Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4: Sin and the Commandments"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 4: Sin and the Commandments OUR MORAL LIFE IN CHRIST
2 1. What Is Sin? (pp. 88–93)ANTICIPATORY SET Opening Prayer on the Parable of the Prodigal Son. As a class, complete Practical Exercise 1 on “God, freedom, sin, and repentance.”
3 1. What Is Sin? (pp. 88–93)BASIC QUESTIONS ❏ What is the origin and character of Original Sin? ❏ What are the origin and nature of physical and moral evil? ❏ What is sin? ❏ How is sin presented in Scripture? KEY IDEAS ❏ The origin of Original Sin is the sin of Adam and Eve. Through Original Sin, the human race lost many of its privileges; instead, each person inherits a nature inclined to sin. ❏ Physical and moral evil entered the world through Original Sin. Physical evil is physical and mental suffering. Moral evil is a deliberate infraction of God’s Law or his will. ❏ There are three definitions of sin: anything that violates the eternal or moral law or disordered love for created things over God. ❏ The Old Testament likens sin to a child’s disobedience to a loving father and to an adulterous wife’s unfaithfulness to a loving husband. In the New Testament, sin is divinely personalized in Christ, who underwent suffering to redeem fallen man.
4 1. What Is Sin? (pp. 88–93)Guided Exercise Complete the following graphic to list the privileges Adam and Eve enjoyed before the Fall and the consequences of their sin for all their descendents.
6 1. What Is Sin? (pp. 88–93)FOCUS QUESTIONS ❏ How do human beings “contract” Original Sin? The effects of Original Sin are automatically transmitted through human generation. ❏ What is concupiscence? It is the condition of man’s wounded nature that is inclined to sin.
7 1. What Is Sin? (pp. 88–93)GUIDED EXERCISE Work with a partner to analyze Christ’s advice from the Gospel of St. Matthew in light of St. Thomas Aquinas’ definition of sin as an inordinate love for creatures: “Do not lay up for yourselves treasures on earth, where moth and rust consume and where thieves break in and steal, but lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust consumes and where thieves do not break in and steal. For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.” (Mt 6:19–21) A think / pair / share on the following question: ❏ What is some evidence that each of us possesses a nature inclined to sin?
8 1. What Is Sin? (pp. 88–93)Guided Exercise Complete the following graphic to summarize the three classic definitions of sin.
10 1. What Is Sin? (pp. 88–93)❏ What is physical evil? Physical evil is a natural and often catastrophic hardship that causes physical harm to man. Examples include tornadoes, tidal waves, and epidemics. Physical evil includes all physical and mental sufferings man experiences. ❏ What is moral evil? Moral evil is a deliberate infraction of God’s Law or a rejection of God’s will that harms both the acting subject and those individuals who are the objects of that act. ❏ What is the relationship between both kinds of evils and Original Sin? Both physical and moral evil entered the world with Original Sin, and much physical evil is directly caused by moral evil. ❏ What is the source of most of the suffering in the world? Moral evil is the source of most of the misery people suffer.
11 1. What Is Sin? (pp. 88–93)❏ Outside of physical evil that is the result of natural forces, does moral evil sometimes result in physical evil? Grinding poverty, famine, and starvation can be caused by evil regimes. Pollution, contamination, and infectious diseases can be caused by man’s failure to act as a good steward of creation. Assault causes physical harm to the victim. ❏ What is dignity? Dignity is worthiness, or that which makes man deserving of respect. ❏ How does sin rob man of dignity? It lessens man’s high standing to some degree, reduces his freedom and self‑control, and distances him from God. ❏ Why is it an error to see sin only as a direct, malicious affront against God? Direct malice toward God is not necessary to sin.
12 1. What Is Sin? (pp. 88–93)❏ How does the error of seeing sin only as malice toward God relate to the error of the “fundamental option”? Both see sin exclusively as something between God and the individual that does not touch the individual’s other actions. ❏ How is all sin a form of idolatry? The sinner places the good he expects to receive before God’s will. ❏ How do sins of the flesh especially reflect inordinate attachment to created goods or selfish goals, which take precedence over the will of God? Under the influence of sensual desire, a person rejects God’s will to satisfy his or her desire.
13 1. What Is Sin? (pp. 88–93)❏ What is the effect of sin on the human heart?While sin poses as something that will satisfy the heart, in fact, it leaves the person feeling empty.❏ Why is sin the only real evil on earth?Only sin can harm the soul.
