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Section 4 – War Breaks Out. Public opinion wanted WAR (even though Spain had agreed to some concessions like a 6-month cease-fire after the event) In.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 4 – War Breaks Out. Public opinion wanted WAR (even though Spain had agreed to some concessions like a 6-month cease-fire after the event) In."— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 4 – War Breaks Out

2 Public opinion wanted WAR (even though Spain had agreed to some concessions like a 6-month cease-fire after the event) In Feb – USS Maine explodes In April – McKinley asked Congress for authority to use force against Spain in order to bring peace to Cuba – agreed after much debate #1 – Naval blockade of Cuba Month after war began, a fleet from Spain arrived in Cuba –US needed to stop any more arrivals

3 #2 – American troops organized to invade (however small # and largely inexperienced) *mainly composed of cowboys, Indians, Wild West types, and Ivy League athletes and aristocratic sportsmen from the East

4 #3 – Plans for the use of Navy over troops – Why? The Philippines and Dewey’s victory! You may fire when you are ready Gridley! ~Admiral Dewey What does this mean? You may fire when you are ready Gridley! ~Admiral Dewey What does this mean?

5 The Philippines T. Roosevelt ordered Pacific fleet (after Maine), commanded by George Dewey, to sail for Philippines in case war broke out – why there? SPANISH HAD CONTROL OF PHILIPPINES

6 The Philippines May 1, 1898 US Navy launched surprise attack Known as the Battle of Manila Bay Americans entered Manila Bay and took fire from the Spanish fleet, anchored, waited 30 mins. until in the position Dewey wanted. WHY? Lack of ammunition (magazines were only 60% full) – waiting for another ship to bring Then Dewey addressed his order to Charles Gridley, captain of Dewey's flagship (def: one the commanding officer is on) Olympia. Def: an ammunition storage and feeding device

7 The Philippines BATTLE OUTCOME: 1) Destroyed Spanish fleet - All major Spanish ships were destroyed or captured, without any significant damage occurring to the American Forces. 2) No Americans lost their lives in the battle though the lives of many Spaniards were lost. The result is that Americans look at the victory as a "bloodless" battle, whereas the Spanish obviously do not. 3) Allowed U.S. soldiers to fight alongside Filipino rebels against Spain

8 The Philippines After defeating Spain however, the U.S. fails to grant the Philippines independence after the war (leaning towards annexation) Filipinos, unhappy that they were under the control of yet another colonial ruler, fought back U.S.-Filipino fighting breaks out and continues for years *see more later BACK TO CUBA

9 The Rough Riders and Battle of Kettle Hill and San Juan Hill What happened in Cuba?

10 San Juan was not going to be easy #1 – Village (500 Spanish Defenders put up a fight) - Once through  to the “Heights” (or Hill) #2 – Spanish had fortification (series of linked hills) - blockhouse complex, trenches, and barbed wire entanglements -occupied by at least several companies of Spanish infantry supported by a couple of artillery pieces - HOWEVER, Cuban rebels had blocked the roads leading up to the hill (no Spanish reinforcements) - US had own fortifications – trenches and shelters - no horses (foot)

11 WAR WAS OVER IN 4 MONTHS “It was a splendid little war.” John Hay (Sec. of State) On Dec 10 1898, US and Spain agreed in a treaty (Treaty of Paris) 1)Cuba would become independent 2)Spain would give Puerto Rico and Guam to US 3)US would pay Spain $20 million for annexation of the Philippine islands -Do we really need it? – Germany and France were in the area and if we didn’t, they would *by the way, no Cubans and Filipinos were invited to the treaty meeting in Paris BUT this treaty touched off great debate in the US…

12 Why? 1) Misunderstanding among some McKinley told a group of ministers that he had prayed for guidance on the Philippines and concluded “that there was nothing left for us to do but to take them all and to educate the Filipinos and uplift and Christianize them.” *However most Filipinos have been Christian for centuries 2) Political Violated Declaration of Independence by denying self- government to newly acquired territories 3) Moral - Need to solve race-relations at home first BEFORE taking on social problems elsewhere 4) Self-serving - immigrants would compete with Americans for jobs *Then a shootout happened in the Philippines (60 US and 700 Filipinos killed) and treaty was approved by Senate US HAD AN EMPIRE Because of IMPERIALISM

