنِا التكفيرُ والإرهابُ من أن نَمْضِيَ قُدُماً لبناءِ دَوْلةِ القانونِ، وَلَم تُوقِفْنَا الطَائِفِيَةُ وَالعُنْصُريةُ منْ أَنْ نَسيرَ مَعَاً لِتَعْزِيزِ الوحْدَةِ الوَطَنيةِ، وَانْتِهَاجِ سُبُلِ التَداولِ السِلْمي لِلسُلْطَةِ، وَتَبْني أسْلُوب التَوزيعِ العَادِلِ لِلِثَروْةِ، ومَنْحِ تَكَافُؤ الفُرَصِ للجَمْيع. نَحنُ شَعْب العراقِ الناهضِ تَوَّاً من كبْوَتهِ، والمتَطلعِّ بثقةٍ الى مستقبلهِ من خِلالِ نِظاَمٍ جُمهورِيٍ إتحاديٍ ديمقْراطيٍ تَعْددُّيٍ، عَقَدَنا العزمَ برجالنا ونِسائنا، وشُيوخنا وشبابنا، على احْتِرامِ قَوَاعدِ القَانُون، وَتحقيقِ العَدْلِ وَالمساواة، وَنبْذِ سِياسَةِ العُدوان، والاهْتِمَام بِالمَرْأةِ وحُقُوقِهَا، والشَيْخِ وهُمُومهِ، والطِفْلِ وشُؤُونه، وإشَاعَةِ ثَقَافةِ التَنَوعِ، ونَزْعِ فَتِيلِ الإرهاب. نحنُ شَعْب العراقِ الذي آلى على نَفْسهِ بكلِ مُكَونِاتهِ وأطْياَفهِ أنْ يُقَررَ بحريتهِ واختيارهِ الاتحادَ بنفسهِ، وأن يَتَّعِظَ لِغَدِهِ بأمسهِ، وأن يَسُنَّ من مِنْظُومَةِ القيمِ والمُثُلِ العليا لِرسَالاتِ السَماءِ ومِنْ مسْتَجداتِ عِلْمِ وحَضَارةِ الإنْسَانِ هذا الدُسْتورَ الدائمَ. إنَّ الالتزامَ بهذا الدُسْتورِ يَحفَظُ للعراقِ اتحادَهُ الحُرَ شَعْبَاً وأرْضَاً وسَيادةً. الباب الاول المبادئ الاساسية المادة (1): جمهورية العراق دولةٌ اتحاديةٌ واحدةٌ مستقلةٌ ذات سيادة كاملة، نظام الحكم فيها جمهوريٌ نيابيٌ (برلماني) ديمقراطيٌ، وهذا الدستور ضامنٌ لوحدة العراق. المادة (2): اولاً :ـ الاسلام دين الدولة الرسمي، وهو مصدرٌ اساس للتشريع: أ ـ لا يجوز سن قانونٍ يتعارض مع ثوابت احكام الاسلام. ب ـ لا يجوز سن قانونٍ يتعارض مع مبادئ الديمقراطية. ج ـ لا يجوز سن قانونٍ يتعارض مع الحقوق والحريات الاساسية الواردة في هذا الدستور. ثانياً :ـ يضمن هذا الدستور الحفاظ على الهوية الاسلامية لغالبية الشعب العراقي، كما ويضمن كامل الحقوق الدينية لجميع الافراد في حرية العقيدة والممارسة الدينية، كالمسيحيين، والايزديين، والصابئة المندائيين.

172 المادة (3): العراق بلدٌ متعدد القوميات والأديان والمذاهب، وهو عضوٌ مؤسسٌ وفعال في جامعة الدول العربية ومتلزمٌ بميثاقها، وجزءٌ من العالم الإسلامي. المادة (4): اولاً :ـ اللغة العربية واللغة الكردية هما اللغتان الرسميتان للعراق، ويضمن حق العراقيين بتعليم ابنائهم باللغة الام كالتركمانية، والسريانية، والارمنية، في المؤسسات التعليمية الحكومية، وفقاً للضوابط التربوية، او بأية لغة اخرى في المؤسسات التعليمية الخاصة. ثانياً :ـ يحدد نطاق المصطلح لغة رسمية، وكيفية تطبيق احكام هذه المادة بقانونٍ يشمل: أ ـ اصدار الجريدة الرسمية باللغتين. ب ـ التكلم والمخاطبة والتعبير في المجالات الرسمية كمجلس النواب، ومجلس الوزراء، والمحاكم، والمؤتمرات الرسمية، بأيٍ من اللغتين. ج ـ الاعتراف بالوثائق الرسمية والمراسلات باللغتين واصدار الوثائق الرسمية بهما. د ـ فتح مدارس باللغتين وفقاً للضوابط التربوية. ﻫ ـ اية مجالات اخرى يحتمها مبدأ المساواة، مثل الاوراق النقدية، وجوازات السفر، والطوابع. ثالثاً: ـ تستعمل المؤسسات الاتحادية والمؤسسات الرسمية في اقليم كردستان اللغتين. رابعاً: ـ اللغة التركمانية واللغة السريانية لغتان رسميتان أخريان في الوحدات الادارية التي يشكلون فيها كثافةً سكانية. خامساً: ـ لكل اقليمٍ او محافظةٍ اتخاذ اية لغة محلية اخرى، لغةً رسمية اضافية، اذا اقرت غالبية سكانها ذلك باستفتاءٍ عام.

173 المادة (5): السيادة للقانون، والشعب مصدر السلطات وشرعيتها، يمارسها بالاقتراع السري العام المباشر وعبر مؤسساته الدستورية. المادة (6): يتم تداول السلطة سلمياً، عبر الوسائل الديمقراطية المنصوص عليها في هذا الدستور. المادة (7): اولاً :ـ يحظر كل كيانٍ او نهجٍ يتبنى العنصرية او الارهاب او التكفير أو التطهير الطائفي، او يحرض أو يمهد أو يمجد او يروج أو يبرر له، وبخاصة البعث الصدامي في العراق ورموزه، وتحت أي مسمىً كان، ولا يجوز ان يكون ذلك ضمن التعددية السياسية في العراق، وينظم ذلك بقانون. ثانياً : ـ تلتزم الدولة بمحاربة الارهاب بجميع اشكاله، وتعمل على حماية اراضيها من ان تكون مقراً أو ممراً أو ساحةً لنشاطه. المادة (8): يرعى العراق مبدأ حسن الجوار، ويلتزم بعدم التدخل في الشؤون الداخلية للدول الاخرى، ويسعى لحل النـزاعات بالوسائل السلمية، ويقيم علاقاته على اساس المصالح المشتركة والتعامل بالمثل، ويحترم إلتزاماته الدولية. المادة (9 ): اولاً :ـ أـ تتكون القوات المسلحة العراقية والاجهزة الامنية من مكونات الشعب العراقي، بما يراعي توازنها وتماثلها دون تمييزٍ او اقصاء، وتخضع لقيادة السلطة المدنية، وتدافع عن العراق، ولا تكون اداةً لقمع الشعب العراقي، ولا تتدخل في الشؤون السياسية، ولا دور لها في تداول السلطة. ب ـ يحظر تكوين ميليشيات عسكرية خارج اطار القوات المسلحة.

174 ج ـ لا يجوز للقوات المسلحة العراقية و أفرادها، و بضمنهم العسكريون العاملون في وزارة الدفاع أو أية دوائر أو منظمات تابعة لها، الترشيح في انتخاباتٍ لإشغال مراكز سياسية، ولا يجوز لهم القيام بحملات انتخابية لصالح مرشحين فيها، ولا المشاركة في غير ذلك من الاعمال التي تمنعها انظمة وزارة الدفاع، ويشمل عدم الجواز هذا انشطة اولئك الافراد المذكورين آنفاً التي يقومون بها بصفتهم الشخصية او الوظيفية، دون ان يشمل ذلك حقهم بالتصويت في الانتخابات. د ـ يقوم جهاز المخابرات الوطني العراقي بجمع المعلومات، وتقويم التهديدات الموجهة للأمن الوطني، وتقديم المشورة للحكومة العراقية، ويكون تحت السيطرة المدنية، ويخضع لرقابة السلطة التشريعية، ويعمل وفقاً للقانون، وبموجب مبادئ حقوق الانسان المعترف بها. ﻫ ـ تحترم الحكومة العراقية، وتنفذ، التزامات العراق الدولية الخاصة بمنع انتشار وتطوير وإنتاج واستخدام الاسلحة النووية والكيميائية والبيولوجية، ويُمنع ما يتصل بتطويرها وتصنيعها وانتاجها واستخدامها من معداتٍ ومواد وتكنولوجيا وأنظمةٍ للاتصال. ثانياً :ـ تنظم خدمة العلم بقانون. المادة (10): العتبات المقدسة، والمقامات الدينية في العراق، كياناتٌ دينيةٌ وحضارية، وتلتزم الدولة بتأكيد وصيانة حرمتها، وضمان ممارسة الشعائر بحرية فيها. المادة (11): بغداد عاصمة جمهورية العراق. المادة (12): اولاً :ـ ينظم بقانونٍ، علم العراق وشعاره ونشيده الوطني بما يرمز الى مكونات الشعب العراقي. ثانياً :ـ تنظم بقانونٍ، الاوسمة والعطلات الرسمية والمناسبات الدينية والوطنية والتقويم الهجري والميلادي. المادة (13): اولاً :ـ يُعدُ هذا الدستور القانون الاسمى والاعلى في العراق، ويكون ملزماً في انحائه كافة، وبدون استثناء. ثانياً :ـ لا يجوز سن قانونٍ يتعارض مع هذا الدستور، ويُعد باطلاً كل نصٍ يرد في دساتير الاقاليم، او أي نصٍ قانونيٍ آخر يتعارض معه.

175 الباب الثاني الحقوق والحريات الفصل الأول [ الحقوق ] الفرع الأول :ـ الحقوق المدنية والسياسية المادة (14): العراقيون متساوون أمام القانون دون تمييزٍ بسبب الجنس أو العرق أو القومية أو الأصل أو اللون أو الدين أو المذهب أو المعتقد أو الرأي أو الوضع الاقتصادي أو الاجتماعي. المادة (15): لكل فردٍ الحق في الحياة والأمن والحرية، ولا يجوز الحرمان من هذه الحقوق أو تقييدها إلا وفقاً للقانون، وبناءً على قرارٍ صادرٍ من جهةٍ قضائيةٍ مختصة. المادة (16): تكافؤ الفرص حقٌ مكفولٌ لجميع العراقيين، وتكفل الدولة اتخاذ الإجراءات اللازمة لتحقيق ذلك. المادة (17): اولاً : ـ لكل فردٍ الحق في الخصوصية الشخصية، بما لا يتنافى مع حقوق الآخرين، والآداب العامة. ثانياً :ـ حرمة المساكن مصونةٌ، ولا يجوز دخولها او تفتيشها او التعرض لها الا بقرارٍ قضائي، ووفقاً للقانون. المادة (18): اولاً :ـ الجنسية العراقية حقٌ لكل عراقي، وهي أساس مواطنته. ثانياً :ـ يعدُ عراقياً كل من ولد لأبٍ عراقي أو لاُمٍ عراقية،وينظم ذلك بقانون. ثالثاً :ـ

176 أـ يحظر إسقاط الجنسية العراقية عن العراقي بالولادة لأي سببٍ من الأسباب، ويحق لمن اسقطت عنه طلب استعادتها، وينظم ذلك بقانون. ب ـ تسحب الجنسية العراقية من المتجنس بها في الحالات التي ينص عليها القانون. رابعاً :ـ يجوز تعدد الجنسية للعراقي، وعلى من يتولى منصباً سيادياً أو امنياً رفيعاً، التخلي عن اية جنسيةٍ اخرى مكتسبة، وينظم ذلك بقانون. خامساًً :ـ لا تمنح الجنسية العراقية لأغراض سياسة التوطين السكاني المخل بالتركيبة السكانية في العراق. سادساً :ـ تنظم أحكام الجنسية بقانونٍ، وينظر في الدعاوى الناشئة عنها من قبل المحاكم المختصة. المادة (19): أولاً :ـ القضاء مستقل لا سلطان عليه لغير القانون. ثانياً :ـ لا جريمة ولا عقوبة إلا بنص، ولا عقوبة إلا على الفعل الذي يعده القانون وقت اقترافه جريمة، ولا يجوز تطبيق عقوبة اشد من العقوبة النافذة وقت ارتكاب الجريمة. ثالثاً :ـ التقاضي حقٌ مصونٌ ومكفولٌ للجميع. رابعاً :ـ حق الدفاع مقدسٌ ومكفولٌ في جميع مراحل التحقيق والمحاكمة. خامساً :ـ المتهم بريء حتى تثبت إدانته في محاكمةٍ قانونيةٍ عادلةٍ، ولا يحاكم المتهم عن التهمة ذاتها مرةً أخرى بعد الإفراج عنه، إلا إذا ظهرت أدلةٌ جديدة. سادساً :ـ لكل فردٍ الحق في أن يعامل معاملةً عادلةً في الإجراءات القضائية والإدارية. سابعاً :ـ جلسات المحاكم علنيةٌ إلا إذا قررت المحكمة جعلها سريةً. ثامناً :ـ العقوبة شخصيةٌ. تاسعاً :ـ ليس للقوانين اثرٌ رجعي ما لم يُنص على خلاف ذلك، ولا يشمل هذا الاستثناء قوانين الضرائب والرسوم. عاشراً :ـ لا يسرى القانون الجزائي بأثرٍ رجعي إلا إذا كان أصلحَ للمتهم. حادي عشر :ـ تنتدب المحكمة محامياً للدفاع عن المتهم بجنايةٍ أو جنحةٍ لمن ليس له محامٍ يدافع عنه، وعلى نفقة الدولة.

177 ثاني عشر :ـ أ ـ يحظر الحجز. ب ـ لا يجوز الحبس أو التوقيف في غير الأماكن المخصصة لذلك وفقاً لقوانين السجون المشمولة بالرعاية الصحية والاجتماعية والخاضعة لسلطات الدولة. ثالث عشر :ـ تعرض أوراق التحقيق الابتدائي على القاضي المختص خلال مدة لا تتجاوز أربعاً وعشرين ساعة من حين القبض على المتهم، ولا يجوز تمديدها إلا مرة واحدة وللمدة ذاتها. المادة (20): للمواطنين رجالاً ونساءً، حق المشاركة في الشؤون العامة، والتمتع بالحقوق السياسية، بما فيها حق التصويت والانتخاب والترشيح. المادة (21): أولاً :ـ يحظر تسليم العراقي الى الجهات والسلطات الاجنبية. ثانياً :ـ ينظم حق اللجوء السياسي إلى العراق بقانونٍ، ولا يجوز تسليم اللاجئ السياسي إلى جهةٍ أجنبية، أو إعادته قسراً إلى البلد الذي فرّ منه. ثالثاً :ـ لا يمنح حق اللجوء السياسي إلى المتهم بارتكاب جرائم دولية أو إرهابية، أو كل من الحقَ ضرراً بالعراق. الفرع الثاني :ـ الحقوق الاقتصادية والاجتماعية والثقافية المادة (22): اولاً :ـ العمل حقٌ لكل العراقيين بما يضمن لهم حياةً كريمةً. ثانياً :ـ ينظم القانون، العلاقة بين العمال واصحاب العمل على اسسٍ اقتصادية، مع مراعاة قواعد العدالة الاجتماعية. ثالثاً :ـ تكفل الدولة حق تأسيس النقابات والاتحادات المهنية، أو الانضمام إليها، وينظم ذلك بقانون.

