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Presidents from Nixon- G.W. Bush Ch. 31-34 2 President Richard M. Nixon Elected in 1968 March 1969 Secret bombing campaign Cambodia May 1969 Appointed.

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Presentation on theme: "Presidents from Nixon- G.W. Bush Ch. 31-34 2 President Richard M. Nixon Elected in 1968 March 1969 Secret bombing campaign Cambodia May 1969 Appointed."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Presidents from Nixon- G.W. Bush Ch

3 2 President Richard M. Nixon Elected in 1968 March 1969 Secret bombing campaign Cambodia May 1969 Appointed Burger Chief Justice Supreme Court July 1970 announced creation EPA & NOAA February 1971 Columbus Day federal holiday December 1971 appointed Powell, Rehnquist to the Supreme Court February 1972 visited China June 1972 signed SALT Treaty November 1972 reelected president January 1973 peace treaty to end Vietnam Conflict April 1973 accepted responsibility for Watergate break-in and cover-up December 1973 Gerald Ford appointed new Vice President after Spiro Agnew resigned in October August 1974 Resigned from office after impeachment articles presented in House of Representatives

4 3 Roe v. Wade, 1973 This was a controversial case that dealt with the right to privacy in the 9 th amendment. The 9 th amendment states: The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. The 9 th and 10 th amendments enumerate that there are other rights guaranteed to citizens that are not specifically listed in the Constitution. It would be logistically impossible to list every guaranteed right. The 9 th amendment has been used in many cases to justify a citizen’s right to privacy. Griswold v. Connecticut, decided in 1965, established that when taken together the Bill of Rights guaranteed marital privacy, including contraceptives. Roe, a Texas resident, sought an abortion which was against state law in Texas. Roe v. Wade established that a woman’s right to an abortion fell under this earlier guaranteed right to privacy which was protected by the 9 th amendment. The ruling gave a woman total autonomy during the first three months of pregnancy and defined various levels of state “interest” during the last two trimesters. This controversial ruling affected the laws in forty six states.

5 4 Section 1. Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex. Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. Section 3. This amendment shall take effect two years after the date of ratification. This amendment was created in 1923 at the 75 th anniversary of the Seneca Falls Convention by Alice Paul and was introduced to every session of Congress until it was passed in The wording evolved over time to be modeled after the 15 th and 19 th amendments. Opponents to the amendment claimed that it would undermine the special protections under the law that women need, such as a waiver from conscription. Congress set the usual 7 year deadline on ratification by 38 states, however it fell short by 3 states. While it has still not been ratified advocates continue to push forward. Anti-ERA THE EQUAL RIGHTS AMENDMENT 1973 Pro-ERA

6 5 In 1972, Americans used energy without concern for future supply or price dramatically changed that perspective, however. Early in the year, consumers experienced electricity “brown outs” (lowered levels of voltage output by energy companies) and rising prices for fuels and other necessities. Factories had to cut production, lay off workers, and many schools and offices closed during the winter months to save on heating costs. The oil embargo by Arab OPEC members further cut into the supply of oil and quadrupled prices. Customers experienced lines and sometimes even no fuel at gasoline stations. In December, Nixon announced that due to the energy crisis the lights on the national Christmas tree would not be turned on. The nation’s major industries relied heavily upon oil so that when prices rose, the prices of all other items increased. This led to major inflation. The government attempted to put price controls into place but this did not resolve the problems. The energy crisis and inflation caused a reassessment of America's strategic position in the world. Right after WWII U.S. goods faced little competition from abroad which kept the economy strong. However, as nations were rebuilt America’s preeminence declined as industrial competition grew with European nations as well as Japan. These other nations were able to produce goods more cheaply as their labor costs were lower. This was most evident in the steel and automobile industries, which led to major layoffs and plant closing throughout the Northeast and Midwest United States. Energy crisis and inflation, 1973

7 Henry Kissinger National Security Advisor from , and Secretary of State from Key contributor to the foreign policy decisions of the Nixon Administration. Created the concept of “Shuttle Diplomacy.” This involved travel between conflicting nations to settle disputes. It was best applied in the Arab-Israeli conflict.

