Presentation on theme: "T HE A MERICAN R EVOLUTION. W HEN WE LAST LEFT OUR HEROES … They had just declared independence in the Second Continental Congress. Colonists felt that."— Presentation transcript:
W HEN WE LAST LEFT OUR HEROES … They had just declared independence in the Second Continental Congress. Colonists felt that if there was a fight with England, it would be quick. Few expected a war. They were wrong !
MIDNIGHT RIDE Spies were busy on both sides ! British general heard that there was a large supply on guns and ammo in Concord. American ’ s heard that the British were likely to begin fighting. Paul Revere “ One if by land, two if by sea.”
L EXINGTON AND C ONCORD British hear rumor that… Sam Adams and John Hancock are in Lexington There is a large store of weapons and ammo in Concord They decide to arrest Adams and Hancock and take control of the weapons. Page 157
L EXINGTON AND C ONCORD April 19, 1775 700 British troops reach Lexington Met with 70 militia who refuse to give up. No one knows who fired the first shot (“ The Shot Heard Round the World ” – Ralph Waldo Emerson ) Within a few minutes, 8 militia men are dead. The British march on to Concord, but by then, the 4000 Minutemen and militia had arrived and line the road from Concord to Lexington. The British were in trouble…
L EXINGTON AND C ONCORD The British are forced back to Boston. Although technically the first shots of the Revolution, war had NOT yet been officially declared.
C HOOSING SIDES Forced colonists to choose sides Loyalist Patriot
WE NEED AN ARMY ! Militia Minutemen Green Mountain Boys Led by Ethan Allen Militia in the New York / New Hampshire Area ( Vermont ) Captured Fort Ticonderoga which had large supply of weapons. Second Continental Congress officially forms an army with Washington as it ’ s general. Authorize the printing of paper money to pay troops. Page 160
Look at this picture. Based on the artist ’ s view, who do you think won the Battle of Bunker Hill? Good Afternoon, Scholars ! Make sure you have your supplies ! Get started on this journal prompt on netschool…
N OW B ACK TO O UR S TORY … As the founding fathers continue to debate the exact path to independence, our brave soldiers continue to battle… THE REDCOATS ! And speaking of Redcoats…
FUN FACT ! The British uses cochineal bugs to create the red dye for their coats. The insects produce an acid that protects them from predators. The acid was used as a dye. ( Scary fact – it ’ s still used today in some types of food coloring and dyes !)
B ATTLE OF B UNKER H ILL June 16, 1775 Militiamen seize Bunker Hill and Breed ’ s Hill ( they overlook the city of Boston !) Build a fort on the hill British worry about the fort and decide to attack British marched up Breed ’ s Hill to attack Tug of war battle The colonists begin to run out of gunpowder. WHAT WILL THEY DO????
“ Don ’ t fire until you see the whites of their eyes.” Colonel William Prescott OR General Israel Putnam Needed to save ammunition On the third attempt, the redcoats finally take the hill. Redcoats win but 1000 were killed or wounded compared to only 400 militia. Considered a moral victory for Continental Army because they held off the world ’ s most powerful army. B ATTLE OF B UNKER H ILL
B OSTON When George Washington takes command of the army ( just after Bunker Hill ) he finds an unorganized, undisciplined army. He also finds that there are only 36 barrels of gunpowder left… FOR THE WHOLE ARMY ( Each soldier could fire nine shots !) He starts a rumor that they have 1800 barrels. He sends word to friends in Fort Ticonderoga that he needs some big guns. ( Everyone say Ticonderoga !) Remember the Green Mountain Boys? Told you they were important !
B OSTON They load all of the heavy artillery from the fort onto sleds and drag them to Boston. When the British soldiers in Boston wake up on March, 1776, they see all of that artillery aimed at the city. The British decide to abandon Boston and leave with 100 ships and 9000 troops !
A year has passed since our brave young men refused to lay down their weapons in Lexington and colonists have STILL not officially declared independence. The Second Continental Congress makes one more attempt to resolve their issues with England. They send a petition to King George asking him for a resolution. T HE O LIVE B RANCH P ETITION But it ’ s too late !
King George has already heard about Bunker Hill and refuses to even look at the petition. He declares the colonists in “ full rebellion ” and vows to “ bring the traitors to justice ”. And as we all remember, being found a traitor meant… T HE O LIVE B RANCH P ETITION DEATH !
G OOD A FTERNOON, S CHOLARS ! Please grab your foldables!
THE CONTINENTAL ARMY S TRENGTHS Patriotism Our lives for our country George Washington Experienced leader Inspiring leader Help from abroad France Marquis de Lafayette believes in the American cause and persuades King to send troops to help Americans.
THE CONTINENTAL ARMY W EAKNESSES Not everyone supported the war so raising an army was difficult. Limited Training Limited Numbers Only had one year terms of service Limited number of troops at any given time Limited Supplies Blankets Food Uniforms / Shoes Guns and Ammo
THE BRITISH ARMY S TRENGTHS Strength in numbers 50,000 soldiers 30,000 Hessians Powerful navy Help from abroad Hessians Mercenaries from Hesse, Germany
THE BRITISH ARMY W EAKNESSES Location, location, location… Sending troops and supplies from Great Britain to North America was costly Who Cares?? Not passionate about the cause Poor leadership
FUN FACT ! Because of the horrible conditions, many wives followed their husbands into the battlefields. They cooked, did laundry, and nursed sick and wounded soldiers. A few women actually fought. Deborah Sampson dressed as a man and enlisted. She fought in several battles.