14 1. What Is Sin? (pp. 88–93)❏ What is the overriding notion of sin in the Old Testament? Obedience to God’s Law demonstrates love of God and results in protection and generous assistance. Disobedience or rejection of his Law is infidelity to God’s covenant and ingratitude for his unmitigated love. ❏ What does it mean to say that, in the New Testament, sin is more divinely personalized than in the Old Testament? Sin is divinely personalized in the New Testament in that human sin is the reason for the Incarnation and the Passion and Death of Jesus Christ. ❏ What do both Testaments reveal about sin? They both reveal how sin damages man and how God ardently wants to forgive the sinner. The analogy that began as an offended lover culminates with the love of Jesus Christ, demonstrated by his Death on the Cross.
15 1. What Is Sin? (pp. 88–93)GUIDED EXERCISE A think / pair / share on the following prompt: ❏ Relate (a) the Old Testament sense of sin as an action that abuses God’s love and prevents his sons and daughters from receiving his loving care to (b) one of the classic definitions of sin. Conduct a paragraph shrink on the paragraph beginning, “The reparation and Redemption...” (p. 93).
16 1. What Is Sin? (pp. 88–93)CLOSURE Write a paragraph summarizing how each of the two Testaments views sin.
17 1. What Is Sin? (pp. 88–93)HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT ❏ Study Questions 1–16 (p. 121) ❏ Practical Exercises 1–5 (p. 123) ❏ Workbook Questions 1–5 ❏ Read “Mortal and Venial Sins” through “Contrition,” including the sidebar “God Forgives, So Why Confess?” (pp. 94–102)
18 1. What Is Sin? (pp. 88–93)ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT Assume that someone rejects the existence of Original Sin. What evidence can you offer to show that Original Sin is, nevertheless, a very sensible doctrine that accounts for the state of the world today?
19 2. Effects of Sin and Reconciliation (pp. 94–102) ANTICIPATORY SET Opening Prayer on Luke 19:1–10, the story of Zacchaeus. This lesson will focus on the change God wants to happen inside each person.
20 2. Effects of Sin and Reconciliation (pp. 94–102) BASIC QUESTIONS ❏ What are mortal and venial sin? ❏ What are formal, implicit formal, and material forms of cooperation in evil? ❏ In God’s economy of salvation, how are sins forgiven? KEY IDEAS ❏ Mortal sin is a grave matter carried out with full knowledge and with complete consent of the will. It separates one from God. Venial sin is a lesser offense against God that does not definitively separate one from him. ❏ Formal cooperation is deliberate cooperation in an evil act. Implicit formal cooperation facilitates another’s sinful act. Material cooperation is playing a role in an evil action without consenting to it. One may never explicitly or implicitly cooperate in the sin of another, but material cooperation in evil may be permitted under certain conditions. ❏ Although God can forgive sins any way he wishes, his forgiveness is especially channeled through the Sacraments of Baptism and Reconciliation.
21 2. Effects of Sin and Reconciliation (pp. 94–102) GUIDED EXERCISE A think / pair / share: ❏ Since it is not possible to commit a mortal sin by accident, does it follow that one cannot commit a mortal sin without a desire to offend God directly or explicitly? Work with a partner to write a bullet‑point summary of Supplementary Reading 2 from In the Beginning by Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger on the loss of the sense of sin.
22 2. Effects of Sin and Reconciliation (pp. 94–102) ❏ What do “the loss of the meaning of sin” and “the loss of sense of sin” mean? The loss of the meaning of sin refers to the idea that sin does not have any real importance; for example, the word “sin” is just a label to describe arbitrary norms of moral conduct. The loss of the sense of sin is acceptance of behavior that was once universally rejected, for example, divorce, abortion, assisted suicide, homosexual activity, and pornography. ❏ Why is the recovery of a sense of sin the first step in establishing the Kingdom of God? If you do not know you are a sinner and do not realize you are capable of committing any sin, you will not see your need for help or your need for God. ❏ How does confusion between what is moral and what is legal decrease the sense of sin? People falsely conclude that, if something is legal it must be moral, whereas, in fact, an immoral law must be opposed by conscience.