8 FOREIGN POLICY GOALS: “After a period of confrontation, we are entering an era of negotiation.” -Richard Nixon’s 1st Inaugural Address

9 The Nixon Doctrine (1969) “It is not my belief that the way to peace is by giving up our friends or letting down our allies. On the contrary, our aim is to place America's international commitments on a sustainable, long-term basis, to encourage local and regional initiatives, to foster national independence and self- sufficiency, and by so doing to strengthen the total fabric of peace.”

10 The Nixon Doctrine (1969) America will honor its treaties and provide aid to its allies, including protection against nuclear powers. However, in other cases of aggression, such as insurrections or non-nuclear threats, America’s allies are expected to use their own manpower for their own defense. America will still provide economic and limited military aid in such cases. Most direct application: “Vietnamization”

11 First-Term Foreign Policy Goals Strategic arms limitation Peaceful negotiation with foreign powers ▫“Rapprochement” with China ▫“Détente” with the Soviet Union Reduced commitments of manpower to foreign nations (Nixon Doctrine) “Peace with honor” in Vietnam ▫Minimal public support for the war ▫Major reason for Nixon’s election

12 Two Chinas After the Chinese Civil War of 1949, the Communists under Chairman Mao Zedong had created the People’s Republic of China (PRC) on the mainland. The Nationalists under Chiang Kai-Shek had fled to Taiwan (Formosa) and established the non- Communist Republic of China (ROC). Before Nixon’s administration, the ROC had held China’s seat on the UN General Assembly, and the United States had cut off diplomatic relations with the PRC.

13 Rapprochement Nixon began to consider a reopening of relations, or “rapprochement,” with the PRC. Reasons for rapprochement: ▫Trade with China— huge market ▫Main reason: increase Sino-Soviet tension  “Growing dissidence between the U.S.S.R. and China has limited both countries in the pursuit of policies basically antagonistic to U.S. interests.”  “Beyond this, the dispute has, in a positive sense, heightened Soviet interest in developing a less abrasive relationship with the U.S. and it may at some point lead China in the same direction.”

14 Ping-Pong Diplomacy The American ping-pong team received a surprise invitation to visit the PRC in April, Their acceptance made them the first Americans to be allowed into communist mainland China since the Chinese Civil War of Ten journalists accompanied them; Americans eagerly followed the team’s progress in the news media. The trip was a diplomatic success!  The American public became more willing to open up relations with the PRC.  America lifted its 20-year trade embargo on mainland China.

15 Did Nixon Succeed in China? He was successful in negotiating a rapprochement with the PRC, even though the countries did not open up formal relations during his term. He also made mainland China a tacit ally of the United States, thus causing the Soviets to worry about the potential nuclear enemy on their borders and increasing Sino-Soviet tension.

16 Detente After years of hostility and tension between the U.S.S.R and the U.S., Nixon instituted a policy of détente. ▫Détente focused on peaceful negotiations and weapon limitations between the two nations. Unlike previous administrations, Nixon and Kissinger hoped to negotiate for the mutual benefit of both the U.S.S.R. and the U.S. as opposed to demanding that the U.S.S.R. give into U.S. demands.

17 Did Nixon Succeed in the U.S.S.R.? Nixon successfully was able to limit production of missiles through a treaty for the first time with the U.S.S.R. He was able to open up foreign relations with a country that had been a tremendous enemy since ▫He set a precedent for his successor, Gerald Ford who maintained amiable relationships with the U.S.S.R. Was able to ease tensions between the two superpowers and subsequently greatly lower global tensions through détente.

18 Did Nixon Succeed in Vietnam? Through Nixon’s policy of Vietnamization, the U.S. was able to end all involvement in the war. The “Nixon Doctrine” was successfully applied as America withdrew from the war and demanded that South Vietnam support itself. Since Vietnam was a non-nuclear threat, Nixon followed his policy of transmitting power of the conflict to the nation directly involved. Nixon continued to promote the idea of peace against aggressors, but drastically lessened U.S. military and economic support for South Vietnam. ▫Nixon refused to re-enter the war when South Vietnam was about to fall in 1975, in order to keep America away from a paternalistic policy.