THE D ECLARATION OF I NDEPENDENCE Even after all the battles and mistreatment by the British, many colonists were still afraid of actually declaring independence. Thomas Paine writes Common Sense to persuade colonists to push for independence. A week after the British leave Boston, Thomas Jefferson writes the first draft of the Declaration of Independence. Our founding fathers finally agree to the wording and sign it on July 4, 1776.
THE D ECLARATION OF I NDEPENDENCE It seems like such a small act to sign your name to a piece of paper. But this was no ordinary document. So, what were these men sacrificing by signing their names to this piece of paper? Their lives - Their fortunes - Their sacred honor http :// www. youtube. com / wat ch?v = kX - APfe 3 i 8 Q
WAR…IT ’ S ON ! Now that the colonists have declared their independence, they have to FIGHT for their independence. The war kicks into full gear !
A S WE CLOSE TODAY, L OOK AT THIS PAINTING TITLED “ T HE S IGNING OF THE D ECLARATION OF I NDEPENDENCE ”. TURN YOUR JOURNAL TO THE D ECLARATION OF I NDEPENDENCE P AGE. W RITE A RESPONSE TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTION : H OW DOES THIS PAINTING REFLECT THE INFORMATION WE HEARD IN “ O UR L IVES, O UR F ORTUNES, O UR S ACRED H ONOR ” ?
G OOD M ORNING ! P LEASE GRAB YOUR FOLDABLE AND A PENCIL. I F YOU HAVE ANY WORK TO TURN IN, TAKE CARE OF THAT NOW!
T ROUBLE FOR THE C ONTINENTAL A RMY Britain wants to take control of New York since it ’ s the center of Colonial economy. British attack Washington ’ s army on Long Island and inflict heavy casualties. The loss is so bad that the British general believes they ’ ve pretty much won the war and he expects Washington to surrender. But Washington is not giving in !
M ORE T ROUBLE … He retreats and escapes to Philadelphia. The British occupy New York City for the rest of the war. Washington is humiliated by the loss. This is the first of many losses for the Continental Army. Many soldiers begin to leave and many others avoided joining the army. Soldiers are starving and freezing. The Continental Army was at it ’ s lowest point.
M ORE T ROUBLE … Washington gathers the troops and inspires them to follow his plan for a surprise attack.
C ROSSING THE D ELAWARE On Dec 25 th 1776 Washington launched a surprise attack crossing the frozen Delaware River. He captured over 800 Hessian prisoners without losing one man.
B ATTLE OF S ARATOGA British General Burgoyne plans to cut off New England from the rest of the colonies. But, Daniel Morgan and the colonists have another idea. American General Horatio Gates surrounds Burgoyne ’ s remaining forces at Saratoga, New York. Uh oh !!!
B ATTLE OF S ARATOGA Burgoyne surrenders his entire army to the Americans ! Saratoga is a turning point in the war. Benjamin Franklin helps negotiate the Treaty of Alliance with France and Spain.
V ALLEY FORGE Washington and his men spend the long cold winter of 1777-1778 in Valley Forge Pennsylvania. The American troops are in desperate need of food and warm clothing. Marquis de Lafayette uses his own money to buy men clothes. Spent the winter training. When Spring came, the men were ready to test their training.
Y ORKTOWN British General Lord Cornwallis moves his troops to Virginia to set up camp and wait for reinforcements. Washington sets the ultimate trap. James Armistead ( a slave ) was a double spy and gave Washington information. Washington has over 16,000 American and French soldiers ready to fight Cornwallis was not impressed, he opted to board British ships and sail to New York. But before he can leave, a fleet of French battleships sailed into the Bay. Cornwallis is trapped !
Trapped, Lord Cornwallis surrenders on Oct 19, 1781. The Americans win their INDEPENDENCE !
T REATY OF P ARIS 1783 Signed in Paris by representatives of the United States and Great Britain. It has three main parts. 1. Great Britain recognized the United States as an independent nation 2. United States gains all land east of the Mississippi River from Canada to Florida 3. U. S. agrees to return all property taken from Loyalists.
C OSTS OF THE W AR Eight years of fighting Fatalities and Injuries An estimated 25,700 Americans die(10,000 British soldiers dead) 1400 are missing 8200 are wounded Soldiers left with no money Sold land in west for food and basic needs American war debt - $27 million
I MPACT OF THE W AR Between 60,000 and 100,000 Loyalists leave American…mostly to Canada. Americans wanted more religious freedom and ended practice of using taxes to support churches. Conflict between slavery and freedom What will the new nation look like??
I MPORTANT P EOPLE Military George Washington Commander of the Continental Army Marquis de Lafayette French – Fought for the Americans John Burgoyne Surrendered to Americans at Saratoga Lord Cornwallis Surrendered at Yorktown, ending the war James Armistead African American spy, helped defeat British at surrender at Yorktown Civilians Hayn Salomon Helped finance the war Thomas Paine Wrote The American Crisis to inspire Americans Benjamin Franklin A diplomat to France and Britain– negotiated the alliance with France and then the Treaty of Paris which ended the war.