23 2. Effects of Sin and Reconciliation (pp. 94–102) ❏ What is mortal sin? It is a grave offense against God that destroys our relationship with him. ❏ What are the three conditions that must be met for a sin to be mortal? It must be (1) a grave matter (2) carried out with full knowledge with (3) complete consent of the will. ❏ What is the effect on the gravity of the sin if one of the three conditions for mortal sin is not met? It is a venial sin.
24 2. Effects of Sin and Reconciliation (pp. 94–102) ❏ What is a venial sin? It is a less serious act that offends the love of God without separating us from him. ❏ Why should we worry about venial sins? Besides the fact that they offend God, they can lead to mortal sin and a life of vice. ❏ What should our attitude be toward venial sin and the Sacrament of Reconciliation? Because venial sin weakens our relationship with God, it is recommended that we confess venial sins frequently in order to avoid mortal sin.
25 2. Effects of Sin and Reconciliation (pp. 94–102) GUIDED EXERCISE A think / pair / write / share: Imagine you are an African‑American moral relativist who was suddenly transported back to the United States during the 1830s. Runaway‑slave hunters capture you and sell you to a plantation owner who puts you to work. ❏ On what basis would you argue that slavery is wrong and that you and the rest of the slaves should be released? A think / pair / share on the following prompt: ❏ In the example of someone who stocks shelves in a store that sells contraceptives, how would the clerk’s moral responsibility change under the following conditions? • He works in a kiosk that only sells contraceptives. • He is the owner of a store that sells contraceptives.
26 2. Effects of Sin and Reconciliation (pp. 94–102) ❏ What is meant by faulty psychology contributing to the loss of the sense of sin? Psychology contributes to the loss of the sense of sin when psychological arguments are used to attack Christian morality. For example, some people claim that self‑control is unhealthy repression or that guilt and shame are evils, rather than reliable indicators of a healthy conscience reacting to sin. ❏ What is secular humanism? It is a philosophy that rejects any reference to God or religion and seeks the improvement of human society through purely human means: science, social organization, human reason, and the like. ❏ How does secular humanism contribute to the loss of the sense of sin? While there is no inherent reason a philosophy based on reason should increase immorality, secular humanism has adopted positions opposed to the traditional understanding of the moral law. It is anti‑religious, rejects the idea of a universal moral law, and leaves moral decisions up to the individual.
27 2. Effects of Sin and Reconciliation (pp. 94–102) ❏ Why may one never cooperate in the sin of another? If you do, you sin also. ❏ What is formal cooperation, and what is an example of it? Formal cooperation, or explicit formal cooperation, is a willing cooperation in an evil act, such as a doctor who assists another doctor in performing an abortion. ❏ What is implicit formal cooperation, and what is an example of it? Implicit formal cooperation means not directly taking part in the act but making the act easier or possible to be performed. It is consent and cooperation in the evil act. An example is voting for a law allowing same‑sex “marriage.”
28 2. Effects of Sin and Reconciliation (pp. 94–102) ❏ What is material cooperation in evil? It is when one plays a role in an evil act but does not deliberately consent to it. For example, a clerk in a large department store has to stock any shelves that need stocking, including the contraceptives. Under certain conditions, a person who materially cooperates in evil is not morally responsible. ❏ What are the three conditions that allow material cooperation in an evil? (1) The evil must not be a direct result of the cooperator’s act. (2) The cooperator must not intend the evil that occurs. (3) There must be no possibility of scandal. Extension: According to St. Thomas Aquinas, scandal is a word or evil action that occasions another’s spiritual ruin.
29 2. Effects of Sin and Reconciliation (pp. 94–102) ❏ What theme did St. John the Baptist and Christ share in their public preaching? The need to repent or turn away from sin is a prerequisite to accepting the Gospel. ❏ What are the apparent and real meanings of the expression that God is “offended” by our sins? The apparent meaning is that God gets upset at our offenses, just like we would. The actual meaning, however, is that he sees the injury we inflict on ourselves, something against his will. ❏ What is the mystery of God’s love? God is like the lover who suffers when his beloved is injured in any way. God is “hurt” by of our self‑inflicted sins to the point that he was willing to undergo immense suffering in his Passion and Death on the Cross.
30 2. Effects of Sin and Reconciliation (pp. 94–102) ❏ What are the two main channels of God’s forgiveness? The Sacraments of Baptism and Reconciliation. ❏ Why is it necessary to confess mortal sins in kind and number? The minister of the Sacrament has to make a judgment and needs to know the specific nature of the sin and how habitual it has become. ❏ Why is confession of venial sins not necessary but recommended? Venial sins do not sever one’s friendship with Christ. Nevertheless, it is good to confess them in the Sacrament of Reconciliation because it does forgive those sins and gives one grace to avoid them in the future.