178 المادة ( 23): أولاً :ـ الملكية الخاصة مصونةٌ، ويحق للمالك الانتفاع بها واستغلالها والتصرف بها، في حدود القانون. ثانياً :ـ لا يجوز نزع الملكية إلا لأغراض المنفعة العامة مقابل تعويضٍ عادل، وينظم ذلك بقانون. ثالثاً :ـ أ ـ للعراقي الحق في التملك في أي مكانٍ في العراق، ولا يجوز لغيره تملك غير المنقول، الا ما استثني بقانون. ب ـ يحظر التملك لاغراض التغيير السكاني. المادة (24): تكفل الدولة حرية الانتقال للأيدي العاملة والبضائع ورؤوس الاموال العراقية بين الاقاليم والمحافظات، وينظم ذلك بقانون. المادة (25): تكفل الدولة اصلاح الاقتصاد العراقي وفق اسسٍ اقتصاديةٍ حديثة وبما يضمن استثمار كامل موارده، وتنويع مصادره، وتشجيع القطاع الخاص وتنميته. المادة (26): تكفل الدولة تشجيع الاستثمارات في القطاعات المختلفة، وينظم ذلك بقانون. المادة (27): اولاً :ـ للأموال العامة حُرمة، وحمايتها واجِب على كل مواطن. ثانياً :ـ تنظم بقانونٍ، الاحكام الخاصة بحفظ املاك الدولة وادارتها وشروط التصرف فيها، والحدود التي لا يجوز فيها النـزول عن شيءٍ من هذه الاموال.

179 المادة (28): اولاً :ـ لا تفرض الضرائب والرسوم، ولا تعدل، ولا تجبى، ولا يعفى منها، إلا بقانون. ثانياً :ـ يعفى اصحاب الدخول المنخفضة من الضرائب، بما يكفل عدم المساس بالحد الادنى اللازم للمعيشة، وينظم ذلك بقانون. المادة (29): أولاًً :ـ أـ الأسرة أساس المجتمع، وتحافظ الدولة على كيانها وقيمها الدينية والأخلاقية والوطنية. ب ـ تكفل الدولة حماية الأمومة والطفولة والشيخوخة، وترعى النشئ والشباب، وتوفر لهم الظروف المناسبة لتنمية ملكاتهم وقدراتهم. ثانياً :ـ للأولاد حقٌ على والديهم في التربية والرعاية والتعليم، وللوالدين حقٌ على أولادهم في الاحترام والرعاية، ولاسيما في حالات العوز والعجز والشيخوخة. ثالثاً :ـ يحظر الاستغلال الاقتصادي للأطفال بصورهِ كافة، وتتخذ الدولة الإجراءات الكفيلة بحمايتهم. رابعاً :ـ تمنع كل أشكال العنف والتعسف في الأسرة والمدرسة والمجتمع. المادة (30): أولاً :ـ تكفل الدولة للفرد وللأسرة ـ وبخاصة الطفل والمرأة ـ الضمان الاجتماعي والصحي، والمقومات الأساسية للعيش في حياةٍ حرةٍ كريمة، تؤمن لهم الدخل المناسب، والسكن الملائم. ثانياً :ـ تكفل الدولة الضمان الاجتماعي والصحي للعراقيين في حال الشيخوخة أو المرض أو العجز عن العمل أو التشرد أو اليتم أو البطالة، وتعمل على وقايتهم من الجهل والخوف والفاقة، وتوفر لهم السكن والمناهج الخاصة لتأهيلهم والعناية بهم ، وينظم ذلك بقانون.

180 المادة (31): اولاً :ـ لكل عراقي الحق في الرعاية الصحية، وتعنى الدولة بالصحة العامة، وتكفل وسائل الوقاية والعلاج بإنشاء مختلف أنواع المستشفيات والمؤسسات الصحية. ثانياً :ـ للأفراد والهيئات إنشاء مستشفياتٍ أو مستوصفاتٍ أو دور علاجٍ خاصة، وبإشرافٍ من الدولة، وينظم ذلك بقانون. المادة (32): ترعى الدولة المعاقين وذوي الاحتياجات الخاصة، وتكفل تأهيلهم بغية دمجهم في المجتمع، وينظم ذلك بقانون. المادة (33): أولاً :ـ لكل فرد حق العيش في ظروفٍ بيئيةٍ سليمة. ثانياً :ـ تكفل الدولة حماية البيئة والتنوع الاحيائي والحفاظ عليهما. المادة (34): أولاً :ـ التعليم عاملٌ أساس لتقدم المجتمع وحقٌ تكفله الدولة، وهو إلزاميٌ في المرحلة الابتدائية، وتكفل الدولة مكافحة الأمية. ثانياً :ـ التعليم المجاني حقٌ لكل العراقيين في مختلف مراحله. ثالثاً :ـ تشجع الدولة البحث العلمي للاغراض السلمية بما يخدم الإنسانية، وترعى التفوق والإبداع والابتكار ومختلف مظاهر النبوغ. رابعاً :ـ التعليم الخاص والاهلي مكفولٌ، وينظم بقانون. المادة (35 ) : ترعى الدولة النشاطات والمؤسسات الثقافية بما يتناسب مع تاريخ العراق الحضاري والثقافي، وتحرص على اعتماد توجهاتٍ ثقافيةٍ عراقيةٍ اصيلة. المادة (36): ممارسة الرياضة حقٌ لكل فرد ، وعلى الدولة تشجيع انشطتها ورعايتها، وتوفير مستلزماتها.

181 الفصل الثاني [ الحريات ] المادة ( 37 ): أولاً :ـ أ ـ حرية الإنسان وكرامته مصونةٌ. ب ـ لا يجوز توقيف أحد أو التحقيق معه إلا بموجب قرارٍ قضائي. ج ـ يحرم جميع أنواع التعذيب النفسي والجسدي والمعاملة غير الإنسانية، ولا عبرة بأي اعتراف انتزع بالإكراه أو التهديد أو التعذيب، وللمتضرر المطالبة بالتعويض عن الضرر المادي والمعنوي الذي أصابه وفقاً للقانون. ثانياً :ـ تكفل الدولة حماية الفرد من الإكراه الفكري والسياسي والديني. ثالثاً :ـ يحرم العمل القسري ( السخرة )، والعبودية وتجارة العبيد ( الرقيق )، ويحرم الاتجار بالنساء والأطفال، و الاتجار بالجنس. المادة (38): تكفل الدولة، بما لا يخل بالنظام العام والآداب: اولاً :ـ حرية التعبير عن الرأي بكل الوسائل. ثانياً :ـ حرية الصحافة والطباعة والإعلان والإعلام والنشر. ثالثاً :ـ حرية الاجتماع والتظاهر السلمي، وتنظم بقانون. المادة (39): اولاً :ـ حرية تأسيس الجمعيات والاحزاب السياسية، او الانضمام اليها، مكفولةٌ، وينظم ذلك بقانون. ثانياً :ـ لا يجوز اجبار أحدٍ على الانضمام الى اي حزبٍ او جمعيةٍ أو جهةٍ سياسية، او اجباره على الاستمرار في العضوية فيها. المادة (40): حرية الاتصالات والمراسلات البريدية والبرقية والهاتفية والالكترونية وغيرها مكفولةٌ، ولا يجوز مراقبتها أو التنصت عليها، أو الكشف عنها، إلا لضرورةٍ قانونيةٍ وأمنية، وبقرارٍ قضائي.

182 المادة (41): العراقيون احرارٌ في الالتزام باحوالهم الشخصية، حسب دياناتهم أو مذاهبهم أو معتقداتهم أو اختياراتهم، وينظم ذلك بقانون. المادة (42): لكل فرد حرية الفكر والضمير والعقيدة. المادة (43): اولاً :ـ اتباع كل دينٍ او مذهبٍ احرارٌ في: أ ـ ممارسة الشعائر الدينية، بما فيها الشعائر الحسينية. ب ـ ادارة الاوقاف وشؤونها ومؤسساتها الدينية، وينظم ذلك بقانون. ثانياً :ـ تكفل الدولة حرية العبادة وحماية اماكنها. المادة (44): أولاً :ـ للعراقي حرية التنقل والسفر والسكن داخل العراق وخارجه. ثانياً :ـ لا يجوز نفي العراقي، أو إبعاده، أو حرمانه من العودة إلى الوطن. المادة (45): اولاً :ـ تحرص الدولة على تعزيز دور مؤسسات المجتمع المدني، ودعمها وتطويرها واستقلاليتها، بما ينسجم مع الوسائل السلمية لتحقيق الأهداف المشروعة لها، وينظم ذلك بقانون. ثانياً :ـ تحرص الدولة على النهوض بالقبائل والعشائر العراقية، وتهتم بشؤونها بما ينسجم مع الدين والقانون، وتعزز قيمها الإنسانية النبيلة، بما يساهم في تطوير المجتمع، وتمنع الاعراف العشائرية التي تتنافى مع حقوق الانسان. المادة (46): لا يكون تقييد ممارسة أيٍ من الحقوق والحريات الواردة في هذا الدستور أو تحديدها الا بقانون أو بناءً عليه، على ان لا يمس ذلك التحديد والتقييد جوهر الحق أو الحرية.

183 الباب الثالث السلطات الاتحادية المادة (47): تتكون السلطات الاتحادية، من السلطات التشريعية والتنفيذية والقضائية، تمارس اختصاصاتها ومهماتها على اساس مبدأ الفصل بين السلطات. الفصل الاول [ السلطة التشريعية ] المادة (48): تتكون السلطة التشريعية الاتحادية من مجلس النواب ومجلس الاتحاد. الفرع الأول :ـ مجلس النواب المادة (49): اولاً :ـ يتكون مجلس النواب من عدد من الاعضاء بنسبة مقعد واحد لكل مائة ألف نسمة من نفوس العراق يمثلون الشعب العراقي بأكمله، يتم انتخابهم بطريق الاقتراع العام السري المباشر، ويراعى تمثيل سائر مكونات الشعب فيه. ثانياً :ـ يشترط في المرشح لعضوية مجلس النواب ان يكون عراقياً كامل الاهلية. ثالثاً :ـ تنظم بقانونٍ، شروط المرشح والناخب وكل ما يتعلق بالانتخاب. رابعاً :ـ يستهدف قانون الانتخابات تحقيق نسبة تمثيل للنساء لا تقل عن الربع من عدد اعضاء مجلس النواب. خامساً :ـ يقوم مجلس النواب بسنِ قانونٍ يعالج حالات استبدال اعضائه عند الاستقالة أو الاقالة أو الوفاة. سادساً :ـ لا يجوز الجمع بين عضوية مجلس النواب، وأي عملٍ، أو منصبٍ رسمي آخر.

184 المادة (50): يؤدي عضو مجلس النواب اليمين الدستورية امام المجلس، قبل ان يباشر عمله، بالصيغة الآتية: ( اُقسم بالله العلي العظيم، أن اؤدي مهماتي ومسؤولياتي القانونية، بتفانٍ واخلاص، وان احافظ على استقلال العراق وسيادته، وارعى مصالح شعبه، وأسهر على سلامة أرضه وسمائه ومياهه وثرواته ونظامه الديمقراطي الاتحادي، وان أعمل على صيانة الحريات العامة والخاصة، واستقلال القضاء، والتزم بتطبيق التشريعات بامانةٍ وحياد، والله على ما اقول شهيد). المادة (51): يضع مجلس النواب نظاماً داخلياً له لتنظيم سير العمل فيه. المادة (52): اولاً :ـ يبت مجلس النواب في صحة عضوية اعضائه، خلال ثلاثين يوماً من تاريخ تسجيل الاعتراض، بأغلبية ثلثي اعضائه. ثانياً :ـ يجوز الطعن في قرار المجلس امام المحكمة الاتحادية العليا، خلال ثلاثين يوماً من تاريخ صدوره. المادة (53): اولاً :ـ تكون جلسات مجلس النواب علنيةً الا اذا ارتأى لضرورةٍ خلاف ذلك. ثانياً :ـ تنشر محاضر الجلسات بالوسائل التي يراها المجلس مناسبةً. المادة (54): يدعو رئيس الجمهورية مجلس النواب للانعقاد بمرسومٍ جمهوري، خلال خمسة عشرَ يوماً من تاريخ المصادقة على نتائج الانتخابات العامة، وتعقد الجلسة برئاسة اكبر الاعضاء سناً لانتخاب رئيس المجلس ونائبيه، ولا يجوز التمديد لاكثر من المدة المذكورة آنفاً. المادة (55): ينتخب مجلس النواب في أول جلسةٍ له رئيساً، ثم نائباً أول ونائباً ثانياً، بالاغلبية المطلقة لعدد اعضاء المجلس، بالانتخاب السري المباشر.

185 المادة (56): اولاً :ـ تكون مدة الدورة الانتخابية لمجلس النواب أربع سنواتٍ تقويمية، تبدأ بأول جلسةٍ له، وتنتهي بنهاية السنة الرابعة. ثانياً :ـ يجري انتخاب مجلس النواب الجديد قبل خمسةٍ واربعين يوماً من تاريخ انتهاء الدورة الانتخابية السابقة. المادة (57): لمجلس النواب دورة انعقاد سنوية بفصلين تشريعيين امدهما ثمانية أشهر، يحدد النظام الداخلي كيفية انعقادهما، ولا ينتهي فصل الانعقاد الذي تعرض فيه الموازنة العامة الا بعد الموافقة عليها. المادة (58): اولاً :ـ لرئيس الجمهورية، أو لرئيس مجلس الوزراء، أو لرئيس مجلس النواب، أو لخمسين عضواً من اعضاء المجلس، دعوة مجلس النواب إلى جلسةٍ استثنائية، ويكون الاجتماع مقتصراً على الموضوعات التي اوجبت الدعوة اليه. ثانياً :ـ يتم تمديد الفصل التشريعي لدورة انعقاد مجلس النواب بما لا يزيد على ثلاثين يوماً، لانجاز المهمات التي تستدعي ذلك، بناءً على طلبٍ من رئيس الجمهورية، او رئيس مجلس الوزراء، او رئيس مجلس النواب، او خمسين عضواً من اعضاء المجلس. المادة (59): اولاً: ـ يتحقق نصاب انعقاد جلسات مجلس النواب بحضور الاغلبية المطلقة لعدد اعضائه. ثانياً ـ تتخذ القرارات في جلسات مجلس النواب بالاغلبية البسيطة، بعد تحقق النصاب، ما لم يُنص على خلاف ذلك. المادة (60 ): أولاً ـ مشروعات القوانبن تقدم من رئيس الجمهورية ومجلس الوزراء. ثانياً ـ مقترحات القوانين تقدم من عشرةٍ من اعضاء مجلس النواب، أو من احدى لجانه المختصة.

