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Amanda Donner St. James High School. Key Figures of the Civil War The Union.

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Presentation on theme: "Amanda Donner St. James High School. Key Figures of the Civil War The Union."— Presentation transcript:

1 Amanda Donner St. James High School

2 Key Figures of the Civil War The Union

3 Abraham Lincoln  President of the United States of America and the first Republican president in history

4 Ulysses S. Grant  An effective general in the Union’s Western battles, eventual commander of the entire Union army, defeated the South and accepted Robert E. Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Courthouse, 18 th president of the United States

5 George McClellan  Young, talented general in the Union, Lincoln’s first choice to command the union forces, too cautious and hesitant to attack, fired twice for lack of aggression, Democratic nominee for president against Lincoln in 1864

6 William Tecumseh Sherman  Union general in command of the western forces, captured Atlanta in 1864 signaling the end for the South, most remembered for his “march to the sea” in which he burned and destroyed southern cities and railroads to trap General Lee between him and Grant

7 Key Figures of the Civil War The Confederacy

8 Jefferson Davis  President of the Confederate States of America

9 Robert E. Lee  Assumed command of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, despire impressive victories, he didn’t have enough manpower to win the war, surrendered to Grant in 1865

10 Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson  Confederate general and right hand man to Robert E. Lee, noted for his ability to use geography to his advantage, led troops to victory at Chancellorsville, some say the South may have won had he been at Gettysburg

11 Advantages for the North  Both sides enjoyed certain advantages and weaknesses during the course of the Civil War  Ultimately, the Union’s strengths proved to be too great for the Confederacy to overcome  For starters, the North had more railway lines, which allowed supplies and troops to be transported to more locations and at a faster pace

12 Industrialization wins out  The Union also had more factories for producing guns, ammunition, shoes for soldiers, etc.  In addition, it already had an established government and a standing army with which to fight and administer a war  Finally, the Union states were home to two-thirds of the nation’s population  Not only did this mean they had more soldiers to fight, but it also supplied the needed labor force to keep the northern economy going and supply war needs

13 Southern Advantages  The South did enjoy some advantages  For one, the South initially had better military commanders  In fact, General Robert E. Lee, who eventually commanded the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, was such a brilliant and respected commander that he was originally offered commando f the Union forces by President Lincoln  He declined because he could not bring himself to fight against his homeland of Virginia

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15 Home field Advantage  In addition, although the South had fewer men, it also did not need as many because it intended to fight a war of attrition  In other words, the South would fight a defensive war designed to inflict enough damage to wear down its enemy’s will to fight  Much like the colonies during the American Revolution, the confederacy believed it didn’t need to win the war, it only needed to resist long enough for the Union to give up

16 You gotta fight for your right  Lastly, the South had the advantage of motivation  Southerners saw themselves fighting for states’ rights or the right of a state to decide issues like slavery for themselves  Thus, they felt they were defending their homeland, their way of life, and the right to govern themselves  In this respect, they identified themselves with the founders of the US who had fought for the same principles against the British

17 Key Battles of the Civil War  The First Battle of Bull Run (July 21, 1861) was the first confrontation between the two armies and a humiliating defeat for the Union forces  Because they were only 30 miles from Washington, DC, the victorious confederates could have invaded the capital had they been better organized  Instead, they failed to pursue the retreating Union army and missed a golden opportunity

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20 It’s gonna be a long one  The battle made it evident that the war would be longer than expected and led Lincoln to adopt General Winfield Scott’s “Anaconda Plan”  This plan involved surrounding the Confederacy and cutting off all supply lines, like an anaconda wraps around its prey and squeezes the life out of it

21 The Anaconda Plan

22 Hey it worked!  It restricted southern trade, transportation, and communications by seizing control of the Mississippi River, cutting Confederate territory in half, and instituted coastal blockades or the use of naval power to keep ships from entering or leaving enemy ports  Smugglers often used ships called “blockade runners” to get through these blockades and supply the South with goods

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25 Naval Battles  The Civil War saw innovations in naval technology  The Confederates created an ironclad or a warship shielded with iron to protect it from enemy fire  They made it from an old wooden steamship called the Merrimack  The Union navy’s wooden ships found themselves powerless against this innovative weapon