31 2. Effects of Sin and Reconciliation (pp. 94–102) GUIDED EXERCISE: A mini‑lecture on God’s forgiveness and our freedom. ❏ Is God all‑powerful? ❏ Is there anything God cannot do? ❏ God has created us with a free will, and he will never override our freedom. ❏ As a consequence, he will not forgive us unless we repent. Even though God loves us and unconditionally forgives us, he will not help us unless we take a step toward him. God will help us take that step but he will not force us to take it.
32 2. Effects of Sin and Reconciliation (pp. 94–102) GUIDED EXERCISE Based on the sidebar, “God Forgives, So Why Confess?” complete Practical Exercise 4 (p. 123) about the need for Confession.
33 2. Effects of Sin and Reconciliation (pp. 94–102) ❏ What is contrition? Contrition is sorrow for having offended God and firm purpose of avoiding sin in the future. ❏ What is the difference between perfect and imperfect contrition? Perfect contrition is sorrow that springs from love of God. Imperfect contrition comes from fear of bad consequences, such as punishment. ❏ If perfect contrition forgives sin, why is it necessary to go to Confession? One never knows if his or her own contrition is really perfect.
34 2. Effects of Sin and Reconciliation (pp. 94–102) GUIDED EXERCISE Work with a partner to think of three situations that a high school or college student ought to avoid if he or she really wants to follow Christ. For each situation, think of a positive alternative. A think / pair / write / share on the following question: ❏ Why must contrition include the intention never to commit the sin again?
35 2. Effects of Sin and Reconciliation (pp. 94–102) HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT ❏ Study Questions 17–38 (pp. 121–122) ❏ Practical Exercises 6–8 (p. 123) ❏ Workbook Questions 6–22 ❏ Read “The Last Things” (pp. 102–107)
36 2. Effects of Sin and Reconciliation (pp. 94–102) CLOSURE Write a paragraph about the causes of the loss of a sense of sin examined in this lesson you consider to be most important.
37 2. Effects of Sin and Reconciliation (pp. 94–102) ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT Discuss the story of the conversion of Zacchaeus in terms of repentance, perfect or imperfect contrition, and purpose of amendment.
38 3. The Last Things (pp. 102–107)ANTICIPATORY SET Free write for a few minutes on the following question: ❏ Why does the pilgrim Church simply not free all the souls from Purgatory as an act of mercy?
39 3. The Last Things (pp. 102–107)BASIC QUESTIONS ❏ What is the Particular Judgment? ❏ Can we help the souls in Purgatory? ❏ What are Hell, Heaven, and the Parousia? KEY IDEAS ❏ The Particular Judgment is when each soul is judged by Christ immediately upon death and then enters either Heaven (either directly or after purification) or Hell. ❏ We can aid the souls in Purgatory through our prayers, Masses, indulgences, alms, and sacrifices. ❏ Hell is the state of self‑chosen eternal separation from God, who is the only source of life and happiness. Heaven is the state of complete happiness with the rest of the blessed souls in enjoying the vision of God. The Parousia is the Second Coming of Christ and the Final Judgment at the end of time.
40 3. The Last Things (pp. 102–107)❏ Why is death the end of one’s opportunity to shape his or her supernatural destiny? At death, the possibility of merit, demerit, or conversion ceases. ❏ What are the three states awaiting the souls at their judgments? The three states are Heaven, Purgatory (followed by Heaven), and Hell. ❏ What are the two judgments spoken of in the New Testament? There is (1) the final meeting with Christ when he comes again, which is the Last or General Judgment, and (2) the retribution immediately after each one’s death as a consequence of one’s faith and deeds, which is the Particular Judgment. ❏ What is the Particular Judgment? Each person, in his immortal soul, stands before the judgment seat of Christ and receives his eternal reward: Heaven, a period of purification before Heaven, or eternal condemnation.
41 3. The Last Things (pp. 102–107)GUIDED EXERCISE Work with a partner to perform a focused reading of the paragraph, “Sin has a double...” (p. 105) using the following question: ❏ Why is sin, something that does not particularly bother many souls before death, suddenly become painful in Purgatory?