186 المادة (61): يختص مجلس النواب بما يأتي: اولاً :ـ تشريع القوانين الاتحادية. ثانياً :ـ الرقابة على اداء السلطة التنفيذية. ثالثاً :ـ انتخاب رئيس الجمهورية. رابعاً :ـ تنظيم عملية المصادقة على المعاهدات والاتفاقيات الدولية، بقانونٍ يسن بأغلبية ثلثي اعضاء مجلس النواب. خامساً :ـ الموافقة على تعيين كلٍ من: أـ رئيس واعضاء محكمة التمييز الاتحادية، ورئيس الادعاء العام، ورئيس هيئة الاشراف القضائي، بالاغلبية المطلقة، بناءً على اقتراحٍ من مجلس القضاء الاعلى. ب ـ السفراء واصحاب الدرجات الخاصة، بأقتراحٍ من مجلس الوزراء. ج ـ رئيس اركان الجيش، ومعاونيه، ومن هم بمنصب قائد فرقة فما فوق، ورئيس جهاز المخابرات، بناءاً على اقتراحٍ من مجلس الوزراء. سادساً :ـ أ ـ مساءلة رئيس الجمهورية بناءً على طلبٍ مسبب، بالاغلبية المطلقة لعدد اعضاء مجلس النواب. ب ـ اعفاء رئيس الجمهورية، بالاغلبية المطلقة لعدد اعضاء مجلس النواب، بعد ادانته من المحكمة الاتحادية العليا، في احدى الحالات الآتية: 1ـ الحنث في اليمين الدستورية. 2ـ انتهاك الدستور. 3 ـ الخيانة العظمى.

187 سابعاً :ـ أـ لعضو مجلس النواب ان يوجه الى رئيس مجلس الوزراء والوزراء، اسئلةً في اي موضوع يدخل في اختصاصهم، ولكلٍ منهم الاجابة عن اسئلة الاعضاء، وللسائل وحده حق التعقيب على الاجابة. ب ـ يجوز لخمسةٍ وعشرين عضواً في الاقل من اعضاء مجلس النواب، طرح موضوع عام للمناقشة، لاستيضاح سياسة واداء مجلس الوزراء، او احدى الوزارات، ويقدم الى رئيس مجلس النواب، ويحدد رئيس مجلس الوزراء او الوزراء موعداً للحضور امام مجلس النواب لمناقشته. ج ـ لعضو مجلس النواب، وبموافقة خمسةٍ وعشرين عضواً، توجيه استجوابٍ الى رئيس مجلس الوزراء او الوزراء، لمحاسبتهم في الشؤون التي تدخل في اختصاصهم، ولا تجري المناقشة في الاستجواب الا بعد سبعة ايام في الاقل من تقديمه. ثامناً :ـ أـ لمجلس النواب سحب الثقة من احد الوزراء بالأغلبية المطلقة، ويُعد مستقيلاً من تاريخ قرار سحب الثقة، ولا يجوز طرح موضوع الثقة بالوزير الا بناءً على رغبته، او طلبٍ موقع من خمسين عضواً، اثر مناقشة استجوابٍ موجهٍ اليه، ولا يصدر المجلس قراره في الطلب الا بعد سبعة ايام في الاقل من تأريخ تقديمه. ب ـ 1ـ لرئيس الجمهورية، تقديم طلبٍ الى مجلس النواب بسحب الثقة من رئيس مجلس الوزراء. 2ـ لمجلس النواب، بناءً على طلب خُمس (1/5) اعضائه سحب الثقة من رئيس مجلس الوزراء، ولا يجوز ان يقدم هذا الطلب الا بعد استجوابٍ موجهٍ الى رئيس مجلس الوزراء، وبعد سبعة ايام في الاقل من تقديم الطلب. 3ـ يقرر مجلس النواب سحب الثقة من رئيس مجلس الوزراء بالأغلبية المطلقة لعدد اعضائه.

188 ج ـ تُعدُ الوزارة مستقيلةً في حالة سحب الثقة من رئيس مجلس الوزراء. د ـ في حالة التصويت بسحب الثقة من مجلس الوزراء بأكمله، يستمر رئيس مجلس الوزراء والوزراء في مناصبهم لتصريف الامور اليومية، لمدة لا تزيد على ثلاثين يوماً، الى حين تأليف مجلس الوزراء الجديد وفقاً لاحكام المادة (76) من هذا الدستور. ﻫ ـ لمجلس النواب، حق استجواب مسؤولي الهيئات المستقلة وفقاً للاجراءات المتعلقة بالوزراء، وله اعفاؤهم بالاغلبية المطلقة. تاسعاً :ـ أ ـ الموافقة على اعلان الحرب وحالة الطوارئ بأغلبية الثلثين، بناءاً على طلبٍ مشترك من رئيس الجمهورية، ورئيس مجلس الوزراء. ب ـ تُعلن حالة الطوارئ لمدة ثلاثين يوماً قابلة للتمديد، وبموافقةٍ عليها في كل مرة. ج ـ يخول رئيس مجلس الوزراء الصلاحيات اللازمة التي تمكنه من ادارة شؤون البلاد في أثناء مدة إعلان الحرب وحالة الطوارئ، وتنظم هذه الصلاحيات بقانونٍ، بما لا يتعارض مع الدستور. د ـ يعرض رئيس مجلس الوزراء على مجلس النواب، الاجراءات المتخذة والنتائج، في أثناء مدة إعلان الحرب وحالة الطوارئ، خلال خمسة عشر يوماً من تاريخ انتهائها. المادة (62): اولاً :ـ يُقدم مجلس الوزراء مشروع قانون الموازنة العامة والحساب الختامي الى مجلس النواب لاقراره. ثانياً :ـ لمجلس النواب، اجراء المناقلة بين أبواب وفصول الموازنة العامة، وتخفيض مجمل مبالغها، وله عند الضرورة ان يقترح على مجلس الوزراء زيادة اجمالي مبالغ النفقات.

189 المادة (63): اولاً :ـ تحدد حقوق وامتيازات رئيس مجلس النواب ونائبيه واعضاء المجلس، بقانون. ثانياً :ـ أـ يتمتع عضو مجلس النواب بالحصانة عما يدلي به من آراء في اثناء دورة الانعقاد، ولا يتعرض للمقاضاة امام المحاكم بشأن ذلك. ب ـ لا يجوز القاء القبض على العضو خلال مدة الفصل التشريعي الا اذا كان متهماً بجناية، وبموافقة الاعضاء بالاغلبية المطلقة على رفع الحصانة عنه، او اذا ضبط متلبساً بالجرم المشهود في جناية. ج ـ لا يجوز القاء القبض على العضو خارج مدة الفصل التشريعي الا اذا كان متهماً بجناية، وبموافقة رئيس مجلس النواب على رفع الحصانة عنه، او اذا ضبط متلبساً بالجرم المشهود في جناية. المادة (64): اولاً :ـ يُحل مجلس النواب، بالاغلبية المطلقة لعدد اعضائه، بناءً على طلبٍ من ثلث اعضائه، او طلبٍ من رئيس مجلس الوزراء وبموافقة رئيس الجمهورية، ولا يجوز حل المجلس في اثناء مدة استجواب رئيس مجلس الوزراء. ثانياً :ـ يدعو رئيس الجمهورية، عند حل مجلس النواب، الى انتخاباتٍ عامة في البلاد خلال مدةٍ اقصاها ستون يوماً من تاريخ الحل، ويعد مجلس الوزراء في هذه الحالة مُستقيلاً، ويواصل تصريف الامور اليومية. الفرع الثاني:ـ مجلس الاتحاد المادة (65): يتم انشاء مجلسٍ تشريعي يُدعى بـ (مجلس الاتحاد ) يضم ممثلين عن الاقاليم والمحافظات غير المنتظمة في أقليم، وينظم تكوينه، وشروط العضوية فيه، واختصاصاته، وكل ما يتعلق به، بقانونٍ يسن بأغلبية ثلثي أعضاء مجلس النواب. الفصل الثاني [ السلطة التنفيذية ] المادة (66): تتكون السلطة التنفيذية الاتحادية، من رئيس الجمهورية، ومجلس الوزراء، تمارس صلاحياتها وفقاً للدستور والقانون.

190 الفرع الأول :ـ رئيس الجمهورية المادة (67): رئيس الجمهورية هو رئيس الدولة ورمز وحدة الوطن، يمثل سيادة البلاد، ويسهر على ضمان الالتزام بالدستور، والمحافظة على استقلال العراق، وسيادته، ووحدته، وسلامة اراضيه، وفقاً لاحكام الدستور. المادة (68): يشترط في المرشح لرئاسة الجمهورية ان يكون: اولاً :ـ عراقياً بالولادة ومن ابوين عراقيين. ثانياً :ـ كامل الاهلية واتم الاربعين سنةً من عمره. ثالثاً :ـ ذا سمعةٍ حسنةٍ وخبرةٍ سياسيةٍ ومشهوداً له بالنـزاهة والاستقامة والعدالة والاخلاص للوطن. رابعاً :ـ غير محكومٍ بجريمةٍ مخلةٍ بالشرف. المادة (69) : أولاً :ـ تنظم بقانونٍ، احكام الترشيح لمنصب رئيس الجمهورية. ثانياً :ـ تنظم بقانونٍ، احكام اختيار نائبٍ أو اكثر لرئيس الجمهورية. المادة (70): اولاً :ـ ينتخب مجلس النواب من بين المرشحين رئيساً للجمهورية، باغلبية ثلثي عدد اعضائه. ثانياً :ـ اذا لم يحصل أيٌ من المرشحين على الاغلبية المطلوبة، يتم التنافس بين المرشحين الحاصلين على اعلى الاصوات، ويعلن رئيساً من يحصل على اكثرية الاصوات في الاقتراع الثاني. المادة (71): يؤدي رئيس الجمهورية، اليمين الدستورية امام مجلس النواب، بالصيغة المنصوص عليها في المادة (50) من الدستور..

191 المادة (72): اولاً :ـ تحدد ولاية رئيس الجمهورية باربع سنوات، ويجوز اعادة انتخابه لولايةٍ ثانيةٍ فحسب. ثانياً :ـ أ ـ تنتهي ولاية رئيس الجمهورية بانتهاء دورة مجلس النواب. ب ـ يستمر رئيس الجمهورية بممارسة مهماته الى ما بعد انتهاء انتخابات مجلس النواب الجديد واجتماعه، على ان يتم انتخاب رئيسٍ جديدٍ للجمهورية خلال ثلاثين يوماً من تاريخ أول انعقادٍ للمجلس. ج ـ في حالة خلو منصب رئيس الجمهورية لأي سببٍ من الاسباب، يتم انتخاب رئيسٍ جديد لاكمال المدة المتبقية لولاية رئيس الجمهورية المادة (73): يتولى رئيس الجمهورية الصلاحيات الآتية: اولاً :ـ اصدار العفو الخاص بتوصيةٍ من رئيس مجلس الوزراء، باستثناء ما يتعلق بالحق الخاص، والمحكومين بارتكاب الجرائم الدولية والارهاب والفساد المالي والاداري. ثانياً :ـ المصادقة على المعاهدات والاتفاقيات الدولية، بعد موافقة مجلس النواب، وتُعد مصادقاً عليها بعد مضي خمسة عشر يوماً من تاريخ تسلمها. ثالثاً :ـ يصادق ويصدر القوانين التي يسنها مجلس النواب، وتعد مصادقاً عليها بعد مضي خمسة عشر يوماً من تاريخ تسلمها. رابعاً :ـ دعوة مجلس النواب المنتخب للانعقاد خلال مدةٍ لا تتجاوز خمسة عشر يوماً من تاريخ المصادقة على نتائج الانتخابات، وفي الحالات الاخرى المنصوص عليها في الدستور. خامساً :ـ منح الاوسمة والنياشين بتوصيةٍ من رئيس مجلس الوزراء، وفقاً للقانون. سادساً :ـ قبول السفراء.

192 سابعاً :ـ اصدار المراسيم الجمهورية. ثامناً :ـ المصادقة على احكام الاعدام التي تصدرها المحاكم المختصة. تاسعاً :ـ يقوم بمهمة القيادة العليا للقوات المسلحة للاغراض التشريفية والاحتفالية. عاشراً :ـ ممارسة اية صلاحيات رئاسية اخرى واردة في هذا الدستور. المادة (74): يحدد بقانونٍ، راتب ومخصصات رئيس الجمهورية. المادة (75): اولاً :ـ لرئيس الجمهورية تقديم استقالته تحريرياً الى رئيس مجلس النواب، وتُعد نافذةً بعد مضي سبعة ايام من تاريخ ايداعها لدى مجلس النواب. ثانياً :ـ يحل نائب رئيس الجمهورية محل الرئيس عند غيابه. ثالثاً :ـ يحل نائب رئيس الجمهورية محل رئيس الجمهورية عند خلو منصبه لاي سببٍ كان، وعلى مجلس النواب انتخاب رئيس جديد، خلال مدةٍ لا تتجاوز ثلاثين يوماً من تأريخ الخلو. رابعاً :ـ في حالة خلو منصب رئيس الجمهورية، يَحل رئيس مجلس النواب، محل رئيس الجمهورية في حالة عدم وجود نائبٍ له، على ان يتم انتخاب رئيسٍ جديد خلال مدةٍ لا تتجاوز ثلاثين يوماً من تاريخ الخلو، وفقاً لاحكام هذا الدستور. الفرع الثاني :ـ مجلس الوزراء المادة (76): اولاً :ـ يكلف رئيس الجمهورية، مرشح الكتلة النيابية الاكثر عدداً، بتشكيل مجلس الوزراء، خلال خمسة عشرَ يوماً من تاريخ انتخاب رئيس الجمهورية. ثانياً :ـ يتولى رئيس مجلس الوزراء المكلف، تسمية اعضاء وزارته، خلال مدةٍ اقصاها ثلاثون يوماً من تاريخ التكليف. ثالثاً :ـ يُكلف رئيس الجمهورية، مرشحاً جديداً لرئاسة مجلس الوزراء، خلال خمسة عشر يوماً، عند اخفاق رئيس مجلس الوزراء المكلف في تشكيل الوزارة، خلال المدة المنصوص عليها في البند "ثانياً" من هذه المادة.