13 1)Some Puerto Ricans (which Spain gave to US in the treaty) wanted independence – US gave them no promises - American officers doubted that Puerto Ricans could govern themselves [set up military government] But…it wasn’t over

14 Many at first welcomed US intervention (improvement over Spain) Some campaigned to end military government (Yankee-peril) and requested US citizenship and full local self-government – statehood OR complete independence -BUT US had different agenda 1) strategic position in Caribbean 2) Protection of future canal

15 *US denied citizenship to Puerto Ricans and President appointed their Governor and members of Upper House of Legislation (Puerto Ricans could only elect Lower House members) AND US Constitution did not automatically apply to people in acquired territories … wasn’t until 1917 did give right of citizenship and right to elect both members

16 2)Marti’ (Who was he?) feared earlier  US would just replace Spain and dominate Cuban politics -Same officials (Spanish-control) remained in office -Cubans who protested were imprisoned or exiled However – American military government provided food and clothing, helped farmers (land to cultivate), organized elementary schools, medical services (eliminated yellow fever) But…it wasn’t over - Cuba

17 Cubans called to arms to defend their national honor and independence and wrote a Constitution – US stood firm (fearful another country would dominate Cuban affairs) – added provision to their Constitution - Cubans (reluctantly) ratified -1) US was permitted to send troops into Cuba to keep order - 2) Cuba limited in making treaties with others Cuba becomes protectorate (def: a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power)

18 Why would US do this? PROTECTING AMERICAN BUSINESS INTERESTS American corporations - sugar, tobacco, mining, railroad, public utilities *Political control of colonies was necessary in order to protect LARGE PROFITS American troops did withdrawal but returned 3 times to intervene in Cuban Affairs Established naval base at where? GUANTANAMO BAY

19 But…it wasn’t over - Filipinos rebel Native Filipinos were intent on independence - outraged about America’s annexation - Rebel leaders (Emilio Aguinaldo) believed US had betrayed them - Emilio proclaimed Philippines an independence republic and drafted a constitution (however there were still a presence of America soldiers)

20 But…it wasn’t over - Filipinos rebel Tried guerilla tactics [plain clothes to blend in; snipers, booby-traps, and nighttime raids]  US response … guesses? *US RESPONSE - FORCING FILIPINOS TO LIVE IN DESIGNATED ZONES (POOR SANITATION, STARVATION, AND DISEASE) – KILLED 1000S ??WEREN’T THESE THE SAME PRACTICES THE US CONDEMNED SPAIN FOR IN CUBA??

21 Filipinos rebel with help White soldiers looked down on skin color of Filipinos [they are a] treacherous, worthless bunch of scoundrels … You can't treat them the way you do civilized folks - 70,000 US soldiers were African-Americans African-American newspapers questioned: Why would African-American soldiers help spread racial prejudice ? *Some African- Americans soldiers deserted to the Filipino side The Philippine-American war lasted 3 years- Rebellion squashed but at high cost - $400 million (20 times what US paid for the islands)

22 In 1902, the Senate conducted hearings on the Philippine War because many Americans were outraged at reports of the Americans soldiers' conduct. Historians today are trying to figure out what causes some soldiers to have brutally during war ( we should assume that the soldiers are NOT sociopathic criminals to begin with) Your task: Read through these documents and figure out why many American soldiers were brutal to the Filipino insurgents

23 In 1902, the Senate conducted hearings on the Philippine War because many Americans were outraged at reports of the Americans soldiers' conduct. Historians today are trying to figure out what causes some soldiers to have brutally during war

24 For example - Filipino houses were burned indiscriminately as a strategy to eliminate shelters and hiding places for guerrillas and as a deterrent. *Rawlins – anti-imperialist Senator *Hughes - General Rawlins: If these shacks were of no consequence what was the utility of their destruction? Hughes: The destruction was a punishment. They permitted these people to come in there and conceal themselves and they gave no sign. It is always-- Rawlins: The punishment in that case would fall, not upon the men, who could go elsewhere, but mainly upon the women and little children. Hughes: The women and children are part of the family, and where you wish to inflict a punishment you can punish the man probably worse in that way than in any other. Rawlins: But is that within the ordinary rules of civilized warfare? Of course you could exterminate the family which would be still worse punishment. Hughes: These people are not civilized.