42 3. The Last Things (pp. 102–107)GUIDED EXERCISE A guided meditation on the vision of God based on the ideas of goodness, truth, and beauty.See Teacher Edition for instructions
43 3. The Last Things (pp. 102–107)❏ What is Heaven? It is the state of everlasting life in which the blessed see God, become like him in glory, and enjoy eternal happiness. ❏ Are there different degrees of happiness in Heaven? Yes. The souls in Heaven enjoy various degrees of happiness according to their degree of love and friendship with God during their earthly life. However, each person receives the full measure of happiness he or she can possess. ❏ Of what does the happiness of Heaven consist? It consists of the immediate vision of God, of the full and perfect satisfaction of every desire, and in the happy society of all the blessed.
44 3. The Last Things (pp. 102–107)GUIDED EXERCISE Complete a paragraph shrink on the paragraph “Those who die...” (p. 105) in order to see how there is nothing cruel or vindictive about the “fire” of Purgatory.
45 3. The Last Things (pp. 102–107)❏ How can one help the holy souls in Purgatory? The holy souls in Purgatory are helped both by the prayers and suffrages of the pilgrim Church, as well as by the prayers of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the saints. ❏ Why are prayers for the dead a work of piety? Piety is the fulfillment of obligation toward family members. We should pray for those in our own natural and supernatural families. ❏ Why is prayer for the dead a work of mercy? The souls in Purgatory cannot merit anything for themselves; therefore, one shows mercy by asking their “time” be shortened. ❏ Why is prayer for the dead an act of charity? One is wishing for the good of others.
46 3. The Last Things (pp. 102–107)❏ Why does Purgatory exist? The soul must be completely purified and perfected before entering Heaven. ❏ Who is in Purgatory? The souls of those who have died in grace, but having not fully paid the punishment for their sins, are in Purgatory. ❏ How long will Purgatory be in existence? It will exist until the Final Judgment.
47 3. The Last Things (pp. 102–107) ❏ Is Purgatory a place? No. It is a state of existence. The separated souls, being spirits, do not properly occupy space, although in common language we refer to Purgatory as a “place” for these souls.❏ What does the Old Testament teach us about Purgatory?In the Second Book of Maccabees, Judas Maccabeus took up a collection among his soldiers to have a sacrifice made to atone for the dead soldiers whom, he discovered, had committed idolatry.
48 3. The Last Things (pp. 102–107)GUIDED EXERCISE A class discussion on Hell: ❏ Does God’s goodness preclude the existence of Hell? ❏ Can God save someone who refuses to be saved? ❏ Is it possible that someone would freely choose Hell, including freely staying there?
49 3. The Last Things (pp. 102–107)❏ What is Hell? It is the eternal self‑exclusion from communion with God and the blessed in Heaven. ❏ What are some images Christ used to describe Hell? He spoke often of Hell as “fire” and “darkness” where there will be “weeping and gnashing of teeth” as condemned souls are tormented “where their worm does not die.” ❏ What is the chief punishment of Hell according to CCC 1035? The chief punishment of Hell is eternal separation from God, in whom alone man can possess the life and happiness for which he was created and for which he longs.
50 3. The Last Things (pp. 102–107)❏ How is Purgatory reflected in the practice of the Jews of the time of Christ and today? The Jews in his time prayed for the dead, and today this traditional Jewish practice is continued in the praying of the Kaddish, prayers to reduce the time spent in Gehenna for those who have died. ❏ Why is praying for the dead an obligation of justice? Some souls may be detained in Purgatory partly through a Christian’s own fault, e.g., sins of commission or omission. ❏ What is the best way to help souls in Purgatory? Offer the sacrifice of the Mass for them.
51 3. The Last Things (pp. 102–107)❏ What are other ways to help the souls in Purgatory?Indulgences can be applied to the dead, alms given in their memory, and sacrifices offered up and penance done on their behalf.❏ What is special about All Souls’ Day?All the priests of the Church offer Masses for the souls in Purgatory.
52 3. The Last Things (pp. 102–107)❏ What is the parousia? It is the Second Coming of Christ, at which time he will appear in power and majesty as judge and establish his Kingdom in all its fullness. ❏ What does parousia mean? It is Greek for apparition or presence. ❏ What will happen at the General (Universal or Last) Judgment? Christ will personally and publicly judge every human being and their souls will be reunited to their glorified bodies.