19 CHIEF FAILURES Many of Nixon’s failures dealt with specific objectives as opposed to general ones. ▫He failed to prevent Soviet-allied India’s rise to dominance on the Asian subcontinent.  He also witnessed the secession of Bangladesh from longtime U.S. ally Pakistan. ▫In his attempt to destroy the Communist Chilean government, he supported the rise of the brutal dictator Augusto Pinochet.  Nixon’s support of Pinochet, despite the dictator’s atrocities towards the Chilean people, went against his policy of the promotion of peace.

20 CHIEF SUCCESSES Nixon consistently honored diplomatic treaties and defended American allies. He also limited U.S. troop involvement in foreign wars and conflicts. Furthermore, he lessened tension with the Soviets and successfully opened contact with mainland China. ▫Through these policies of détente and rapprochement he temporarily eased global tensions and promoted a greater peace and camaraderie between nations. Finally, he negotiated agreements on strategic arms limitation.

21 20 Watergate office complex where the Democratic National Committee headquarters were located. A security guard noticed an exit door had been taped to keep the latch open. He removed the tape but on his second round found that it had been retaped and called the police.

22 21 When police arrived, they found five burglars who were attempting to bug the offices of the Democratic National Headquarters. All five men worked for the Committee to Reelect the President, President Richard Nixon's campaign committee. Seized wiretapping evidence

23 22 U.S. v Nixon, July 1974 During the investigation it was revealed that there were audio tapes from the White House. Nixon claimed executive privilege in an attempt to keep the tapes secret, however the Supreme Court ruled that executive privilege did not apply in criminal cases and ordered Nixon to surrender the subpoenaed White House tapes to John Sirica, U.S. District Court Chief Judge. The tapes revealed widespread involvement, including by the President.

24 23 Pictured: Front Row: Donald Rumsfeld, Sec. of Transportation John Volpe, Sec. of Commerce Peter Peterson, Sec. of Defense Melvin Laird, Richard M. Nixon, Sec. of State William Rogers, Sec. of the Interior Rogers C.B. Morton, Sec. of HEW Elliot Richardson, Director of OMB Casper Weinberger Back Row: Robert Finch, Sec. of HUD George Romney, Sec. of Agriculture Earl Butz, Sec. of the Treasury George Shultz, Vice President Spiro Agnew, Attorney General Richard Kleindienst, Sec. of Labor James Hodgson, Ambassador at large David Kennedy, Ambassador to the UN George Bush. Halderman, Chief of Staff Ehrlichman, Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs Dean, Counsel to the President Ruckelshaus, Deputy Attorney General The Watergate break-in and cover-up led to the resignation of several members of the government.

25 24 Nixon was forced to resign the presidency on August 9, 1974 because of the Watergate scandal. Gerald Ford was appointed Vice President and later became president after the corrupt Spiro Agnew resigned. Nixon’s resignation speech

26 25 Carter and the Soviet Union His attempts to continue détente with the Soviet Union failed because the U.S.S.R. continued to support revolutions in Africa. The U.S.S.R. began deploying medium range nuclear missiles in Europe, forcing the U.S. to respond. Carter and Brezhnev negotiated the SALT II treaty which limited the number of missile launchers and other nuclear delivery systems. The Senate refused to ratify the treaty under the leadership of Senator Henry Jackson. Jackson opposed the treaty because it improved relations with the U.S.S.R. without an improvement of human rights records. In 1979 the Soviets occupied Afghanistan and relations between the two superpowers chilled and détente suffered a serious blow.

27 26 To punish the U.S.S.R. for their invasion of Afghanistan, Carter withdrew from the Salt II treaty, stopped selling them grain, and declared a boycott of the 1980 Moscow Olympics games. None of these actions had any impact on the Soviet invasion.