193 رابعاً :ـ يعرض رئيس مجلس الوزراء المكلف، اسماء اعضاء وزارته، والمنهاج الوزاري، على مجلس النواب، ويعد حائزاً ثقتها، عند الموافقة على الوزراء منفردين، والمنهاج الوزاري، بالاغلبية المطلقة. خامساً :ـ يتولى رئيس الجمهورية تكليف مرشحٍ آخر بتشكيل الوزارة، خلال خمسة عشر يوماً، في حالة عدم نيل الوزارة الثقة. المادة (77): اولاً :ـ يشترط في رئيس مجلس الوزراء ما يشترط في رئيس الجمهورية، وان يكون حائزاً الشهادة الجامعية او ما يعادلها، واتم الخامسة والثلاثين سنةً من عمره. ثانياً :ـ يشترط في الوزير ما يشترط في عضو مجلس النواب، وان يكون حائزاً الشهادة الجامعية أو ما يعادلها. المادة (78): رئيس مجلس الوزراء هو المسؤول التنفيذي المباشر عن السياسة العامة للدولة، والقائد العام للقوات المسلحة، يقوم بادارة مجلس الوزراء، ويترأس اجتماعاته، وله الحق باقالة الوزراء، بموافقة مجلس النواب. المادة(79) : يؤدي رئيس واعضاء مجلس الوزراء، اليمين الدستورية امام مجلس النواب، بالصيغة المنصوص عليها في المادة (50) من الدستور. المادة (80): يمارس مجلس الوزراء الصلاحيات الآتية: اولاً :ـ تخطيط وتنفيذ السياسة العامة للدولة، والخطط العامة، والاشراف على عمل الوزارات، والجهات غير المرتبطة بوزارة. ثانياً :ـ اقتراح مشروعات القوانين. ثالثاً :ـ اصدار الانظمة والتعليمات والقرارات، بهدف تنفيذ القوانين. رابعاً :ـ اعداد مشروع الموازنة العامة والحساب الختامي وخطط التنمية. خامساً :ـ التوصية الى مجلس النواب، بالموافقة على تعيين وكلاء الوزارات والسفراء واصحاب الدرجات الخاصة، ورئيس اركان الجيش ومعاونيه، ومن هم بمنصب قائد فرقة فما فوق، ورئيس جهاز المخابرات الوطني، ورؤوساء الاجهزة الامنية.

194 سادساً : ـ التفاوض بشأن المعاهدات والاتفاقيات الدولية، والتوقيع عليها، او من يخوله المادة (81): اولاً :ـ يقوم رئيس الجمهورية، مقام رئيس مجلس الوزراء، عند خلو المنصب لاي سببٍ كان. ثانياً :ـ عند تحقق الحالة المنصوص عليها في البند "اولاً" من هذه المادة، يقوم رئيس الجمهورية بتكليف مرشحٍ آخر بتشكيل الوزارة، خلال مدةٍ لا تزيد على خمسة عشر يوماً، ووفقاً لاحكام المادة(76) من هذا الدستور. المادة (82): ينظم بقانونٍ، رواتب ومخصصات رئيس واعضاء مجلس الوزراء، ومن هم بدرجتهم. المادة (83): تكون مسؤولية رئيس مجلس الوزراء والوزراء امام مجلس النواب، تضامنيةً وشخصية. المادة (84): اولاً :ـ ينظم بقانونٍ، عمل الاجهزة الامنية، وجهاز المخابرات الوطني، وتحدد واجباتها وصلاحياتها، وتعمل وفقاً لمبادئ حقوق الانسان، وتخضع لرقابة مجلس النواب. ثانياً :ـ يرتبط جهاز المخابرات الوطني بمجلس الوزراء. المادة (85): يضع مجلس الوزراء نظاماً داخلياً، لتنظيم سير العمل فيه. المادة (86): ينظم بقانونٍ، تشكيل الوزارات ووظائفها، واختصاصاتها، وصلاحيات الوزير. الفصل الثالث [ السلطة القضائية ] المادة (87): السلطة القضائية مستقلة، وتتولاها المحاكم على اختلاف انواعها ودرجاتها، وتصدر احكامها وفقاً للقانون.

195 المادة (88): القضاة مستقلون، لا سلطان عليهم في قضائهم لغير القانون، ولا يجوز لاية سلطة التدخل في القضاء او في شؤون العدالة. المادة (89): تتكون السلطة القضائية الاتحادية، من مجلس القضاء الاعلى، والمحكمة الاتحادية العليا، ومحكمة التمييز الاتحادية، وجهاز الادعاء العام، وهيئة الاشراف القضائي، والمحاكم الاتحادية الاخرى التي تنظم وفقاً للقانون. الفرع الأول :ـ مجلس القضاء الاعلى المادة (90 ): يتولى مجلس القضاء الاعلى ادارة شؤون الهيئات القضائية، وينظم القانون، طريقة تكوينه، واختصاصاته، وقواعد سير العمل فيه. المادة (91): يمارس مجلس القضاء الاعلى الصلاحيات الآتية: اولاً :ـ ادارة شؤون القضاء والاشراف على القضاء الاتحادي. ثانياً :ـ ترشيح رئيس واعضاء محكمة التمييز الاتحادية، ورئيس الادعاء العام، ورئيس هيئة الاشراف القضائي، وعرضها على مجلس النواب للموافقة على تعيينهم. ثالثاً :ـ اقتراح مشروع الموازنة السنوية للسلطة القضائية الاتحادية، وعرضها على مجلس النواب للموافقة عليها. الفرع الثاني :ـ المحكمة الاتحادية العليا المادة (92): اولاً :ـ المحكمة الاتحادية العليا هيئةٌ قضائيةٌ مستقلة مالياً وإدارياً. ثانياً :ـ تتكون المحكمة الاتحادية العليا، من عددٍ من القضاة، وخبراء في الفقه الاسلامي، وفقهاء القانون، يُحدد عددهم، وتنظم طريقة اختيارهم، وعمل المحكمة، بقانونٍ يُسن بأغلبية ثلثي اعضاء مجلس النواب.

196 المادة (93): تختص المحكمة الاتحادية العليا بما يأتي: اولاً :ـ الرقابة على دستورية القوانين والانظمة النافذة. ثانياً :ـ تفسير نصوص الدستور. ثالثاً :ـ الفصل في القضايا التي تنشأ عن تطبيق القوانين الاتحادية، والقرارات والانظمة والتعليمات، والاجراءات الصادرة عن السلطة الاتحادية، ويكفل القانون حق كل من مجلس الوزراء، وذوي الشأن، من الافراد وغيرهم، حق الطعن المباشر لدى المحكمة. رابعاً :ـ الفصل في المنازعات التي تحصل بين الحكومة الاتحادية، وحكومات الاقاليم والمحافظات والبلديات والادارات المحلية. خامساً :ـ الفصل في المنازعات التي تحصل فيما بين حكومات الاقاليم أو المحافظات. سادساً :ـ الفصل في الاتهامات الموجهة الى رئيس الجمهورية، ورئيس مجلس الوزراء والوزراء، وينظم ذلك بقانون. سابعاً :ـ المصادقة على النتائج النهائية للانتخابات العامة لعضوية مجلس النواب. ثامناً : ـ أ ـ الفصل في تنازع الاختصاص بين القضاء الاتحادي، والهيئات القضائية للاقاليم والمحافظات غير المنتظمة في أقليم. ب ـ الفصل في تنازع الاختصاص فيما بين الهيئات القضائية للاقاليم، أو المحافظات غير المنتظمة في أقليم المادة (94): قرارات المحكمة الاتحادية العليا باتة وملزمة للسلطات كافة. الفرع الثالث :ـ أحكام عامة المادة (95): يحظر إنشاء محاكم خاصة أو استثنائية. المادة (96): ينظم القانون، تكوين المحاكم، وانواعها، ودرجاتها، واختصاصاتها، وكيفية تعيين القضاة وخدمتهم، واعضاء الادعاء العام، وانضباطهم، واحالتهم على التقاعد.

197 المادة (97): القضاة غير قابلين للعزل الا في الحالات التي يحددها القانون، كما يحدد القانون، الاحكام الخاصة بهم، وينظم مساءلتهم تأديبياً. المادة (98): يحظر على القاضي وعضو الادعاء العام ما يأتي: اولاً :ـ الجمع بين الوظيفة القضائية، والوظيفتين التشريعية والتنفيذية، أو أي عملٍ آخر. ثانياً :ـ الانتماء الى أي حزبٍ او منظمةٍ سياسية، او العمل في أي نشاط سياسي. المادة (99): ينظم بقانون، القضاء العسكري، ويحدد اختصاص المحاكم العسكرية التي تقتصر على الجرائم ذات الطابع العسكري التي تقع من افراد القوات المسلحة، وقوات الامن، وفي الحدود التي يقررها القانون. المادة (100): يحظر النص في القوانين على تحصين أي عمل او قرار اداري من الطعن. المادة (101): يجوز بقانونٍ، انشاء مجلس دولة، يختص بوظائف القضاء الاداري، والافتاء، والصياغة، وتمثيل الدولة، وسائر الهيئات العامة، امام جهات القضاء، الا ما استثني منها بقانون. الفصل الرابع [ الهيئات المستقلة ] المادة (102): تُعد المفوضة العليا لحقوق الانسان، والمفوضية العليا المستقلة للانتخابات، وهيئة النـزاهة، هيئاتٌ مستقلة، تخضع لرقابة مجلس النواب، وتنظم اعمالها بقانون.

198 المادة (103): اولاً :ـ يُعد كل من البنك المركزي العراقي، وديوان الرقابة المالية، وهيئة الاعلام والاتصالات، ودواوين الاوقاف، هيئاتٌ مستقلة مالياً وادارياً، وينظم القانون عمل كل هيئةٍ منها. ثانياً :ـ يكون البنك المركزي العراقي مسؤولاً امام مجلس النواب، ويرتبط ديوان الرقابة المالية، وهيئة الاعلام والاتصالات بمجلس النواب. ثالثاً :ـ ترتبط دواوين الاوقاف بمجلس الوزراء. المادة (104): تؤسس هيئةٌ تسمى مؤسسة الشهداء، ترتبط بمجلس الوزراء، وينظم عملها واختصاصاتها بقانون. المادة (105): تؤسس هيئةٌ عامة لضمان حقوق الاقاليم والمحافظات غير المنتظمة في اقليم، في المشاركة العادلة في ادارة مؤسسات الدولة الاتحادية المختلفة، والبعثات والزمالات الدراسية، والوفود والمؤتمرات الاقليمية والدولية، وتتكون من ممثلي الحكومة الاتحادية، والاقاليم والمحافظات غير المنتظمة في اقليم، وتنظم بقانون. المادة (106): تؤسس بقانونٍ، هيئةٌ عامة لمراقبة تخصيص الواردات الاتحادية، وتتكون الهيئة من خبراء الحكومة الاتحادية والاقاليم والمحافظات وممثلين عنها، وتضطلع بالمسؤوليات الآتية: اولاً :ـ التحقق من عدالة توزيع المنح والمساعدات والقروض الدولية، بموجب استحقاق الاقاليم والمحافظات غير المنتظمة في اقليم. ثانياً :ـ التحقق من الاستخدام الامثل للموارد المالية الاتحادية واقتسامها. ثالثاً :ـ ضمان الشفافية والعدالة عند تخصيص الاموال لحكومات الاقاليم او المحافظات غير المنتظمة في اقليم، وفقاً للنسب المقررة. المادة (107): يؤسس مجلسٌ، يسمى مجلس الخدمة العامة الاتحادي، يتولى تنظيم شؤون الوظيفة العامة الاتحادية، بما فيها التعيين والترقية، وينظم تكوينه واختصاصاته بقانون.

199 المادة (108): يجوز استحداث هيئاتٍ مستقلة اخرى حسب الحاجة والضرورة بقانون. الباب الرابع اختصاصات السلطات الاتحادية المادة (109): تحافظ السلطات الاتحادية على وحدة العراق وسلامته واستقلاله وسيادته ونظامه الديمقراطي الاتحادي. المادة (110): تختص السلطات الاتحادية بالاختصاصات الحصرية الآتية: اولاً :ـ رسم السياسة الخارجية والتمثيل الدبلوماسي، والتفاوض بشأن المعاهدات والاتفاقيات الدولية، وسياسات الاقتراض والتوقيع عليها وابرامها، ورسم السياسة الاقتصادية والتجارية الخارجية السيادية. ثانياً :ـ وضع سياسة الامن الوطني وتنفيذها، بما في ذلك انشاء قوات مسلحة وادارتها، لتأمين حماية وضمان امن حدود العراق، والدفاع عنه. ثالثاً :ـ رسم السياسة المالية، والكمركية، واصدار العملة، وتنظيم السياسة التجارية عبر حدود الاقاليم والمحافظات في العراق، ووضع الميزانية العامة للدولة، ورسم السياسة النقدية وانشاء البنك المركزي، وادارته. رابعاً :ـ تنظيم أمور المقاييس والمكاييل والاوزان. خامساً :ـ تنظيم امور الجنسية والتجنس والاقامة وحق اللجوء السياسي. سادساً :ـ تنظيم سياسة الترددات البثية والبريد. سابعاً :ـ وضع مشروع الموازنة العامة والاستثمارية. ثامناً :ـ تخطيط السياسات المتعلقة بمصادر المياه من خارج العراق، وضمان مناسيب تدفق المياه اليه وتوزيعها العادل داخل العراق، وفقاً للقوانين والاعراف الدولية. تاسعاً :ـ الاحصاء والتعداد العام للسكان. المادة (111): النفط والغاز هو ملك كل الشعب العراقي في كل الاقاليم والمحافظات

200 المادة (112): اولاً :ـ تقوم الحكومة الاتحادية بادارة النفط والغاز المستخرج من الحقول الحالية مع حكومات الاقاليم والمحافظات المنتجة، على ان توزع وارداتها بشكلٍ منصفٍ يتناسب مع التوزيع السكاني في جميع انحاء البلاد، مع تحديد حصة لمدةٍ محددة للاقاليم المتضررة، والتي حرمت منها بصورةٍ مجحفة من قبل النظام السابق، والتي تضررت بعد ذلك، بما يؤمن التنمية المتوازنة للمناطق المختلفة من البلاد، وينظم ذلك بقانون. ثانياً :ـ تقوم الحكومة الاتحادية وحكومات الاقاليم والمحافظات المنتجة معاً برسم السياسات الاستراتيجية اللازمة لتطوير ثروة النفط والغاز، بما يحقق أعلى منفعةٍ للشعب العراقي، معتمدةً احدث تقنيات مبادئ السوق وتشجيع الاستثمار. المادة ( 113 ) : تعد الآثار والمواقع الأثرية والبنى التراثية والمخطوطات والمسكوكات من الثروات الوطنية التي هي من اختصاص السلطات الاتحادية، وتدار بالتعاون مع الاقاليم والمحافظات، وينظم ذلك بقانون. المادة (114): تكون الاختصاصات الآتية مشتركةً بين السلطات الاتحادية وسلطات الاقاليم: اولاً :ـ ادارة الكمارك بالتنسيق مع حكومات الاقاليم والمحافظات غير المنتظمة في أقليم، وينظم ذلك بقانون. ثانياً :ـ تنظيم مصادر الطاقة الكهربائية الرئيسة وتوزيعها. ثالثاً :ـ رسم السياسة البيئية لضمان حماية البيئة من التلوث، والمحافظة على نظافتها، بالتعاون مع الاقاليم والمحافظات غير المنتظمة في أقليم. رابعاً :ـ رسم سياسات التنمية والتخطيط العام. خامساً :ـ رسم السياسة الصحية العامة، بالتعاون مع الاقاليم والمحافظات غير المنتظمة في أقليم. سادساً :ـ رسم السياسة التعليمية والتربوية العامة بالتشاور مع الاقاليم والمحافظات غير المنتظمة في أقليم. سابعاً :ـ رسم سياسة الموارد المائية الداخلية، وتنظيمها بما يضمن توزيعاً عادلاً لها، وينظم ذلك بقانون.