25 More testimony…

26 More evidence….

27 Senate’s conclusion…. Since guerrilla warfare was contrary to "the customs and usages of war," those engaged in it "divest themselves of the character of soldiers, and if captured are not entitled to the privileges of prisoners of war.“--General Arthur MacArthur Cruelty Charge was unfounded and grossly exaggerated

28 Soldiers in the Philippines: Asking Why? Hypothesis #1 : American soldiers who treated Filipino insurgents with cruelty were simply following orders Hypothesis #2: American soldiers who treated Filipino insurgents with cruelty thought Filipinos were less than human Hypothesis #3: American soldiers who treated Filipino insurgents with cruelty were getting revenge for how Filipinos treated them Evidence 1Source: Quote Source: Quote Source: Quote Evidence 2Source: Quote Source: Quote Source: Quote Based on this evidence, do you find this hypothesis convincing? Explain.

29 The Impact of U.S. Territorial Gains Prior to Spanish- American-Cuban War, many Americans didn’t even know where Philippines were located – Acquiring new lands forced Americans to expand their knowledge of distant lands Ex: World Fairs – perfect opportunity to learn while demonstrating how imperialism PROFITED EVERYONE

30 Between 1900-1910 - 5 international expositions – At Louisiana Purchase Exposition included a “Philippine Reservation” » 1200 people were brought from Philippines to live in 47 acre village on the fairgrounds (two carefully chosen groups – some who created the impression of cultural advancement under American influence and others were “primitive savages”

31 The Impact of U.S. Territorial Gains » Opposing Imperialism Shall we go on conferring our Civilization upon the peoples that sit in darkness, or shall we give those poor things a rest?...Extending the Blessings of Civilization to our Brother who Sits in Darkness has been a good trade and has paid well, on the whole; and there is money in it yet…but not enough, in my judgment, to make any considerable risk advisable. - Mark Twain How would summarize the arguments of those who opposed American imperialism? US DID NOT NEED COLONIES IN ORDER TO TRADE WITH OTHER NATIONS; EXPENSE OF MAINTAINING AN EMPIRE OUTWEIGHED THE ECONOMIC BENEFITS; THE IMPERATIVE SPREAD OF ANGLO-SAXON CULTURE WAS JUST AN EXCUSE TO EXPLOIT PEOPLE

32 Section 5 – America as a World Power Pages 382-387

33 BACKDROP McKinley was assassinated in 1901 – Theodore Roosevelt becomes President. (Was Assist. Sec. of Navy and became VP in 1900 when McKinley’s former VP Garrett Hobart died) -By this time, US had achieved 2 out of 3 of the recommendations for becoming a world power (according to Admiral Mahan  Had a modern navy and naval bases in the Caribbean and Hawaii  3 th GOAL – Build a canal through Central America  What was the point of having a canal? **Greatly reduce travel time for commercial and military ships

34 The Panama Canal Construction of the canal’s Miraflores Lock Back in 1879, a Spanish businessman (de Lesseps) obtains canal rights from Colombia (Panama was province of it) Company fails and U.S. buys rights in 1903 (rights are up in 1904 – Colombia stalls) U.S. backs Panamanian rebels independence against Colombia [knew that US Navy would support them]) Rebels successful and US recognized Panama as independent country Treaty with US – granting US a 10 mile strip of land to build canal 1904 – 1914 US controlled (until 1999)

35 Panama Canal Political Cartoon The United States represented (President Roosevelt) – Why so big? To show how powerful the United States was over Columbia (had become a world power) We see he is shoveling - getting rid of all Colombian influence in Panama. By doing this he is clearing the land in order to build the canal.

36 So what can we conclude from the US pursuing and achieving several foreign policy goals in the early 20 th century? 1)Expanded access to foreign markets in order to ensure the continued growth of the domestic economy 2)US builds a modern navy to protect interests abroad 3)US exercises its international power to ensure American dominance US HAS BEEN DRAWN DEEPER INTO WORLD AFFAIRS WITH PURSUIT OF IMPERIALISM BUT IS LEADING THEM TOWARDS A WAR THEY COULD NOT AVOID…

37 Next Unit - World War I British troops on the front line, Somme area, 1916


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