28 27 Camp David Accords Egypt Israel Sinai Peninsula The one major success Carter had during his presidency was the 1979 Egyptian- Israeli peace agreement. The Arab-Israeli conflict had been going on since the establishment of the Jewish state in The refusal on the part of Arab nations to accept the existence of Israel led to four major wars and countless acts of terrorism. In 1977 the world was shocked when Egyptian President Anwar Sadat visited Israel and began peace negotiations.

29 28 “Human Rights” diplomacy Ω Carter campaigned with the promise, “Because we are free, we can never be indifferent to the fate of freedom elsewhere. Our moral sense dictates a clear-cut preference for those societies which share with us an abiding respect for individual human rights.” Ω When he assumed office Carter put his human rights policy into effect. Ω He reduced foreign aid to several nations because of human rights violations and incorporated his philosophy into many aspects of U.S. foreign relations. Ω Congress published a State Department “report card” on human rights in 82 nations and passed legislation mandating that a human rights policy be incorporated into foreign policy. Ω Even though Carter was very sincere in his desire to implement a human rights policy, world events such as the Iranian revolution and Russian invasion of Afghanistan turned the American people away from his policy and towards one of stronger national defense.

30 29 President Carter’s greatest challenge came from Iran.

31 30 To punish the U.S.S.R. for their invasion of Afghanistan, Carter withdrew from the Salt II treaty, stopped selling them grain, and declared a boycott of the 1980 Moscow Olympics games. None of these actions had any impact on the Soviet invasion.

32 31 Reagan saw a revival of the Cold War in the first years of his presidency. The Soviet war in Afghanistan dragged on. It was being called “Russia’s Vietnam”. The U.S. supplied decisive weapons to the rebels that prevented the Soviets from winning. The U.S.S.R. threatened to send troops to Poland if the Polish government did not outlaw the Solidarity labor movement. In September of 1982 a Russian fighter plane shot down a South Korean passenger jet killing 269 passengers. 61 Americans were killed, including a congressman, on the downed jet. Americans became angrier when the Soviets refused to make reparations to the victims families. Reagan reignited the arms race when he declared the U.S. had to increase its weaponry to “catch up with the Soviets.” Reagan sought to place new nuclear missiles in Western Europe but this was met with protests and cancelled.

33 The Four Pillars Reagan+Economics=Reaganomics 1. reduce govt. spending 2. reduce marginal tax rates on income from labor and capital 3. reduce government regulation of the economy 4. control the money supply to reduce inflation Reduce government SpendingReduce Marginal Tax RatesReduce govt. Regulation of EconomyControl $ supply to reduce inflation (Wikipedia)

34 33 “War on Drugs” President Nixon introduced the concept of a war against illegal drug use in the U.S. in Reagan renewed the effort while president. He assigned Vice President Bush to a drug task force and First Lady Nancy Reagan toured the nation with her “Just say no” campaign. In 1988 the Office of National Drug Control Policy was created as part of the Executive Office of the President. The agency’s actions have centered around four areas: treatment, prevention, domestic law enforcement, and interdiction and international efforts. There is much debate about what the agency ought to focus on, some argue prevention among youth, others argue the halting of importation of drugs in to the country, and still others push for treatment and punishment of drug offenders. Nancy Reagan

35 34 The Reagan Doctrine: He moved way from Détente and human rights towards intervention Reagan believed that the “Vietnam syndrome” was over, meaning Americans no longer feared getting involved in foreign wars. He declared that the U.S. had the right to intervene anywhere in the world to stop the spread of communism. The Soviet Union was “an evil empire” and the U.S. needed to build up its military to counter any threats. Social revolutions around the world were controlled by communists and the U.S. has the right to intervene. Central America was the focus of the Reagan Doctrine. Reagan’s Intervention Doctrine was implemented as an alternative to Truman’s containment policy. Reagan stated that it was his determination to inflict “swift and effective retribution” on those who committed terrorist attacks against Americans.

36 35 Ronald Reagan and Congress turned a blind eye to the atrocities and murders committed by the El Salvadorian government against its own people. They believed this would “save” the country from becoming communist and therefore anti-American. They continued to supply money, arms and expertise. Finally, in the late 1980’s, the horrors of what was going on could no longer be covered up and an international group of nations undertook to end the civil war.