201 المادة (115): كل ما لم ينص عليه في الاختصاصات الحصرية للسلطات الاتحادية، يكون من صلاحية الاقاليم والمحافظات غير المنتظمة في اقليم، والصلاحيات الاخرى المشتركة بين الحكومة الاتحادية والاقاليم، تكون الاولوية فيها لقانون الاقاليم والمحافظات غير المنتظمة في اقليم، في حالة الخلاف بينهما. الباب الخامس سلطات الأقاليم الفصل الاول [الأقاليم ] المادة (116) : يتكون النظام الاتحادي في جمهورية العراق من عاصمةٍ واقاليم ومحافظاتٍ لا مركزيةٍ واداراتٍ محلية. المادة (117) : اولاً :ـ يقر هذا الدستور، عند نفاذه، اقليم كردستان وسلطاته القائمة، اقليماً اتحادياً. ثانياً :ـ يقر هذا الدستور، الاقاليم الجديدة التي تؤسس وفقاً لاحكامه. المادة (118) : يسن مجلس النواب في مدةٍ لا تتجاوز ستة اشهر من تاريخ اول جلسةٍ له، قانوناً يحدد الاجراءات التنفيذية الخاصة بتكوين الاقاليم، بالاغلبية البسيطة للاعضاء الحاضرين. المادة (119) : يحق لكل محافظةٍ او اكثر، تكوين اقليمٍ بناءاً على طلبٍ بالاستفتاء عليه، يقدم بأحدى طريقتين: اولاً :ـ طلبٍ من ثلث الاعضاء في كل مجلسٍ من مجالس المحافظات التي تروم تكوين الاقليم. ثانياً :ـ طلبٍ من عُشر الناخبين في كل محافظةٍ من المحافظات التي تروم تكوين الاقليم.

202 المادة (120) : يقوم الاقليم بوضع دستورٍ له، يحدد هيكل سلطات الاقليم، وصلاحياته، وآليات ممارسة تلك الصلاحيات، على ان لا يتعارض مع هذا الدستور. المادة ( 121 ) : اولاً :ـ لسلطات الاقاليم، الحق في ممارسة السلطات التشريعية والتنفيذية والقضائية، وفقاً لاحكام هذا الدستور، باستثناء ما ورد فيه من اختصاصاتٍ حصرية للسلطات الاتحادية. ثانياً :ـ يحق لسلطة الاقليم، تعديل تطبيق القانون الاتحادي في الاقليم، في حالة وجود تناقض او تعارض بين القانون الاتحادي وقانون الاقليم، بخصوص مسألةٍ لا تدخل في الاختصاصات الحصرية للسلطات الاتحادية. ثالثاً :ـ تخصص للاقاليم والمحافظات حصةٌ عادلة من الايرادات المحصلة اتحادياً، تكفي للقيام بأعبائها ومسؤولياتها، مع الاخذ بعين الاعتبار مواردها وحاجاتها، ونسبة السكان فيها. رابعاً :ـ تؤسس مكاتبٌ للاقاليم والمحافظات في السفارات والبعثات الدبلوماسية، لمتابعة الشؤون الثقافية والاجتماعية والانمائية. خامسا:ـ تختص حكومة الاقليم بكل ما تتطلبه ادارة الاقليم، وبوجهٍ خاص انشاء وتنظيم قوى الامن الداخلي للاقليم، كالشرطة والامن وحرس الاقليم. الفصل الثاني [ المحافظات التي لم تنتظم في اقليم ] المادة ( 122 ) : اولاً :ـ تتكون المحافظات من عددٍ من الأقضية والنواحي والقرى. ثانياً :ـ تمنح المحافظات التي لم تنتظم في اقليم الصلاحيات الادارية والمالية الواسعة، بما يمكنها من ادارة شؤونها على وفق مبدأ اللامركزية الادارية، وينظم ذلك بقانون. ثالثاً :ـ يُعد المحافظ الذي ينتخبه مجلس المحافظة، الرئيس التنفيذي الاعلى في المحافظة، لممارسة صلاحياته المخول بها من قبل المجلس. رابعاً :ـ ينظم بقانونٍ، انتخاب مجلس المحافظة، والمحافظ، وصلاحياتهما. خامساً : ـ لا يخضع مجلس المحافظة لسيطرة أو اشراف اية وزارة او اية جهة غير مرتبطة بوزارة، وله ماليةٌ مستقلة.

203 المادة ( 123 ) : يجوز تفويض سلطات الحكومة الاتحادية للمحافظات، أو بالعكس، بموافقة الطرفين، وينظم ذلك بقانون. الفصل الثالث [ العاصمة ] المادة ( 124 ) : اولاً :ـ بغداد بحدودها البلدية، عاصمة جمهورية العراق، وتمثل بحدودها الادارية محافظة بغداد. ثانياً :ـ ينظم وضع العاصمة بقانونٍ. ثالثاً :ـ لا يجوز للعاصمة أن تنضم لأقليم. الفصل الرابع [ الادارات المحلية ] المادة ( 125 ) : يضمن هذا الدستور الحقوق الادارية والسياسية والثقافية والتعليمية للقوميات المختلفة كالتركمان، والكلدان والآشوريين، وسائر المكونات الاخرى، وينظم ذلك بقانون.

204 الباب السادس الاحكام الختامية والانتقالية الفصل الاول [ الاحكام الختامية ] المادة ( 126) : اولاً :ـ لرئيس الجمهورية ومجلس الوزراء مجتمعين، أو لخُمس (1/5) اعضاء مجلس النواب، اقتراح تعديل الدستور. ثانياًً :ـ لا يجوز تعديل المبادئ الاساسية الواردة في الباب الاول، والحقوق والحريات الواردة في الباب الثاني من الدستور، الا بعد دورتين انتخابيتين متعاقبتين، وبناءاً على موافقة ثلثي اعضاء مجلس النواب عليه، وموافقة الشعب بالاستفتاء العام، ومصادقة رئيس الجمهورية خلال سبعة ايام. ثالثاًً :ـ لا يجوز تعديل المواد الاخرى غير المنصوص عليها في البند "ثانياً" من هذه المادة، الا بعد موافقة ثلثي اعضاء مجلس النواب عليه، وموافقة الشعب بالاستفتاء العام، ومصادقة رئيس الجمهورية خلال سبعة ايام. رابعاً :ـ لا يجوز اجراء اي تعديل على مواد الدستور، من شأنه ان ينتقص من صلاحيات الاقاليم التي لا تكون داخلةً ضمن الاختصاصات الحصرية للسلطات الاتحادية، الا بموافقة السلطة التشريعية في الاقليم المعني، وموافقة أغلبية سكانه باستفتاءٍ عام. خامساً :ـ أـ يُعدُ التعديل مصادقاً عليه من قبل رئيس الجمهورية بعد انتهاء المدة المنصوص عليها في البند "ثانياً" و"ثالثاً" من هذه المادة، في حالة عدم تصديقه. ب ـ يُعدُ التعديل نافذاً، من تاريخ نشره في الجريدة الرسمية. المادة (127): لا يجوز لرئيس الجمهورية، ورئيس واعضاء مجلس الوزراء، ورئيس مجلس النواب ونائبيه واعضاء المجلس، واعضاء السلطة القضائية، واصحاب الدرجات الخاصة، ان يستغلوا نفوذهم في ان يشتروا أو يستأجروا شيئاً من اموال الدولة أو ان يؤجروا أو يبيعوا

205 يبيعوا لها شيئاً من اموالهم، أو ان يقاضوها عليها أو ان يبرموا مع الدولة عقداً بوصفهم ملتزمين او موردين او مقاولين. المادة (128): تصدر القوانين والاحكام القضائية بأسم الشعب. المادة (129): تنشر القوانين في الجريدة الرسمية، ويعمل بها من تاريخ نشرها، ما لم يُنص على خلاف ذلك. المادة (130): تبقى التشريعات النافذة معمولاً بها، ما لم تُلغ أو تعدل، وفقاً لاحكام هذا الدستور. المادة (131): كل استفتاءٍ واردٍ في هذا الدستور يكون ناجحاً بموافقة اغلبية المصوتين، ما لم يُنص على خلاف ذلك. الفصل الثاني [ الاحكام الانتقالية ] المادة (132): اولاً :ـ تكفل الدولة، رعاية ذوي الشهداء، والسجناء السياسيين، والمتضررين من الممارسات التعسفية للنظام الدكتاتوري البائد. ثانياً :ـ تكفل الدولة، تعويض اسر الشهداء والمصابين نتيجة الاعمال الارهابية. ثالثاً :ـ ينظم ما ورد في البندين "اولاً" و "ثانياً" من هذه المادة، بقانون. المادة (133): يعتمد مجلس النواب في جلسته الاولى، النظام الداخلي للجمعية الوطنية الانتقالية، لحين اقرار نظامٍ داخليٍ له.

206 المادة (134) : تستمر المحكمة الجنائية العراقية العليا بأعمالها بوصفها هيئةً قضائية مستقلة، بالنظر في جرائم النظام الدكتاتوري البائد ورموزه، ولمجلس النواب الغاؤها بقانونٍ، بعد اكمال اعمالها. المادة (135): اولاً :ـ تواصل الهيئة الوطنية العليا لاجتثاث البعث اعمالها بوصفها هيئةً مستقلة، بالتنسيق مع السلطة القضائية والاجهزة التنفيذية في اطار القوانين المنظمة لعملها، وترتبط بمجلس النواب. ثانياً :ـ لمجلس النواب حل هذه الهيئة بعد انتهاء مهمتها، بالاغلبية المطلقة. ثالثاً :ـ يشترط في المرشح لمنصب رئيس ا لجمهورية، ورئيس واعضاء مجلس الوزراء، ورئيس واعضاء مجلس النواب، ورئيس واعضاء مجلس الاتحاد، والمواقع المتناظرة في الاقاليم، واعضاء الهيئات القضائية، والمناصب الاخرى المشمولة باجتثاث البعث وفقاً للقانون، ان يكون غير مشمولٍ بأحكام اجتثاث البعث. رابعاً :ـ يستمر العمل بالشرط المذكور في البند "ثالثاً" من هذه المادة، ما لم تُحل الهيئة المنصوص عليها في البند "اولاً" من هذه المادة. خامساً:- مجرد العضوية في حزب البعث المنحل لا تعد اساساً كافياً للإحالة الى المحاكم، ويتمتع العضو بالمساواة امام القانون والحماية، ما لم يكن مشمولاً بأحكام اجتثاث البعث، والتعليمات الصادرة بموجبه. سادساً:ـ يشكل مجلس النواب لجنةً نيابيةً من اعضائه لمراقبة ومراجعة الاجراءات التنفيذية للهيئة العليا لاجتثاث البعث ولأجهزة الدولة، لضمان العدل والموضوعية والشفافية، والنظر في موافقتها للقوانين وتخضع قرارات اللجنة لموافقة مجلس النواب. المادة (136): اولاً :ـ تواصل هيئة دعاوى الملكية اعمالها بوصفها هيئةً مستقلة، بالتنسيق مع السلطة القضائية والاجهزة التنفيذية، وفقاً للقانون، وترتبط بمجلس النواب. ثانياً :ـ لمجلس النواب حل الهيئة باغلبية ثلثي اعضائه.

207 المادة (137): يؤجل العمل باحكام المواد الخاصة بمجلس الاتحاد اينما وردت في هذا الدستور، الى حين صدور قرارٍ من مجلس النواب، باغلبية الثلثين، بعد دورته الانتخابية الأولى التي يعقدها بعد نفاذ هذا الدستور. المادة (138): اولاً :ـ يحل تعبير (مجلس الرئاسة) محل تعبير (رئيس الجمهورية) اينما ورد في هذا الدستور، ويعاد العمل بالاحكام الخاصة برئيس الجمهورية، بعد دورةٍ واحدةٍ لاحقةٍ لنفاذ هذا الدستور. ثانياً :ـ أـ ينتخب مجلس النواب، رئيساً للدولة، ونائبين له، يؤلفون مجلساً يسمى (مجلس الرئاسة)، يتم انتخابه بقائمةٍ واحدة، وباغلبية الثلثين. ب ـ تسري الاحكام الخاصة بإقالة رئيس الجمهورية، الواردة في هذا الدستور، على رئيس واعضاء هيئة الرئاسة. ج ـ لمجلس النواب اقالة اي عضو من اعضاء مجلس الرئاسة، باغلبية ثلاثة ارباع عدد اعضائه، بسبب عدم الكفاءة او النـزاهة. د ـ في حالة خلو اي منصب في مجلس الرئاسة، ينتخب مجلس النواب بثلثي اعضائه بديلاً عنه. ثالثاً :ـ يشترط في اعضاء مجلس الرئاسة، ما يشترط في عضو مجلس النواب، على ان يكون: أـ اتم الاربعين سنةً من عمره. ب ـ متمتعاً بالسمعة الحسنة والنـزاهة والاستقامة. ج ـ قد ترك حزب البعث المنحل قبل سقوطه بعشر سنوات، اذا كان عضواً فيه. د ـ ان لا يكون قد شارك في قمع الانتفاضة في عام 1991، او الانفال، ولم يقترف جريمةً بحق الشعب العراقي. رابعاً :ـ يتخذ مجلس الرئاسة قراراته بالاجماع، ويجوز لأي عضو ان ينيب احد العضوين الآخرين مكانه.

