47Aggression most common behavior problem in dogs Many types of aggressionSome innateSome due to learning historySome due to interactionMost can be treated
48Territorial Aggression Wild canids ARE territorial.live in certain area, defend this area from intruders.Wolves are highly territorial.Coyote/wolf who’s not part of a pack invades their territory, the residents attack/drive off intruder.Some dogs display the same tendencies.bark and charge at people or other animals encroaching on their home turf.often valued for this level of territorial behavior.some dogs take this a step farther: attack and bite any intruderTerritorial aggression can occur along the boundary regularly patrolled by a dog or at the boundaries of her pet parents’ property.Other dogs show only toward people/animals coming into the home.Male and female dogs are equally prone to territorial aggression.Puppies rarely territorial.Territorial behavior usually emerges at adolescence early adulthood; one to three years of age.
49Protective Aggression Dogs = social species.If left on their own,live together in small groups, packs, of family/friends.If one member in danger, the others rush to defendThis is classified as protective aggression: dogs are protecting one of their own.Pet dogs protect “their” pack….family members or friendsSometimes only for those “lower” or more vunerable than themselves.Little kids or her litter of puppies.New baby is s “threat” to her people parents (think of the sounds that baby makes!)Both male and female dogs equally pronePuppies are rarely protective; emerges in adolescence or adulthood, at one to three years of age.
50Possessive Aggression Dogs have left over evolutionary instinct to compete for food, nesting sites and mates to survive.Thus, many pet dogs still show tendency to guard possessions from othersFood or food bowl (sometimes even water bowl)ToysPeopleResting spotsUsually easy to identify because only aggressive when has something s/he covets.some dogs hide cherished things around the house; guard them from unsuspecting people or animalsMale and female dogs are equally prone to possessive aggression,IS common in both puppies and adults.
51Rules of Possession for Dogs If it's mine it's mineif it's yours it's mineif I like it is mineif I can take it from you it is mineif I am playing with something ALL of the pieces are mineif I think it is mine it isif I saw it first it's mineif I had it then put it down it is still mineif you had it then you put it down it is now mineif it looks like the one I have hidden or already ate, it is mine
52Fear Aggression When afraid of something, get away from it EscapeAvoidanceAggressionFear, flight, fightCan be afraid of a person/animal/thingAttacks if this is only recourseLook for hierarchy of behavior:FearEscape/avoidanceThen aggressionE.g., cowering, running away,Note: when “aggressor” turns back, may attack!avoid turning your back on a fearful dog.Fear aggression is characterized by rapid nips or bites:fearful dog is motivated to bite and then run away.Aggression may not begin with clear threats or warningIt is the fearful posture, retreat or running away and avoidance that IS the cue!Male and female dogs are equally prone to fear aggressionCommon in both puppies and adults.
53Defensive Aggression Closely related to defensive aggression. primary difference: strategy adopted by the dog.Defensively aggressive dogs motivated by fearinstead of trying to retreat, they decide that the best defense is a good offense.exhibit a mixture of fearful and offensive postures.may initially charge at a person or another dog who frightens them, barking and growling.Then show avoidance/escapedefensively aggressive dog often delivers the first strike.Only if victim retreats does defensively aggressive dog abort attack.Male and female dogs are equally prone to defensive aggression.Slightly more common in adults than in puppiesOlder dogs have more confidenceHave had time to develop this defensive strategy
54Social AggressionOccurs in animals who live in social groups-certain rules in order to minimize conflict between group members. Canid species: adopt type of hierarchical order that influences which group members getFood firstResting spot firstFirst chance to mate, etc.Not have to constantly fight for status; know place in hierarchyDogs lower down on the totem pole know to wait until the higher-ups have had their share before taking their turn.But: ordered relationships frequently reinforced by displays of ritualized aggression.Ritualized Aggression:aggressive threats to remind others of their place in the pack.dog may perceives him/herself as high or low in statusShow aggression differently to different family membersKids = lower; show aggression
55aggressive response provoked by things that a dog perceives as threatening or unpleasantTaking food awayTaking a chew bone, toy or stolen object awayDisturbing the dog while she’s sleepingPhysically moving the dog while she’s restingHugging or kissing the dogBending or reaching over the dogManipulating the dog into a submissive posture (a down or a belly-up position)Lifting or trying to pick up the dogHolding the dog back from something she wantsGrooming, bathing, towelling or wiping the dog’s faceTouching the dog’s ears or feetTrimming the dog’s nailsJerking or pulling on the dog’s leash, handling her collar or putting on a harnessVerbally scolding the dogThreatening the dog with a pointed finger or rolled-up newspaperHitting or trying to hit the dogGoing through a door at same time as the dog or bumping into the dog
56Social AggressionSocial aggression is somewhat more common in males than in femalesMore common in purebreds than in mixed breeds.Puppies rarely socially aggressive with people, but can be with other dogs, particularly littermates.Social aggression usually develops in dogs between one to three years of age.
57Many issues in understanding Social Aggression Complexities involved in social aggression are poorly understood and hotly debated by behavior experts:One belief: all social aggression is rooted in fear and anxiety,Other side: motivated by anger and the desire for control.Truth: both are trueWhen consulting a professional, make sure you’re comfortable with her treatment recommendations.Data show that techniques for instilling fear and respect in dogs don’t work:such as alpha rolls, scruff shakes; hanginga very good chance that your dog will get worse rather than better—and you might get bitten in the process.Punishment may be appropriate, but only when it’s well planned and limited in application, and used in conjunction with a reward program!.