53 3. The Last Things (pp. 102–107)❏ What will people learn at the Final Judgment?They will understand the ultimate meaning of the whole work of creation and of the entire economy of salvation. The Last Judgment will reveal God’s justice and love. They will learn why God sometimes allowed the good to suffer and the wicked to prosper, and they will see all the good and bad effects of human actions.❏ What will happen to the universe after the Final Judgment?The universe itself will be renewed as all things are perfectly re‑created in Christ.
54 3. The Last Things (pp. 102–107)CLOSURE Write a paragraph summarizing the Church’s doctrine on Purgatory.
55 3. The Last Things (pp. 102–107)HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT ❏ Read “The Ten Commandments and the Teaching of Christ” through “The Precepts of the Church” (pp. 108–111, 113)
56 3. The Last Things (pp. 102–107)ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT Work with a partner to develop three apologetic arguments in favor of the Church’s teachings on Purgatory.
57 4. The Ten Commandments and the Precepts of the Church (pp ANTICIPATORY SET Discuss the following question: ❏ If the statement, “You shall be a good student,” were one of the Ten Commandments, what particular rules would make sense to guide a student’s behavior to fulfill the command? This is the idea behind the Precepts of the Church.
58 4. The Ten Commandments and the Precepts of the Church (pp BASIC QUESTIONS ❏ What are the Ten Commandments? ❏ What are the Precepts of the Church? KEY IDEAS ❏ God gave the Ten Commandments to his people as a clear code of conduct, which would bring prosperity if obeyed and suffering if disobeyed. ❏ The Precepts of the Church are particular laws for members of the Church. They are applications of the first three of the Ten Commandments and encourage the frequent reception of the Sacraments, especially the Sacraments of the Eucharist and Reconciliation.
59 4. The Ten Commandments and the Precepts of the Church (pp GUIDED EXERCISE Do a paragraph shrink on the paragraph beginning “In the New Testament...” (p. 108).
60 4. The Ten Commandments and the Precepts of the Church (pp ❏ What does it mean to say that God has “sovereignty over the moral order”? It means that God decides what is good and what is evil, not man. ❏ What is the purpose of the Ten Commandments for the Jews? They are the clear code of conduct God gave his people. ❏ How was Israel’s destiny tied to the fulfillment of the Commandments? When the people of Israel worshiped God with fidelity, they prospered, but, when they were not faithful, God permitted them to suffer. ❏ Is the principle of prospering when doing good and suffering when doing evil a universal law or is it particular to the Jews? Prospering for doing good and suffering for doing evil is universal in that moral acts do change us for the better or worse.
61 4. The Ten Commandments and the Precepts of the Church (pp GUIDED EXERCISE Conduct a think / pair / write / share on the following question: ❏ What is the connection between “good” and “God” when it comes to the moral life?
62 4. The Ten Commandments and the Precepts of the Church (pp GRAPHIC ORGANIZER Complete the following table to organize your knowledge of the Precepts of the Church. Write down each precept, identify the positive value behind the rule, and provide either a positive or negative example of living the precept.
63 4. The Ten Commandments and the Precepts of the Church (pp
64 4. The Ten Commandments and the Precepts of the Church (pp ❏ What does precept mean? It is a rule or commandment guiding conduct. ❏ What are the Precepts of the Church? They are applications of the Ten Commandments, especially of the first three, which encourage the frequent reception of the Sacraments, especially the Sacraments of the Eucharist and Reconciliation. ❏ What does “rest” mean in the first precept? It means avoiding activities that hinder renewal of soul and body.
65 4. The Ten Commandments and the Precepts of the Church (pp ❏ What are a few examples of servile labor?Needless work, business activities, or unnecessary shopping are examples.❏ Under what condition is the second precept obligatory?A Catholic is required to receive the Sacrament of Reconciliation at least once per year if he is aware of having committed a mortal sin.
66 4. The Ten Commandments and the Precepts of the Church (pp GUIDED EXERCISE Work with a partner to complete Practical Exercise 1, turning each of the Ten Commandments into an “amplified and developed,” positive teaching. Work with a partner to provide two examples of how, for Christians, the words of the Decalogue receive an “amplification and development” in Christ.
67 4. The Ten Commandments and the Precepts of the Church (pp GUIDED EXERCISE Read Deuteronomy 5:6– 20 (the giving of the “ten words” on Mt. Sinai). Then, discuss what you found surprising in this longer version of the Commandments. Do a focused reading on the paragraph beginning “In addition to these precepts...” (p. 111) using the following question: ❏ What additional precepts apply directly to a young Catholic?