208 خامساً :ـ أـ ترسل القوانين والقرارات التي يسنها مجلس النواب، الى مجلس الرئاسة، لغرض الموافقة عليها بالاجماع، واصدارها خلال عشرة ايام من تاريخ وصولها اليه، باستثناء ما ورد في المادتين (118) و(119) من هذا الدستور، والمتعلقتين بتكوين الاقاليم. ب ـ في حالة عدم موافقة مجلس الرئاسة، تعاد القوانين والقرارات الى مجلس النواب لاعادة النظر في النواحي المعترض عليها، والتصويت عليها بالاغلبية، وترسل ثانيةً الى مجلس الرئاسة للموافقة عليها. ج ـ في حالة عدم موافقة مجلس الرئاسة على القوانين والقرارات ثانيةً، خلال عشرة ايام من تاريخ وصولها اليه، تعاد الى مجلس النواب، الذي له ان يقرها بأغلبية ثلاثة اخماس عدد اعضائه، غير قابلةٍ للاعتراض، وتُعد مصادقاً عليها. سادساً :ـ يمارس مجلس الرئاسة صلاحيات رئيس الجمهورية، المنصوص عليها في هذا الدستور. المادة (139): يكون لرئيس مجلس الوزراء نائبان في الدورة الانتخابية الاولى. المادة (140): اولاً :ـ تتولى السلطة التنفيذية اتخاذ الخطوات اللازمة لاستكمال تنفيذ متطلبات المادة (58) من قانون ادارة الدولة العراقية للمرحلة الانتقالية، بكل فقراتها. ثانياً :ـ المسؤولية الملقاة على السلطة التنفيذية في الحكومة الانتقالية، والمنصوص عليها في المادة (58) من قانون ادارة الدولة العراقية للمرحلة الانتقالية، تمتد وتستمر الى السلطة التنفيذية المنتخبة بموجب هذا الدستور، على أن تنجز كاملةً (التطبيع، الاحصاء، وتنتهي باستفتاء في كركوك والمناطق الاخرى المتنازع عليها، لتحديد ارادة مواطنيها) في مدةٍ أقصاها الحادي والثلاثون من شهر كانون الاول سنة الفين وسبعة. المادة (141): يستمر العمل بالقوانين التي تم تشريعها في اقليم كوردستان منذ عام 1992، وتُعدُ القرارات المتخذة من حكومة اقليم كوردستان ـ بما فيها قرارات المحاكم والعقود ـ نافذة المفعول، ما لم يتم تعديلها او الغاؤها حسب قوانين اقليم كوردستان، من قبل الجهة المختصة فيها، وما لم تكن مخالفةً لهذا الدستور.

209 المادة ( 142): اولاً: يشكل مجلس النواب في بداية عمله لجنةً من أعضائه تكون ممثلةً للمكونات الرئيسة في المجتمع العراقي، مهمتها تقديم تقريرٍ الى مجلس النواب، خلال مدةٍ لا تتجاوز أربعة أشهر، يتضمن توصيةً بالتعديلات الضرورية التي يمكن اجراؤها على الدستور، وتُحل اللجنة بعد البت في مقترحاتها. ثانياً: تعرض التعديلات المقترحة من قبل اللجنة دفعةً واحدة على مجلس النواب للتصويت عليها، وتُعد مقرةً بموافقة الأغلبية المطلقة لعدد أعضاء المجلس. ثالثاً: تطرح المواد المعدلة من قبل مجلس النواب وفقاً لماورد في البند (ثانياً) من هذه المادة على الشعب للاستفتاء عليها، خلال مدةٍ لا تزيد على شهرين من تأريخ اقرار التعديل في مجلس النواب. رابعاً: يكون الاستفتاء على المواد المعدلة ناجحاً، بموافقة اغلبية المصوتين، واذا لم يرفضه ثلثا المصوتين في ثلاث محافظات أو اكثر. خامساً: يستثنى ما ورد في هذه المادة من احكام المادة ( 126 ) المتعلقة بتعديل الدستور ، الى حين الانتهاء من البت في التعديلات المنصوص عليها في هذه المادة. المادة (143): يلغى قانون ادارة الدولة العراقية للمرحلة الانتقالية، وملحقه، عند قيام الحكومة الجديدة، باستثناء ما ورد في الفقرة (أ) من المادة (53) والمادة (58) منه. المادة (144): يُعدُ هذا الدستور نافذاً، بعد موافقة الشعب عليه بالاستفتاء العام، ونشره في الجريدة الرسمية، وتشكيل الحكومة بموجبه.

210 المادة (8): يرعى العراق مبدأ حسن الجوار، ويلتزم بعدم التدخل في الشؤون الداخلية للدول الاخرى، ويسعى لحل النـزاعات بالوسائل السلمية، ويقيم علاقاته على اساس المصالح المشتركة والتعامل بالمثل، ويحترم إلتزاماته الدولية. Iraqi Constitution  The new Iraqi Constitution recognizes the concept of human rights in accordance with Iraq’s international obligations. Iraq Constitution, Article 8  Consequently, Iraq must recognize all the rights underscored in any international convention it has ratified.

211 L EGISLATIVE D ELEGATION  The Constitution delegates to the legislature the power to enact laws regarding many areas:  Citizenship  Personal status  Political asylum  Right to form unions  Assembly  Religious endowments and affairs  Establishment and joining of political parties  Confiscation of property  Free movement of workers  Goods and capital  Investments  Administration of State property  Exemption from taxes for low-income people  Social security and health insurance  Right to build medical facilities  Rights of disabled persons  Private education  Role of civil society  Elections  Structure and membership of the Council of Union  Powers of the council of Representatives and of Prime Minister  Nomination for presidency  Functions of the ministries  Salaries and allowances for the Prime Minister and Ministers  Federal judiciary  Impeachment and disciplinary action of judges  Structure of the Federal Supreme Court  Security and Intelligence Services  Responsibility of Military Judiciary  Functions of the Independent agencies  Functions of the regions and provinces  Extraction of oil and gas  Customs and duties

212  The Constitution does not consider Islam to be the main source of legislation.  Neither does it consider Islam to be the only criterion for constitutionalism.  This leaves what appears to be a contradiction. المادة (2): اولاً : ـ الاسلام دين الدولة الرسمي، وهو مصدرٌ اساس للتشريع : أ ـ لا يجوز سن قانونٍ يتعارض مع ثوابت احكام الاسلام. ب ـ لا يجوز سن قانونٍ يتعارض مع مبادئ الديمقراطية. ج ـ لا يجوز سن قانونٍ يتعارض مع الحقوق والحريات الاساسية الواردة في هذا الدستور. ثانياً : ـ يضمن هذا الدستور الحفاظ على الهوية الاسلامية لغالبية الشعب العراقي، كما ويضمن كامل الحقوق الدينية لجميع الافراد في حرية العقيدة والممارسة الدينية، كالمسيحيين، والايزديين، والصابئة المندائيين. Iraq Constitution, Article 2 C ONFLICTS EMBEDDED IN I RAQI C ONSTITUTION Which provision will triumph if there arises a dispute between a principle of equality and a principle of Islam?

213  International Law in National Courts.  Iraqi Obligations in accordance with International Conventional Law.  Reservations made by Iraq to International Conventions.  A Case Study on the Restriction of Marriage to a Foreigner under National Law and International Law. S ESSION 8: L EGISLATIVE D RAFTING AND I NTERNATIONAL L IMITATIONS

214 I NTERNATIONAL O BLIGATIONS I RAQI RATIFICATIONS : E XAMPLES International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 25 Jan 1971 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 25 Jan 1971 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women 13 Aug 1986 Convention on the Rights of the Child 15 Jun 1994 International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination 14 Jan 1970 United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. Dec 2008 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods 5 March 1990

215  Iraq has made a number of reservations to International Conventions. E XAMPLES OF R ESERVATIONS : A RTICLE 16 CEDAW: R IGHT OF WOMEN TO MARRY Article 16 CEDAW provides for equality of men and women regarding the right to marry, the right to choose a spouse and the right to dissolve a marriage. A RTICLE 2( F ) CEDAW: H ARMFUL CUSTOMARY PRACTICES State Parties must… “take all appropriate measures, including legislation, to modify or abolish existing laws, regulations, customs and practices, which constitute discrimination against women.”  The Constitution also establishes Islam as the official religion, recognizes Islam as a source of legislation, recognizes Islam as part of the Moslem world and guarantees the Islamic identity of the majority. R ESERVATIONS

216 A RTICLE 2( G ) CEDAW: D ISCRIMINATORY P ENAL P ROVISIONS State Parties undertake… “to repeal all national penal provisions which constitute discrimination against women.” - The Iraqi Penal Code contains numerous provisions that are discriminatory towards women:  Paragraph 41: There is no crime where a husband is exercising his right to discipline his wife.  Paragraph 377 punishes the adulteress (wife) regardless of the place where the act has been committed, while the husband is punished for adultery only if he commits the act in the marital home.  Paragraph 380 provides for a minor sentence of imprisonment not to exceed one year in cases where the husband induces his wife to commit adultery.  Article 409 provides for a short imprisonment sentence not to exceed three years when the husband murders his wife upon finding her committing the act of adultery. A RTICLE 14 CRC: F REEDOM OF R ELIGION

217 Cases of Sex Discrimination/ Gender Discrimination -Paragraph 41, provides that there is no crime in a case where a person is exercising his right to discipline his wife. -Paragraph 377 punishes the adulteress (wife) regardless of the place where the act has been committed, while the husband is punished for adultery only if he commits the act in the marital home. -Paragraph 380 provides for a minor sentence of imprisonment not to exceed one year in cases where the husband induces his wife to commit adultery. -Article 409 provides for a short imprisonment sentence not to exceed three years when the husband murders his wife upon finding her committing the act of adultery. I RAQ P ENAL C ODE P ROVISIONS

218 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Article 2: States Parties condemn and eliminate discrimination. Article 3: States Parties take steps in all fields to ensure advancement of women Article 4: Adoption of special measures to accelerate de facto equality and protection المادة (49): اولاً :ـ يتكون مجلس النواب من عدد من الاعضاء بنسبة مقعد واحد لكل مائة ألف نسمة من نفوس العراق يمثلون الشعب العراقي بأكمله، يتم انتخابهم بطريق الاقتراع العام السري المباشر، ويراعى تمثيل سائر مكونات الشعب فيه. ثانياً :ـ يشترط في المرشح لعضوية مجلس النواب ان يكون عراقياً كامل الاهلية. ثالثاً :ـ تنظم بقانونٍ، شروط المرشح والناخب وكل ما يتعلق بالانتخاب. رابعاً :ـ يستهدف قانون الانتخابات تحقيق نسبة تمثيل للنساء لا تقل عن الربع من عدد اعضاء مجلس النواب. خامساً :ـ يقوم مجلس النواب بسنِ قانونٍ يعالج حالات استبدال اعضائه عند الاستقالة أو الاقالة أو الوفاة. سادساً :ـ لا يجوز الجمع بين عضوية مجلس النواب، وأي عملٍ، أو منصبٍ رسمي آخر. Iraq Constitution

219 Article 6: Legislative Steps against prostitution and trafficking. For Instance, in Morocco “Article 51 of the family Code of 2005 provides that “The wife shall bear with the husband the responsibility of managing the household and caring for children” which constitutes a deviation from the traditional rule that the husband has the duty of maintenance while the wife is responsible for the household and raising children. Article 5: States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to modify the social and cultural patterns of conduct of men and women. Article 7: Equal rights in political and public life. Article 8: Equal rights to represent their government internationally and participate in international organizations. Trafficking in women may be for other purposes such as trafficking for childbearing “giving birth to a child and taking the child away” as provided in the Israeli Law October 22, 2006

220 Article 9: Equal rights on issues of nationality of self and children. Article 10: Equal rights in all fields of education. Article 11: Eliminate discrimination in all fields of employment. Article 12: Eliminate discrimination in health care; ensure services in connection with pregnancy. Article 13: Ensure equality in family benefits, financial aspects and cultural life. Article 14: Eliminate discrimination of and ensure development for rural women. Article 15: Legal equality. Article 16: Eliminate discrimination and assure equal rights in family matters and marriage.

221 Definition of Violence Against Women: Comprehensive United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Violence Against Women 1993, Article 2 defines violence against women to include: a. Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, non-spousal violence and violence related to exploitation; b. physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring within the general community, including rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment and intimidation at work; in educational institutes and elsewhere, trafficking in women and forced prostitution; c. physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated or condoned by the state, wherever it occurs.

222 T HE R ESERVATION A RTICLE – T HE “S WISS C HEESE R ATIFICATION  The CEDAW has more reservations than any other Convention.  Most reservations are to Articles 2 and 16

223 E XAMPLES OF R ESERVATIONS TO CEDAW Specific Reservations:  Israel: Reservation regarding Article 7(b) concerning the appointment of women to serve as judges of religious courts  Algeria, Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, U.A.E: Reservation regarding article 9 concerning the granting to women equal rights with men with respect to the nationality of their children.  Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, France, Pakistan, Singapore: Reservation regarding Article 29 concerning submission to the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice. General Reservations:  Saudi Arabia “In case of contradiction between any term of the Convention and norms of Islamic Law, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is not under obligation to observe the contradictory terms of the Convention”

224 F AILURE TO R ATIFY CEDAW Iran, Sudan, Qatar, Somalia, The United States, Nauru, Poland, Tonga. The US Question? (1) General attitude of distrust of the UN and the UN Conventions: The US did not ratify the CRC; most ILO Conventions [till 2004: 14 out of 162]; The Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; The Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant Workers and Members of their Family. (2) Then there is the “Federalism” argument, that many of the obligations stated in the convention are state responsibility not the federal government, including education or medical care, etc. (3) But there are also Specific objections: Article 6: Allows prostitution; Article 10: Allows sex education; Article 12: Allows abortion in family planning; Article 16: allows same sex marriage; Article 29: allows for the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice. (3) Enforcement and Compliance NO!

225 Reporting There are seven Conventions that require State Parties to submit reports:  The Convention of Civil and Political Rights, art 40  The Convention on Economic, social, and cultural Rights art 16, 17  Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial discrimination art 9  The Convention against Torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment art 19  The Convention on protection of the rights of all migrant workers and members of their families art 73  The Convention on the Rights of the child art 44  The Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against women art 18

226 Reporting under CEDAW

227 Concluding Comments  The only jurisdiction the Committee has is to conduct constructive dialogue by submitting concluding remarks. Saudi Arabia: Reconsider its reservations to the Convention Lack of Law on “violence against women” The labor law does not apply to domestic workers Lack of a specific law on combating trafficking in persons Lack of women’s participation in the Suna Council Non-Compliance with article 9 of the Convention regarding Nationality There is no minimum age of marriage Ratification of the optional protocol Syria: Raising awareness about the provisions of the Convention Incorporating the definition of sex discrimination in Article 2 of the Constitution Modifying the Nationality Law Amending the personal status law Drafting a comprehensive law against violence against women Providing shelters for victims of violence against women Drafting a specific law against trafficking in person Increasing women’s participation in local councils Use a quota system in political parties Include sexual harassment in labor law Enable civil society and NGOs to work freely Present the reports before the Punishment for debate Withdrawal of reservations 2, 4, 9, 15 and 16 Lebanon: Drafting a personal status law that applies to all Lebanese regardless of their religion or sect Review of educational curricula regarding the role of men and women Punishing perpetrators of honor killing Making martial rape a crime Enacting a law regarding domestic workers Protecting victims of trafficking in person Drafting a law against domestic violence Withdraw reservations regarding article 16 Ratification of the optional protocol E XAMPLES OF C ONCLUDING C OMMENTS :

228 The Optional Protocol to CEDAW  The Optional Protocol is a supplementary document to CEDAW.  The Optional Protocol was adopted on October 6, 1999 and entered into force on December 22, 2000.  At least 90 countries have ratified the optional protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women.  The Optional protocol provides access to justice for women at the international level, when they are denied access to justice at the national level, without creating any new substantive rights.  A similar mechanism for Individual complaints is created under: - The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) - The Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT) - The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)

229 Optional Protocol, Article 2 and 3

230 Communication No 5/2005 State Party Challenged : AUSTRIA Articles Alleged to be Violated: 1, 2, 3, and 5 FACTS: The victim was the subject of various violent attacks from her husband. He repeatedly choked her and threatened to kill her, which the victim reported to the police. The victim was then shot by her husband in front of her two daughters but survived. Subsequently, the husband stabbed and killed the victim while she was on her way to work.