37 36 More trouble in neighboring Nicaragua Honduras Nicaragua El Salvador

38 37 In 1979 Nicaraguans revolted against the corrupt Somoza regime. A new junta took power, dominated by young Marxists known as Sandinistas. The Sandinistas insisted that they favored free elections, nonalignment with either the U.S. or U.S.S.R., and a mixed economy, but once in power they postponed elections, forced opposition leaders into exile, and turned to the Soviet bloc for arms and advisers. For the Reagan administration, Nicaragua looked "like another Cuba," a Communist state that threatened the security of its Central American neighbors. Reagan, in his handling of Nicaragua, gave new meaning to the term “Imperial President.”

39 38 The Sandinistas Reagan believed that the Nicaraguan government was aiding the rebels in El Salvador. In 1981 Reagan secretly authorized the CIA to fund a group of anti-Sandinistas (the Contras, a Spanish term that means “against”) based in Honduras and Costa Rica. When the facts of U.S. funding leaked out Congress passed the Boland Amendment. This amendment stated that the funds supplied to the Contras were to be used only for stopping weapons being shipped to Salvadorian rebels. In 1984 the CIA placed underwater mines in Nicaraguan harbors to harm the Nicaraguan economy. This led to world wide outrage and Congress cut off all aid to the Contras. In violation of the Boland Amendment Reagan had the National Security Council fund the Contras by raising money from foreign countries and private donors. When this funding scheme was revealed it became the Iran-Contra affair and hurt Reagan politically. Congress investigated.

40 39 The Contras were supported by the CIA to overthrow the government of Nicaragua Reagan speaking about Nicaragua

41 40 Reagan’s turn in the Middle East

42 41 Ronald Reagan believed the U.S. had fallen behind the U.S.S.R. in weapon production. To remedy this alleged shortage he renewed two programs Jimmy Carter cancelled, the B-1 bomber and the neutron bomb. He also went forward with plans to deploy intermediate range nuclear missiles in Europe despite a storm of protest on both sides of the Atlantic. A top secret project that wasn’t revealed until 1989 was building the B-2 Stealth bomber. B-1 Bomber B-2 Stealth Bomber intermediate range missiles Submarine launched missiles

43 42 Challenger exploded On January 28, 1986 the ship exploded soon after takeoff, killing all seven crew members, including a teacher, Christa McAuliffe. President Reagan and others watch the explosion on television. Click to play video

44 43 Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) or “Star Wars” In 1983 Reagan announced that the nation had undertaken a massive research effort to produce systems capable of destroying nuclear missiles in flight. These new weapons would be based in space on orbiting weapons platforms (satellites). The weapon systems would consist of either lasers or anti-missile missiles. The idea sounded so futuristic that it was dubbed “Star Wars” after a popular movie of the time. Reagan's goal was to make nuclear weapons obsolete and avoid having to retaliate with our own missiles if the U.S.S.R. launched an attack. Reagan believed that SDI was a moral solution to the nightmare of a nuclear exchange. The U.S.S.R. strongly opposed the development of SDI and insisted the U.S. abandon its development before arms reduction talks could continue. No one knew if the SDI system could actually be built.

45 44 In 1986 Libya came under U.S. scrutiny. Libya, a nation that sponsored terrorism around the world.

46 45 Libya was attacked by U.S. forces in April of On April 6 th a German discotheque frequented by U.S. soldiers was bombed killing 3 and wounding 230. President Reagan claimed he had conclusive proof that Mu’ammar Qaddafi, ruler of Libya, ordered the attack. This was only one in a series of terrorist attacks sponsored by Libya. On the late evening of April 15 th and early morning of April 16 th 1986, under the code name “El Dorado Canyon”, the United States launched a series of military air strikes against ground targets inside Libya. Several targets inside Libya were hit including Qaddafi’s residence. Libyan terrorist activity was noticeably diminished after the attack. Reagan commenting on an earlier clash with Libya Reagan was briefed on bombing