68 4. The Ten Commandments and the Precepts of the Church (pp CLOSURE Free write for five minutes explaining the relationship between the Decalogue and Christian morality.
69 4. The Ten Commandments and the Precepts of the Church (pp HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT ❏ Study Questions 39–44 (p. 122) ❏ Practical Exercises 9–13 (pp. 123–124) ❏ Workbook Questions 23–31 ❏ Read “The Beatitudes as the Perfection of the Moral Law” through “Conclusion,” including the sidebar “The Beatitudes” (pp. 112–115)
70 4. The Ten Commandments and the Precepts of the Church (pp ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT Complete the following exercise with a partner. The text reminds us that the people of Israel knew that their destiny, for better or for worse, was tied to the fulfillment of the Ten Commandments. What about us today? Setting aside the spiritual dimension for a moment, how would we benefit in material or economic terms from obeying the Ten Commandments? That is to say, economists, government agencies, and the like, compile data showing that such things as smoking, obesity, and failure to use seat belts cost the economy many billions of dollars per year. ❏ Choose one of the Ten Commandments, and show how, if it were obeyed, our economy would save many resources.
71 5. The Beatitudes (pp. 112–115)ANTICIPATORY SET Opening prayer on Christ’s announcement of the Beatitudes (Mt 5:3–12).
72 5. The Beatitudes (pp. 112–115)BASIC QUESTION ❏ What is the relationship between the Beatitudes and the moral law? KEY IDEAS ❏ Because the Beatitudes perfect the moral law, their practice brings about a profound union with Christ and the ability to reflect his light and joy.
73 5. The Beatitudes (pp. 112–115)❏ What is the basis of true happiness on earth? Love, service, and self‑giving is the basis of happiness. ❏ What is the result of love and self‑giving? Bliss or beatitude is the result. ❏ If the Beatitudes paint a portrait of Christ, what are the characteristics of his heart? Some of the characteristics are humility, pity for those who are suffering in any way, gentleness, desire to spread goodness, mercy, purity of intention, peace, and joy in rejection and suffering.
74 5. The Beatitudes (pp. 112–115)❏ Why is meekness an important virtue? It is important because a kind heart draws others to Christ. ❏ What are the two kinds of mourning that our text identifies under the second Beatitude? Are there others? Our text mentions sorrow for those who do not possess the riches of the Gospel and those who suffer rejection and scorn because of following Christ. Extension: Every other form of legitimate sadness is included. ❏ How does a self‑centered and carnal life keep one from seeing God? When we are self‑centered and obsessed with sensuality, we cannot pray, bear to give up any pleasure for any reason, or see Christ in others. On the other hand, self‑control in living purity lets one see Christ in prayer, suffering, and the lives of others.
75 5. The Beatitudes (pp. 112–115)❏ What is the relationship between earthly and heavenly beatitude? Earthly happiness is an anticipation of perfect heavenly happiness. ❏ What is the relationship between the Beatitudes and being like Christ? If we make a sincere effort to live the Beatitudes, our hearts will become like Christ’s heart. ❏ What is the relationship between being a peacemaker and a son or daughter of God? God promised peace to all his followers. Therefore, a true follower will radiate peace and work to spread that peace to those around him.
76 5. The Beatitudes (pp. 112–115)GUIDED EXERCISE A think / pair / share on the following question: ❏ What is the relationship between “hungering and thirsting for righteousness” and “idealism and magnanimity”?
77 5. The Beatitudes (pp. 112–115)❏ What is the double object of the Christian moral life? It is to fulfill the commandments and live in union with Christ. ❏ Why was it necessary for God to reveal the Ten Commandments to the Jews when the Decalogue is part of the natural law and knowable through reason? With weakened powers of reason and will, it was necessary that God explicitly reveal the moral law to them.
78 5. The Beatitudes (pp. 112–115)GUIDED EXERCISE A think / pair / write / share on the following prompt: ❏ Relate the spirit of poverty, by which we are freed from inordinate attachments, to St. Thomas Aquinas’s second definition of sin (p. 91).
79 5. The Beatitudes (pp. 112–115)CLOSURE Free write on the relationship between one of the Beatitudes and the one of the Commandments of the Decalogue.