231 Communication No 10/2005 State Party Challenged : UNITED KINGDOM FACTS: The victim, a Pakistani national was rejected asylum from the UK. She applied on the grounds that her life was under threat from her ex-husband who had subjected her to marital rape and had threatened to kill her at knife-point. Her appeal was rejected by the UK Courts and the European Court of Human Rights. In both cases, the Court encouraged her to relocate within Pakistan. Articles Alleged to be Violated: 2 and 3

232 Communication No 4/2004 State Party Challenged : HUNGARY Articles Alleged to be Violated: 10 (h), 12 and 16, paragraph 1 (e) FACTS: Hungarian Roma women had a caesarean operation after going into labor. The caesarean also involved sterilization for which the victim signed a consent form while on the operating table. The victim argued that she had not been sufficiently informed of the sterilization and could not remember signing the consent note.

233 Communication No 2/2003 FACTS: The victim was the subject of domestic violence at the hands of her husband. After moving out the husband broke into her home after locks were changed and severely hurt the victim; she required hospitalization. The husband was granted the right to enter his home because of his right to property. Articles Alleged to be Violated: 2 (a and b), 3, 5(a) and 16 State Party Challenged : HUNGARY

234 Iraq Civil Status Law No. 65/1972 Chapter I Definitions Article 1: The following words/phrases shall have the meaning assigned next to them: 1.The Minister: The Minister of Interior 2.The Director General: The Director General of the Civil Status 3.The Directorate General: The Directorate General of the Civil Status 4.An Administrative Employee: The Governor, Deputy Governor, Head of a District and Head of a Sub- District 5.The Director of the Civil Status: The Representative of the Directorate of the Civil Status in the governorate center or in the district center with more than one hundred thousand people and where there is a need for establishing a Directorate of the Civil Status Iraqi Official Gazette – Issue No. 2154 Date: June 18, 1972 age No.: Chapter No.: In the Name of the People The Revolution Command Council By virtue of the provisions of Article 42, Paragraph (a) of the Provisional Constitution and based on the presentation of the Minister of Interior; The Revolution Command Council, in its session of May 25, 1972, decided enacting the following Law:

235 6. The Civil Status Registrar: The civil status officer in charge of recording the civil status facts and events in the civil register 7. The Civil Status: What is recorded in the Register in accordance with this Law; including physical, personal and family qualities that distinguish a person from another person and their capacity in the family 8. The competent health authority: the Health Directorate in the Capital and its aides, as well as the medical centers in the governorates and whoever is authorized by the Minister of Health 9. The Iraqi citizen: Any person who enjoys the Iraqi nationality 10. Taxable Peron: All Iraqis and foreigners who are present in Iraq 11. The Civil Status Register: The basic Register which includes the Iraqi civil status entries 12. The Events’ Register: the Register which includes all details of the various civil status events of Iraqis and foreigners residing in Iraq. 13. Sub-registration: A complementary registration process for the civil status of the population of one or more governorates whenever the need arises 14. Event: any civil status event such as birth, marriage, divorce, death…etc. 15. Entry: Iraqi citizen’s data in the Civil Status Register

236 16. Name: the name of a person which distinguishes him from other persons in the Civil Status Register 17. Family: anyone who is married or was married, whether a man, woman or both and their children if any; the husband shall be the head of the family, and if he dies, the head of the family shall be the wife or whoever the family agrees to be its head for the purposes of this Law 18. Family Name: the name of the family which distinguishes it from other families and which is recorded in the Civil Status Register 19. The Civil Status Card (the Identity Card): a legal card, issued by the Directorate General or its subsidiary departments based on the person’s entry in the Civil Status Register, to identify the Iraqi citizens in accordance with a special form approved by the Director General. Chapter II The Duties of the Directorate General of the Civil Status Article 2: The Directorate General of the Civil Status shall be responsible for all things related to the registration of the civil status of Iraqis inside and outside Iraq and maintaining the foreigners’ records who are registered in the public registration in 1957. The Directorate General organizes these events in the form of clear and detailed entries that are recorded in special records. The Directorate General and its subsidiary departments may request any agency/entity to provide what is needed to control the information in their entries, records and statistics. One or more departments shall be established in the center of every administrative unit to be in charge of registering the civil status of the unit’s citizens by virtue of the provisions of this Law. Article 3: The Director General may determine the record templates, forms and official documents in relation with the Directorate General’s work, how they are used and may add to them other forms/templates as he deems necessary.

237 Article 4: If necessary, the Minister may decide to conduct a sub-registration process; the procedures of such a process shall be identified by a regulation. Chapter III The Civil Status Register and the Sub-Registers Article 5: The Civil Status Register which was established after the completion of the registration process in 1957 is considered a firm basis for the civil status events. The Director General may, with the consent of the Minister, add new registers from sub-registration process whenever the need arises. Article 6: 1.The Directorate General shall keep in its bureau the first version of the Civil Status Register where it documents the events, markings, additions and deletions which are inserted in the entries in the second version distributed to the civil status departments in the administrative units by virtue of the official documents presented in accordance with the provisions of the Law. 2. All the explanations in the Civil Status Register shall be considered legal and can not be challenged unless proved otherwise by a decision of a competent authority under the provisions of this Law. 3. a) The relevant Department of Civil Status must provide the Technical Division in the Bureau of the Directorate General with the second copies of the documents executed in the second version of the Civil Status Register under the recommendation of the Director General. b) Information from the documents mentioned in Section (a) of this Article can be extracted from the subsidiary records and can be executed in the Civil Status Register for the period prior to the enforcement of this Law.

238 Article 7: The entries in the Civil Status Register and the explanations in the Events Register shall be confidential. These Registers may be accessed only by the relevant persons, the competent employees, inspectors, the judicial power, prosecution and the recruiting officers to the extent that is relevant to their work. Article 8: The competent Civil Status employee shall be responsible for any manipulation, alteration or misuse of the Civil Status Register and the Events Register in his department. Any amendment, correction, alteration, addition, deletion, omission or mistake that takes place must be certified by his signature, name, date of the transaction and reference to the document by virtue of which the transaction was executed. Article 9: The Directorate General and its subsidiary departments should provide the official and semi- official departments, trade unions, professional associations, federations and associations of public interest with copies of the entries they require after having them certified by the Director General or whoever he authorizes. Such copies shall be exempted from the stamp duty. Article 10: Every person, his parents, children, spouse or whoever legally represents him may ask the competent Department of the Civil Status to provide him with copies of the 1975 entries which are relevant to him or to his family provided that these copies are certified by the Director General or whoever he authorizes. The photographs of the relevant people shall be affixed to the copies, and stamp duty shall be charged.

239 The copies of the entries mentioned in Paragraph (1) of this Article may be restricted to some entry explanations which are recorded in the Civil Status Register in agreement between the Directorate General and the relevant entities. Article 11: The certified copies of the entries shall have the same capacity as the family book and the ID card in all transactions. Article 12: 1.The Minister may send copies of foreigners’ entries which are extracted from the public registration from to their governments via the Ministry of Foreign Affairs provided that they do the same. 2.The Minister may provide foreign entities with copies of Iraqi citizens’ entries provided that they do the same. Chapter IV Names and Family Names Article 13: 1.A name shall be considered full if it includes the person’s name, father’s name, grandfather’s name and the family name consecutively, if available. A person should use his full name in the legal translations, and the official and semi-official departments, in all their transactions, should abide by the full name based on the ID card, Family Book or a copy of the entry that is issued under the provisions of this Law. 2.If the name is not full, the relevant person must complete it in the way outlined in this Law.

240 Article 14: 1.Every person shall enjoy a family name that he is known with, chose or had in the way that will be outlined in a regulation. 2.A person’s family name shall be registered upon sub-registration, new registration or a written application to the relevant Department of the Civil Status which in turn should send the application with its comments to the Director General or whoever he delegates to announce it for one time at the expense of the applicant in one of the ordinary announcement methods. After seven days of the date of announcement, if no objection is filed by other persons, the Director General or whoever he delegates shall add the family name. If an objection is filed, the applicant shall be asked to contact the Court of Conciliation in the place where the objection was filed in order to settle the case and get the necessary verdict in this regard. Article 15: The children in the family shall bear their father’s family name. The Civil Status officer must add this family name when he records the birth event in the family sheet in the Civil Status Register. Article 16: 1. By virtue of a decision by the Director General or whoever he delegates, a wife may: a. enjoy her husband’s family name upon his consent; b. restore her family name before marriage (maiden family name) upon the consent of the husband or whoever legally represents him; and c. restore her maiden family name if she is widowed. 2. In any case of dissolution of the marriage contract by an absolute decision, one of the spouses, or their representatives, may relief the wife from the husband’s family name which she has enjoyed under the provisions of this Article and she may restore her maiden family name.

241 Chapter V Addition, Omission, Deletion and Correction Article 17: If it is found that a certain piece of data is not recorded in the Civil Status Register, or if there is an extra piece of data, including the family name, the Director General or whoever he delegates may give instructions to either add or delete that piece of data in the way that will be stipulated by a regulation based on the due legal documents. Article 18: a.The entries which are repeated and illegitimate, as well as the entries of those who lost the Iraqi nationality, the entries of the Iraqis which do not comply with the legal conditions, the entries of foreigners who are recorded by mistake in the Civil Status Register and the entries of those who are registered as Iraqis and they were proved to be foreigners shall be deleted by a decision of the Director General or his delegate in the way that will be stipulated by a regulation. b.A family member may file a case in the competent Court of Conciliation to nullify and delete any entry/entries of the family members who are allegedly not members of that family. The Court shall grant access to the concerned people from the family members and the competent departments in their capacity as third party in the case. The representative of the Department of the Civil Status shall ask the Court to do so. Article 19: 1. The Director General or his delegate may, upon a written application by the entry bearer, family head, stakeholder and the relevant official and semi-official departments, ask for the correction of all the data which have errors or are unclear in the Civil Status Register entries based on official documents issued by a competent entity.

242 2. The Director General or his delegate may, upon the written application by the entry bearer and family head, change the occupation, academic status, physical impairments and distinguishing marks whenever a change occurs in these respects. 3. The party that issues the documents based on which the events are recorded in the Civil Status Register shall be committed to correcting any mistakes or lack of clarity provided this does not conflict with the provisions of Article 27 of this Law. 4. The copies of birth and death entries may not be accepted unless their contents are recorded in the Civil Status Register and they are certified by the relevant Department of the Civil Status. 5. The relevant person mentioned in Paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article may challenge the decision of the Director General before the competent Court of Conciliation within thirty days of the notification date of the decision in this regard. Article 20: 1.A person may correct his full name, mother’s name and grandfather’s name from the mother’s side which are recorded in the Civil Status Register for one time only under the provisions of this Law and he may change his first name and family name for one time only provided he does not change the parents’ and grandparents’ names. 2.A non-Muslim person may convert to another religion under the provisions of this Law. Article 21: 1.A lawsuit for changing the name or family name or correcting the age and the parents’ and grandparents’ names recorded in the Civil Status Register may be filed in the Court of Conciliation if it was not possible to prove the correction before the Directorate of the Civil Status by virtue of Article 19 of this Law upon the request of the entry bearer or any relevant person with the exceptions outlined in Article 28 of this Law. In changing the name or family name, there should be compelling reasons for such a change. The Court shall announce the change application in one of the newspapers for one time at the expense of the applicant and shall decide on the case after ten days at least as of the announcement date. The verdict/decision shall be implemented after enjoying the absolute status.

243 2. Converting to a different religion shall take place in the Shari’a Court or the Personal Status Court according to their competencies. The name may be changed by these courts if it is combined with the conversion of religion. The decision and Shari’a evidence issued in this regard shall be recorded in the Civil Status Register. 3. The minor children shall follow the religion of the parent who converted to Islam. Article 22: The Director General or his delegate shall be the opponent in the lawsuit which is filed under the provisions of this Law. Article 23: The employee who is delegated on behalf of the Director General in the lawsuit which is filed under this Law is not required to have a bachelor degree in law. Article 24: The plaintiff shall be responsible for paying the fees, wages and expenses he spends/incurs in the lawsuit which is filed under the provisions of this Law regardless of the outcome of the lawsuit. Article 25: The lawsuit shall be filed in a court in the person’s place of registration, and the plaintiff should produce to the court a copy of his entry and a copy of the entry of his family members duly certified from the relevant Civil Status Department.

244 Article 26: If the case concerns the right of a third party, the court and the Civil Status employee must involve the third party in the case. A third party may include: 1.The father and mother, if the correction application concerns one of them; 2.The brothers and sisters if the correction application concerns both or one of the parents’ entry, if one of them was dead. If some of them could not be involved, the court may suffice by those available for reasons it estimates without prejudice to the right of others. 3.The guardian, trustee or custodian if the change or correction application concerns a person who lacks eligibility or who is absent. In case these people are not available, the third party shall be the representative of the Minors Fund Directorate. 4.The department head, institution director, trade union/professional association president or director general of the Pension and Social Security Corporation or his delegate if the change or correction application concerns one of the people involved in the service or pension laws. 5.The head of the competent health authority or his delegate if the change or correction application concerns the date of birth by virtue of the birth certificate. The prosecutor must produce a copy of the birth certificate. 6.The director of the public recruitment or his delegate if the change or correction application concerns the name, family name or age of one of the persons who are included under the provision of the Military Service Law, or if the correction of age would ??? the age of the military service, or if it concerns the correction of his father’s or grandfather’s correct name. 7.The head of the department – or his delegate – who is in charge of disbursement of the pension if the change or correction concerns a pensioner or someone with a right to pension.

245 Article 27: 1.The lawsuit shall be rejected if the change/correction application would inflict harm to minors’ rights. 2.Courts shall not look into any change/correction lawsuits: 1.if the application shows that the birth event took place after the execution of the birth notification recorded in the Civil Status Register under the 1957 public registration or after recording the person in the Civil Status Register according to the December 10, 1957 registration or after the date of registration for a second time in the Civil Status Register under the mentioned registration. 2.if the application involves the correction of the date of birth if the even of birth takes place in a public or private hospital. 3.if the application conflicts with the date of birth which is duly certified by a competent official entity and enjoys the absolute status; this is regarding the people who are included under the service and pension laws. 4.if the application concerns a change/correction that was made by a competent court or relevant official entity and enjoys the absolute status. Article 28: The correction of the ages of the people who are subject to the provisions of the Military Service Law shall be the responsibility of the recruits testing committees in the following conditions without prejudice to the provisions of Article 27, Paragraph 2, of this Law. Two copies of their decision shall be sent to the competent Civil Status Department. 1.If the age of the registered person is between the beginning of the nineteen years old and the end of the forty five years old based on the Calendar year and completes the age of eighteen years as of the first day of the first month of the year in which he turns out eighteen. 2.If the person had been invited to the military service and his date of birth was documented based on the first invitation for those who were born in 1917 or if he is already in the army in the capacity of a volunteer. 3.If there is doubt that the registered person’s age is not eligible for military service provided that the correction be within the military service age.