58Frustration-Elicited Aggression Dogs get frustrated, and can sometimes lash out with aggression.Dog that is excited or aroused by something but is back from approaching itcan become aggressiveparticularly toward the person or thing holding her back.E.g.,: frustrated dog might turn around and bite at her leash or bite at the hand holding her leash or collar.Over time, learn to associate restraint with feelings of frustrationeven when there’s nothing to be excited about, tends to react aggressively when restrained.explains why some normally friendly dogs become aggressive when put behind a gate, in a cage or crate, in a car, or on a leash.Male and female dogs are equally proneoccurs in both puppies and adults.
59Redirected Aggression like frustration-elicited aggression with the exception that the dog need not be frustrated.occurs when dog is aroused by or displays aggression toward a person or animal, and someone else interferes.dog redirects aggression from the source that triggered it to the person/animal who has interfered.Freud’s displacement!Result: people who break up dog fights are often bittenwhen two dogs are barking at someone from behind a fence, one will turn and attack the other.Male and female dogs are equallyoccurs in both puppies and adults.
60Pain-elicited Aggression Typical reaction to painVery critical to carefully handle dog in pain, even if she’s your own.bite with little warning, even if the reason you’re touching her is to treat her.Also: improper use of certain pieces of restraint equipment can inflict pain on a dog and prompt a pain-elicited biteIdiopathic Rage syndromeMale and female dogs are equally pronecan occur in both puppies and adults.
61Sex-Related Aggression Even though neutered, will still occurintact male dogs will still vie for the attention of females in heat,females will still compete for access to a male.Intact male dogs challenge, fight with other male dogs, even when no females are present.Also occurs males living together in the same household.In wild: adaptive because the strongest males more likely to attract females for breeding.females living together in the same household also might compete to establish which female gets access to a male, but this is rareMore likely in male dogsMore likely in adult dogs (1 to 3; even IF neutered)
62Predatory Aggression Canids = predators pet dogs still show some classic canine predatory behaviorschasing and grabbing fast-moving things.running people, people on bicycles and inline skates, and cars.Other pets, wildlife and livestock.Some dogs bite and even kill if they manage to catch the thing they’re chasing; others the chase is more important than the catchPredatory aggression very different from other classifications of aggressionrarely any warning before an attack.Comes “out of blue”Elicited by innate predatory cueSometimes the sound of a baby crying or the movement of lifting a baby out of a crib can trigger a lightening-fast reaction from a predatory dog.Equal in males and femalesMore likely in adults, but may begin to observe early on in pups
63Family members or Strangers? Must determine whom your dog is aggressive towardscommon for dogs to behave aggressively toward unfamiliar people.60 to 70% of all pet dogs bark threateningly at strangers and act unfriendly when around them.Aggression toward unfamiliar dogs widespread.Less common for dogs to direct aggression toward family members or other pets in the home.Children are most problematic, especially child family membersAdults too trustworthyInstincts too strongSome dogs aggressive only to a certain category of people.veterinarian or groomer, mailmanWheels: wheelchairs or individuals using canes and walkers. In some casesRaces or genders of peopleAges of peopleOften due to experience!!!!!TreatmentSocialization under controlled settingsOtherwise, keep dog away from triggers
64Aggression Risk FActors Size of the dog Age of the dogBite history Severity of the bitePredictability of who targetedTargets : How often your dog is exposed to the targets of her aggressionTriggers Identify triggers and treatOr keep awayEase of motivating/redirecting your dog
65Are some breeds more aggressive? Yes and noGoes back to risk factorsSizeHunting, herding tendencesTraining and experienceAgeindividuals still carry their ancestors’ DNA in their genes, which means that members of a particular breed might be predisposed to certain types of aggression.neither accurate nor wise to judge a dog by her breed.Far better predictors of aggressive behavior problems:dog’s individual temperamenthistory of interacting with people and other animals.
66Blackshaw, 1991 According to Blackshaw: most common dogs to bite are Bull Terrier (16%)German Shepherd (15%)Cattle dog breeds (9.2%)Terrier Breeds (9%)Labs and Goldens (8%)Poodle and Cocker Spaniel (5.7%)Rotweiler (4.6%)
67Different reasons why bite: Goes back to type of aggressionHerding dogsHunting dogsAncient breeds more likely to bite outsiders and familyTypes of aggressionDominance: 31.6%Territorial: 29%Predatory: 12.3%Intermale: 12.3%Sibling Rivalry: 7.9%Fear biting: 6%Idiopathic rage: 0.9%
68Interesting to review list: German Shepherd (12%)Rottweiler (7.5%)Cattle dog (4.7%)Chihuahua (4%),Labrador (3.8%)Dobermann (3.4%)Cocker Spaniel ( 3.2% )Bull Terrier ( 3.1% )Boxer (3%)Poodle (2.9%)Border Collie, Golden Retriever and Staffordshire Bull Terrier (all 2.8%), Australian Silkie Terrier (2.3%)Collie varieties (2.2%)Maltese and Welsh Corgies (both 2.1%)Dachshund and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (both 2%)Shetland sheepdog ( 1.4% ).
69Who to get for help Always Work with Your Veterinarian Rule out health conditionsDon’t be afraid of drugs as a helperAlways Work with a Professional Behavior ExpertCertified Applied Animal Behaviorist (CAAB or ACAAB)veterinary behaviorist (Dip ACVB)Certified Professional Dog Trainer (CPDT) in your area.If you choose to employ a CPDT, be sure that the trainer is qualified to help you.
70Can aggression be “cured” Not “cured”, but treatedbehavior modification techniques may reduce or eliminate under certain circumstancesBut still dealing with instinct and learning historyno guarantee that an aggressive dog can be completely cured.Pet parents responsible for their dogs’ behavior and must take precautions to ensure that no one’s harmed.Sometimes, only solution is euthanasiaWhat is best for dogWhat is safe for dog