47 46 The last years of Reagan’s presidency was marred by the Iran-Contra Scandal A complicated series of events involving: the Iran-Iraq war, American hostages held in Beirut, the Boland Amendment, and secret aid to the Contras combined to reveal a series of lies and secret deals that shocked the nation. In 1986 the Reagan administration opened secret negotiations with the militant Islamic Iranian government. Iran was in a desperate war with Iraq and needed arms. We offered to sell them sophisticated weapons for their help in freeing U.S. hostages held by radical Islamic groups in Lebanon. The money Iran paid for the weapons was given to the Contras who were fighting to overthrow the leftist Nicaraguan government. This was in violation of the Boland Amendment. The operation was run by Colonel Oliver North. The joint congressional investigating committee concluded that “The common ingredients of the Iran Contra policies were secrecy, deception, and disdain for the law. It appeared that Reagan was either confused or unaware of the arms sales.” All the conspirators were later pardoned by President Bush in 1992.

48 47 Candidates for the election of 1988 Democrat Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis Republican Vice President George H.W. Bush “Read my lips: no new taxes.”

49 Moral Majority A huge religious revival started to come into play with the election of more conservative presidents. Every week, there were shows preaching into the TV. The most famous one, the Moral Majority was one that scorned liberal views and praised more conservative, traditional ones.

50 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in Alaska A Map of Alaska where the oil spill occurred Exxon Valdez, American oil tanker that went aground on a reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, at night on March 24, The 301-m (987-ft) tanker started to leak oil, and the leakage continued for two days, totaling 260,000 barrels, the largest oil spill in U.S. history. The tanker's remaining 1 million barrels of oil were removed from the hold of the damaged vessel and transferred to other tankers operated by Exxon.

51 1991 Persian Gulf War Breaks Out Iraqis look at the rubble after a night of bombing in Baghdad. Iraq invaded Kuwait after they refused to help pay off debt and did not claim to be part of Iraq when Hussein thought they were. Iraq wanted to conquer Kuwait and Saudi Arabia they would control 50% of the world’s oil. Finally, the US launched operation Desert Storm and, along with allies, launched a huge air attack on Iraq, finally freeing the Kuwait people. Chart for oil production in just one of many middle eastern countries

52 1991 Soviet Union Crumbles Gorbachev advocated glasnost and perestroika, bringing democratic views to Russia. In December of 1991, 14 non-Russian republics were independent of the soviet union. Gorbachev resigned leading to the election of Boris Yelstin Gorbachev Gorbachev, general secretary of the soviet union had put democratic ideas into Russia. This and the INF treaty (intermediate- range nuclear forces treaty) made better relations with the U.S, and in 1992, Bush and president Boris Yeltin issued a formal statement of the end of the cold war.

53 End of G eorge Bush Although Bush had done well in the Persian Gulf War, the rise in deficits and and recession brought his approval ratings down to 49%. Contradicting what he said in his campaign, he had to raise taxes. The rise in taxes and the recession caused him to lose the election, and end the 12-year Republican presidency streak.

54 The Clinton Years The Main Idea Bill Clinton was a new type of Democrat, and his administration faced challenges for a new millennium—and scandals as old as politics. Reading Focus What were the key events in the political rise of Bill Clinton? What were some of the major domestic policy questions facing Clinton? What were some major foreign-policy challenges facing Clinton? What events led to scandal and impeachment proceedings during the Clinton presidency?

55 The 1992 Election Clinton’s running mate was Senator Al Gore of Tennessee. Three way race between Clinton, Republican President George H.W. Bush, and an independent candidate, H. Ross Perot. Clinton presented himself as the protector of the middle class. Clinton won 370 electoral votes to Bush’s 168, although Clinton won less than 50 percent of the popular vote. Perot won 19 percent of the popular vote.