246 Article 29: Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 28 of this Law, the absolute decisions of the objection committee stated in Article 4, Paragraph 2, of the Military Service Law No. 65/1969 in the Civil Status Register as well as the recruits testing committees after enjoying the absolute status when the objection period elapses or if no objection is filed against them. The mentioned committees shall provide the relevant Civil Status Department with two copies of the decisions for the purpose of implementing them. Chapter VI The Civil Status Events New Registration Article 30: Every Iraqi whose registration was not possible in the public registration process shall be registered after checking his nationality as well as any foreigner who obtains the Iraqi nationality in accordance with a way that shall be outlined by a regulation. Article 31: The birth and death events shall be registered in the Civil Status Register by virtue of certificates that are issued in accordance with the Births and Deaths Registration Law. Article 32: 1.The Juvenile Court shall confidentially send a copy of the relevant decision to the Directorate General to designate the name of foundlings or anyone whose parents are not know, the date and place of birth, the institution which hosts him and the date of finding him. 2.Any foundling shall be considered an Iraqi Muslim unless proved otherwise.

247 1.The Juvenile Court shall send the Ministry of Health and the Directorate General a copy of the decision on the arrangements of the child who lacks enough information concerning his parents’ sheet and their names because one/both of them are dead or one/both of them are absent. The copy of the decision shall include the name of the child, his family name, his parents’ and grandparents’ names, date and place of birth and age based on the report of a forensic doctor. The Ministry of Health shall issue the birth certificate. 2.The birth events of foundlings, children of unknown parents, children of people who are absent, deceased or those people who have been severed for the notification period mentioned in the Law shall exclude the birth and death events. The Juvenile Court decision shall serve as a notification in this regard. Article 33: The foundling, children of unknown parents, children of people who are absent, missing, deceased and illegitimate children shall be registered in the way outlined in a regulation. Article 34: Upon receiving a birth certificate from a non-Iraqi father, the relevant Civil Status Department shall record the data in the form of an entry that is added to the family’s sheet in the Civil Status Register in the way outlined in a regulation. Article 35: Upon receiving the death certificate, the relevant Civil Status employee who is responsible for that entry shall record the death event in the Events Register. The deceased person’s entry and the entry of his children in the Civil Status Register shall be marked accordingly. The marital status shall be amended consequently.

248 Article 36: A special sheet may be opened in the Civil Status Register for every new family. Marriage, Divorce, Dissolving Marriage and Separation Article 37: 1.The Shari’a Courts and Personal Status Courts shall provide the relevant Civil Status Department with two copies of the marriage, divorce, dissolving marriage or separation deed after enjoying the absolute status. It should include the number of the sheet, civil status register and name of the civil status department from the civil status ID card for the spouses, if available, as well as a description of the status of the spouses before marriage. 2.If the spouses did not produce the civil status ID card and the court decided to register the marriage, it may keep the deed mentioned in Paragraph (1) of this Article until the ID card is provided and give the spouses a marriage registration certificate. 3.The marriage, divorce, dissolving marriage or separation of an Iraqi woman from a foreigner, the wife’s entry shall be marked in the Civil Status Register. The husband and his children shall only be registered with her when the husband obtains the Iraqi nationality. 4.The marriage, divorce, dissolving marriage or separation of an Iraqi man from his foreign wife shall be registered in the Events Register. The husband’s entry shall be marked in the Civil Status Register and his children shall be registered with him. 5.Anyone of the two spouses may file a lawsuit before the Shari’a or Personal Status Courts to correct the date of marriage, divorce, dissolving marriage or separation, spouse’s name in the Shari’a evidence.

249 6. If both spouses died and left children and their marriage contract has not been registered, the guardian, trustee or custodian may file a lawsuit against one of the heirs or against anyone who is legally eligible to act as an opponent for the purpose of proving the marriage and parenthood. 7. If one of the spouses died and the marriage contract has not been registered, the live spouse may file a lawsuit against one of the heirs of the deceased spouse or against anyone who is legally eligible to act as an opponent for the purpose of proving the marriage. 8.In case of marriage, divorce, dissolving marriage or separation before consummation, this shall be marked in the Civil Status Register so that every one of the spouses returns back to their status before marriage in the way outlined by a regulation. 9.Upon receiving the deeds mentioned in this Article, the Civil Status Department should register them in the Events Register and unite or split both spouses entries in the way outlined by a regulation. Article 38: Every Iraqi who lives outside Iraq should report to the relevant Iraqi Consulate or an equivalent entity any event of marriage, divorce, dissolving marriage or separation that he is involved in under this Law. This shall be based on the data issued by the competent foreign entities after having them certified by the Iraqi Mission or an equivalent entity or based on the approval of that Mission in case the person in question does not have the mentioned data. It shall report such events to the Director General for the purpose of registering and marking them in the Civil Status Register provided that such events do not conflict with the provisions of the Iraqi laws. Upon the recommendation of the Director General, the Minister may authorize the Iraqi missions or their equivalents in the foreign country with all or some of the powers stated in this Law for the purpose of implementing its provisions. He also may appoint a Civil Status Registrar in any of them, if the need arises, in the way outlined by a regulation. The Directorate General shall undertake the transactions stipulated in this law for the Iraqi communities abroad in the Iraqi Communities Register in the Directorate General’s Bureau in the way outlined by a regulation.

250 4. Internal Immigration Article 39: 1.The permanent place of residence for an Iraqi citizen in Iraq shall be the place where his entry is in the Civil Status Register and shall be referred to as ‘residence’ for the purposes of this Law. 2.The permanent place of residence for the married woman shall be her husband’s place of residence if the marital relationship is still valid. 3.The place of residence of a minor after the death of his father shall be the residence of his father and mother or whoever represents them legally. Article 40: If the family head and the family members who are registered with him changed their place of residence from the district of a Civil Status Department to another administrative unit for the purpose of permanently residing there, the head of the family should execute the internal immigration statement in two copies listing the names of the family members whose entries need to be transferred and the compelling reasons for that. The statement shall be signed by the administrative officer/mayor and two witnesses in the new place of residence. The statement shall be certified from the competent administrative employee and shall be submitted by the head of the family to the Civil Status Department in the place he is moving to in order to obtain the necessary decision by virtue of Article 42 of the Law. Article 41: Upon receiving the immigration statement, the Civil Status Department shall ask for a copy of the family entry from the relevant Civil Status Department. After receiving the copy, it shall send it together with the first copy of the immigration statement to the Directorate General to issue the necessary decision by the Director General or his delegate to transfer the entry from the old place of residence to the new place of residence. At least three years should elapse before another decision may be issued regarding the transfer to another district, except those who retire after the transfer; provided that they spend the required period if they apply for the transfer of their entry for another time. Based on the recommendation of the Director General, the Minister may not apply this Article to maintain the public interest.

251 Article 42: Upon the issuance of the decision by the Director General of his delegate to transfer the entry to the new place of residence, the Civil Status Department in the new place of residence shall record the certified entries in the Events Register and open a special sheet in the Civil Status Register and report this to the Directorate General and the Civil Status Department in the old place of residence. Article 43: The one family entries may not be divided into different parts of the Civil Status Register. Article 44: The Civil Status Department may transfer the entries of those registered in the public institutions and other places upon the request of the person(s) in question to their permanent place of residence. This case shall not be considered as changing the place of residence but rather uniting the entry. Chapter VII The Civil Status ID Card Article 45: 1.Every Iraqi may request the relevant Civil Status Department, in writing, to provide him with a civil status ID card which is executed according to his entry in the civil register by paying 50 Fils stamp duty. The ID card should have the photo of the person and be certified from the Director General or his delegate in the way stipulated by a regulation. 2.The Director General may authorize the civil status directorates in the governorates and the civil status departments in the districts the power of certifying, binding, pressing, stamping and issuing the civil status ID cards executed by those directorates/departments or incoming cards from other affiliated department after being certified.

252 3. A copy of the photograph on the civil status ID card shall be affixed to the register of dispensing the IDs in the way outlined in a regulation. 4. The Minister shall determine the term or validity of the civil status ID card. The 1957 family book shall continue to be applicable until the Minister determines the termination of the family book. This shall be done by sending a statement to be published in the Official Gazette. 5. The ID card mentioned in Paragraph (1) of this Article shall only be executed if the entry fields were complete. 6. When the family book was made void in 1957, all the official and semi-official and government departments shall only accept the Iraqi ID card issued by virtue of Paragraph (1) of this Article. 7. An ID card may be issued without the need for a photograph for the baby who is less than one year old and for the Muslim women who wear veils in the conservative families who are known to wear such veils. This shall be certified by the competent administrative employee. Article 46: 1.The Director General or his delegate may cancel the ID card after withdrawing it, keep it and issue another one after the payment of one hundred Fils stamp duty by the bearer of the ID in the following cases: 1.If a decision is issued by a competent entity to correct or change the ID data; 2.After the passage of six years of issuing the ID card for those who have not completed eighteen years of age; 3.After the passage of ten years of issuing the ID card for those who completed eighteen years of age; 2.The ID card shall be void after withdrawing and keeping it if the employee made a mistake while executing it. Another ID card shall be executed after the payment of fifty Fils stamp duty by the bearer if it was made void before binding it or by the competent employee if it was made void after binding it. 3.An ID card may be issued to replace the lost/damaged one upon the request of the bearer/relevant person after the Civil Status Department checks how it was lost/damaged. A half Dinar stamp duty shall be paid.

253 Chapter VIII Miscellaneous Provisions Article 48: 1.The Civil Status Department shall prepare a list of the names of all the males who have to attend for the military service and who are registered in the Civil Status Register and have completed eighteen years of age in accordance with the Military Service Law. Two copies of the list shall be sent to the competent recruiting officer and another copy shall be sent to the district’s Recruitment Directorate. The Civil Status Department shall ensure the delivery of the three copies to the above mentioned entities prior to the fifteenth of February of that year’s batch and it shall keep a forth copy. 2.The Civil Status Department shall inform the competent recruiting officer of any new events of registration, changing the place of residence, deletion, correction and change of name, family name, names of the parents and grandparents and date of birth of the people who are subject to the provisions of the Military Service Law within seven days of the date of registration, and it shall mark the Civil Status Register accordingly. Article 49: Every transaction that has to do with any of the Civil Status Register’s entries should bear the numbers of the sheet and register and the name of the administrative unit. Article 50: There should be enough allocations in the Directorate General’s annual budget for the purpose of printing the registers, data, ID cards and forms. Article 51: The Director General may inspect the other civil status directorates/departments and their affiliates whenever there is a need. He may delegate this task to other employees of the Directorate General.

254 Article 52: Whoever commits the following actions shall be punished by imprisonment for not more than three years or a fine not more than five hundred Dinars or by both penalties: 1.Everyone who knows that he is already registered in the civil status register and he attempts to register his name for a second time in it. 2.Everyone who did help record a person in the civil status register for a second time and he knew that person has been already registered. 3.Everyone who is a foreigner and he registered himself as Iraqi while he knows that he is a foreigner. 4.Everyone who helps a foreigner register himself as Iraqi while he knows that he is a foreigner. 5.Everyone who applies for any registration, addition, change, correction, omission or deletion of any data in the civil status register in a way that is contrary to the facts. Article 53: 1.Anyone who violates the provisions of this Law and the ensuing regulations and instructions shall be punished by imprisonment for not more than three months, a fine not more than ten Dinars or by both penalties. 2.Any Iraqi who lives outside Iraq and applies for a second time registration shall be excluded from the provision of Paragraph (1) of this Article. Article 54: If the offense liable to be punishment by this Law was also liable to punishment by another law, the accused person shall receive the more extreme punishment.

255 Article 55: Based on a decision by the Director General or his delegate, the civil status departments may transfer all the events and markings which took place between December 10, 1975 and January 1, 1962 in the 1947 registers to the 1957 registers. Article 56: Any text which contradicts or hinders the implementation of the provisions of this Law shall not be applicable. Article 57: Regulations may be issued to facilitate the implementation of the provisions of this Law. Article 58: The Civil Status Law No. 189/1964 and its amendments shall be abolished. The provisions of the regulations issued by virtue of that law shall remain applicable without prejudice to the provisions of this Law. Article 59: This Law shall come into force after two months of the date of publication in the Official Gazette. Article 60: The ministers shall implement this Law. Ahmad Hassan Al-Baker President of the Revolution Command Council Published in the Official Gazette No. 2154 on June 18, 1972

256 The Rationale Whereas the Revolution Command Council’s Resolution No. 628 of March 6, 1970 delegated the Ministry of Health to be responsible for the task of the general census stipulated in the Civil Status Law which was amended by the Central Organization for Statistics and everything that has to do with births and deaths by virtue of Birth and Death Registration Law No. 148/1971; Whereas some legislations have been issued regarding the civil status such as the Military Service Law and the Labor Law; and Whereas the practical applications showed certain gaps in the Law and for the purpose of easing the procedures and facilitating the best means to complete the transactions and render the services of the Directorate of the Civil Status to the citizens outside the country in cooperation with the Iraqi consulates which shall be authorized to look into the Iraqis’ transactions in the countries which have Iraqi communities; a new legislation has been considered to replace the applicable law and take into consideration the above mentioned points; This Law has been enacted for the above mentioned points.

257 F OLLOW I NTERNATIONAL G UIDELINES Article 3 For the purposes of this Protocol: ( a ) "Trafficking in persons" shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs; ( b ) The consent of a victim of trafficking in persons to the intended exploitation set forth in subparagraph ( a ) of this article shall be irrelevant where any of the means set forth in subparagraph ( a ) have been used; ( c ) The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation shall be considered "trafficking in persons" even if this does not involve any of the means set forth in subparagraph ( a ) of this article; ( d ) "Child" shall mean any person under eighteen years of age. United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime

258 Arab Charter of Human Rights 2004 League of Arab States Article 33 1.The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society; it is based on marriage between a man and a woman. Men and women of marrying age have the right to marry and to found a family according to the rules and conditions of marriage. No marriage can take place without the full and free consent of both parties. The laws in force regulate the rights and duties of the man and woman as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. 2.The State and society shall ensure the protection of the family, the strengthening of family ties, the protection of its members and the prohibition of all forms of violence or abuse in the relations among its members, and particularly against women and children. They shall also ensure the necessary protection and care for mothers, children, older persons and persons with special needs and shall provide adolescents and young persons with the best opportunities for physical and mental development.


260 Egyptian Child Protection Law





















































313 Iraq Child Protection Law















328 Model Violence Against Women Law