26 We want one,too  In response, the Union finally built an ironclad of their own called the Monitor  On March 9, 1862, the two ships met in battle off the coast of Virginia  After several hours of fighting, the Merrimack withdrew with neither ships suffering much damage  Eventually the South blew up the Merrimack to keep it from falling into enemy hands and the Monitor sunk during a storm  This began a new era in naval warfare

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28 Did you ever go see the Hunley?  The Civil War also marked the first time that submarines or ships that remain entirely under water, were used as American weapons of warfare.  The Union was actually the first to use a sub, but no Union submarine ever engaged in battle with a confederate ship  The most notable Confederate sub was the CSS Hunley

29 I could have never been on a sub

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31 It’s still in Charleston  The Hunley was intended to sink Union ships blockading Confederate harbors.  On February 18, 1864, it became the first North American submarine to successfully sink an enemy ship  Unfortunately for the South, the Hunley also sank during the same battle

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33 Second Battle of Bull Run  On land, the war was fought on two primary fronts, or theaters: eastern and western  In 1862, Robert E. Lee assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia after General Joseph Johnston was wounded  One of his first major victories came at the Second Battle of Bull Run  The battle ended Union hopes of invading Richmond and emboldened Lee to attempt invasion of the North

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36 The Bloodiest Single Day in American History  Lee and his generals tried to maintain secrecy as they made preparations for their invasion  Meanwhile, General McClellan (the Union’s commanding general), remained unaware of the Confederate army’s whereabouts until a copy of Lee’s orders were found wrapped around some cigars at an abandoned Confederate army camp

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38 How lucky was that?  Now aware of Lee’s plans, McClellan saw to it that Lee met a prepared Union force at Antietam Creek, Maryland  The battle of Antietam proved to be the bloodiest single day of the war, halting the Confederate advance  McClellan hesitated, however, and let Lee’s army slip away to fight another day

39 HE STOOD LIKE A STONE WALL  The battle of Chancellorsville is known by many as “Lee’s perfect battle” because of the great planning and good fortune that aided the Confederates  Thanks to the efforts of his most gifted general, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, Lee’s army defeated more than 70,000 Union troops with only 40,000 Confederate troops  Unfortunately for the Confederacy however, Jackson, was accidentally shot by his own troops scouting the enemy’s position at night.

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41 And I quote  They had to amputate his left arm, leading to Lee’s famous quote:  “Jackson has lost his left arm, but I have lost my right”  Although his injuries did not initially seem life threatening, Jackson died after contracting pneumonia during his recovery  As a result, Robert E. Lee was without his most talented and reliable commander at Gettysburg

42 Four score and seven years ago…..  Fought just outside Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, the battle of Gettysburg was a key turning point in the Civil War  Without Jackson to assist him, Lee’s forces proved less aggressive than usual and failed to win valuable high ground early in the battle  Union forces under the command of General George Meade defeated Lee’s army and ended any hope that the South had of successfully invading the North

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44 More death, more blood shed  With more than 51,000 soldiers killed, wounded or missing, Gettysburg was the bloodiest battle of the entire Civil War over a three day period.  Four months later President Lincoln gave his famous Gettysburg Address at a ceremony dedicating a cemetery on the sight of the battlefield  Although a relatively short speech, it was powerful affirmation of Lincoln’s desire to see the Union survive and the nation reunited

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47 This is the only confirmed picture of Lincoln at Gettysburg

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49 In the west

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51 In the West  In the late spring of 1863, the town of Vicksburg, Mississippi was the last Confederate obstacle to total Union control of the Mississippi River  Ignoring advice to withdraw, General Ulysses S. Grant laid siege, a strategy by which an army surrounds its enemy, cuts off their supplies, and starves them into surrendering, to Vicksburg for almost to months  By the time the town finally surrendered on July 4, residents had been reduced to eating horses, mules, dogs and even rats

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55 “Sherman’s coming, Sherman’s coming”  Making their way from Chattanooga, Tennessee, Union forces under the command of William Tecumseh Sherman captured Atlanta in Septmeber of 1864, there by helping President Lincoln to win reelection  Then after burning the city, Sherman’s continued his “march to the sea”

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58 “War is hell”  In this march, Sherman and his men destroyed bridges, factories, and railroad lines  Union forces cut a nearly 300 mile long and forty mile wide path of total destruction across Georgia to Savannah then straight up north through South Carolina into North Carolina intending to trap Lee’s army between himself and the forces of U. S. Grant

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