56 Domestic Policy Issues The 1994 Election Clinton failed to deliver on his campaign promises, such as tax cuts and a health care plan. Discontent helped contribute to a major Republican victory in the mid-term elections. Republicans campaigned with a document called the Contract with America. The Contract had a plan to balance the budget, fight crime, and provide tax cuts. Republicans gained 54 seats in the House and 8 seats in the Senate—this gave them control of both houses. What to do about welfare? The Contract with America called for changes to the welfare system. Clinton proposed his own welfare- reform plan. It limited the amount of time people could receive benefits. It required most recipients to find work within two years of getting benefits. Congress approved this plan.

57 Other Domestic Challenges Terrorists exploded a bomb in Oklahoma City that killed 168 people. Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols were convicted of the crime. Internet The internet emerged as a major means of communication and commerce. People were concerned about inappropriate material on the Internet. The White House tried to pass a law to limit sexually explicit material, but the Supreme Court ruled that it violated the right to freedom of speech. Terrorism In 1996 Clinton defeated Bob Dole of Kansas. Reelection

58 What were some major foreign-policy challenges facing Clinton? The Oslo Accords—peace agreement between Israel and the Palestinians Somalia—American forces, who were there to help distribute food to Somalis affected by the civil war, were killed. Haiti—American forces led a UN effort to remove a military dictator who had taken over the government. Yugoslavia—Clinton helped bring about the Dayton Accords to stop fighting in the new country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. NAFTA—Clinton fought for and won passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement.

59 What events led to scandal and impeachment proceedings during the Clinton presidency? Whitewater real estate deal ▫Kenneth Starr led an investigation into a failed real estate investment the Clintons were involved in during the 1970s. Paula Jones sexual harassment case ▫Jones sued Clinton for sexual harassment while he was governor of Arkansas and she was a state employee. ▫Information emerged suggesting that Clinton had an improper relationship with a White House intern, Monica Lewinsky. Monica Lewinsky case ▫Clinton accused of lying under oath about Monica Lewinsky. ▫House approved two articles of impeachment but the Senate did not have the two-thirds majority necessary to convict Clinton.

60 What were the unusual circumstances of the election of 2000? Republicans chose George W. Bush whose running mate was Dick Cheney of Wyoming. The Democrats The economy prospered and the government had a budget surplus, but some Democrats were uncomfortable with Clinton’s image. Al Gore was the Democratic nominee and he chose Joe Lieberman as his running mate. The Republicans Election-night results showed that the race was hinged on the outcome in a single state— Florida. The returns in Florida were so close that news reports changed their minds three times. A Troubled Election

61 The Election of 2000 Recounts and Legal Wrangling A Florida recount gave Bush 300 more votes than Gore. Democrats questioned the Florida balloting. Thousands of ballots had gone uncounted; many ballots were rejected by the machines because voters had made mistakes. Democrats wanted a hand recount of the ballots. Republicans opposed a hand recount because of human error and individual judgment. Both sides filed lawsuits aimed at forcing or preventing recounts. Bush v. Gore The Florida Supreme Court ordered recounts in certain Florida counties. Bush appealed the ruling to the U.S. Supreme Court The Supreme Court ruled that a recount was unconstitutional. After the Court’s ruling, Gore conceded the presidency. Bush became president despite of having received fewer popular votes than his opponent.

62 Bush’s Domestic Policy In 2003 Bush updated the Medicare program. Included a benefit to help Medicare recipients pay for prescription medicine. Education Bush announced the No Child Left Behind Act to improve education. States were required to develop academic standards and test students annually to ensure that the standards were being met. Health Care Established the White House Office of Faith-Based Initiatives to help religious community-service organizations develop greater access to federal funding. Other Issues

63 Bush’s Second Term Bush ran against Senator John Kerry of Massachusetts and won re-election in another close contest. Bush announced his plan to reform Social Security. By late 2005, Congress had still not acted on Bush’s idea to privatize Social Security. Bush also filled vacancies on the Supreme Court. John Roberts was confirmed as Chief Justice. Bush named Harriet Miers to replace Sandra Day O’Connor but she withdrew her name from contention. Bush nominated conservative judge Samuel Alito to replace O’Connor in 2005.

64 Hurricane Katrina Katrina devastated a large area along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, including parts of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. More than 1,000 people died and hundreds of thousands lost their homes and livelihoods. The economic impact of the storm was staggering; experts predicted that the cost of the storm would be measured in the hundreds of billions of dollars.

65 September 11, 2001 A Deliberate Attack Terrorists hijack two planes— American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines flight 175—and crash them into the World Trade Center. Terrorists hijack American Airlines Flight 77 and crash it into the Pentagon. Terrorists hijack United Airlines Flight 93, which crashes in southwestern Pennsylvania. In New York and Virginia, firefighters and police officers rush to the scene of the attacks. The Twin Towers Collapse Both the South and the North Towers of the World Trade Center collapsed. Fires caused by the planes full fuel tanks weakened the buildings’ structures. A stunned nation watches these events unfold on television.

66 September 11, 2001 The Death Toll All 265 people on the four airplanes were killed. Estimates of the deaths at the World Trade Center were in the thousands. After years of investigations, the New York death toll stood at 2, people died in the attack on the Pentagon. The Nation Reacts People were sad and angry. Many admired New York’s firefighters and mayor, Rudolph Giuliani. Americans reached out to the victims, donating blood and money. Rescue workers from around the country traveled to New York to help at Ground Zero.

67 Background to the September 11 Attacks Osama bin Laden and his terrorist network, known as al Qaeda, planned and carried out the attacks. Bin Laden wanted to promote a worldwide Islamic revolution. He claimed this required the destruction of the United States. Al Qaeda terrorists began entering the United States in 2000 and were ready for the attack by September 11, 2001.

68 Background to the Attacks Osama bin Laden Member of a wealthy Saudi Arabian family Wanted to start a worldwide Islamic revolution Angry at the presence of American military in Saudi Arabia during the Gulf War Developed a terrorist network called al Qaeda, or “the base” Had links to a 1993 bombing at the World Trade Center Trained attackers that killed American soldiers in Somalia Al Qaeda Made a number of threats against the United States Connected to the bombings of the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania Clinton launched a missile attack into an al Qaeda training camp in Afghanistan. Carried out a bomb attack against the USS Cole Terrorists entered the United States in 2000 and enrolled in flight schools to learn to fly airplanes.

69 How did the United States respond to the attacks? War in Afghanistan A group known as the Taliban ruled in Afghanistan. Governed according to strict Islamic law Close relationship with bin Laden Bush demanded that the Taliban seize bin Laden and give him to the United States. The Taliban refused and so on October 7, 2001, the United States and Great Britain attacked the Taliban in Afghanistan. Results of the War U.S. and British troops relied on fighters of Afghanistan’s Northern Alliance—a group that opposed the Taliban. The Taliban was defeated by early December. Bin Laden, however, managed to avoid being captured.

70 Fighting Terrorism at Home Bush and Congress created the Department of Homeland Security. After 9/11 the nation experienced another type of terrorist threat: deliberate anthrax poisoning. The crisis was limited to a handful of specific locations, but it alarmed the American people. The White House proposed the USA PATRIOT Act, which made it easier for law enforcement to secretly collect information about suspected terrorists. Critics claimed this act gave law enforcement too much power and posed a threat to basic freedoms.

71 War in Iraq Bush declared a war on terror and listed Iraq as a possible foe. Iraq was to destroy its weapons of mass destruction after the Gulf War and allow UN weapons inspectors inside the country. Although Iraq allowed weapons inspections following 9/11, Bush insisted that Iraq had failed to account for weapons it was known to have possessed after the Persian Gulf War. Many of America’s longtime allies advised against going to war, but Bush insisted that Iraq was a threat and invaded Iraq in March 2003.

72 Results of the Iraqi War Within a month, Saddam’s regime fell and Saddam was captured within the year. American forces remained in Iraq to help keep order and train a new Iraqi security force. Terrorists continued to take a terrible toll on American soldiers and Iraqi citizens. Bush faced criticism when no weapons of mass destruction were found. However, he was re-elected and made clear that U.S. forces would remain in Iraq for as long as necessary to ensure peace and order there.

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