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CHAPTER 11 COMPLIANCE GAINING COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION INC., ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 1 Prepared by Robert Gass & John Seiter
CONCEPTUALIZING COMPLIANCE GAINING Compliance gaining is a sub-set of persuasion Compliance gaining is intentional The focus is on the outcome—behavioral conformity Studies concentrate on interpersonal influence (one-on-one) Studies emphasize strategy selection and use COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION INC., ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 2
MARWELL & SCHMIDT’S TAXONOMY Five types of compliance gaining strategies Rewarding activity Punishing activity Expertise Activation of impersonal commitments Activation of personal commitments COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION INC., ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 3
1. Promise of reward 2. Threat of punishment 3. Expertise (positive) 4. Expertise (negative) 5. Liking 6. Pregiving 7. Aversive stimulation 8. Debt 9. Moral appeal 10. Positive self-feeling 11. Negative self-feeling 12. Positive altercasting* 13. Negative altercasting* 14. Altruism 15. Positive esteem 16. Negative esteem COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION INC., ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 4 MARWELL & SCHMIDT’S 16 STRATEGY TYPOLOGY *Altercasting involves behaving in a manner consistent with a positive social role.
Dominance power and status Intimacy the nature of the relationship Resistance likelihood of anticipated resistance Personal benefits self-benefit vs. other benefit Rights invocation of rights, obligations Relational consequences potential for harming a relationship Apprehension potential for conflict escalation COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION INC., ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 5 SITUATIONAL FACTORS
INTIMATES VERSUS STRANGERS COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION INC., ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 6
COUPLE TYPES Traditionals tend to hold conventional relationship values exhibit more interdependence engage in conflict Separates tend to hold ambivalent views of relationships exhibit less interdependence avoid conflict Independents tend to hold nonconventional relationship values exhibit moderate independence engage in some conflict COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION INC., ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 7
FIVE TYPES OF POWER Reward power Based on the ability to confer benefits Coercive power Based on the ability to inflict punishments or impose penalties Expert power Based on perceived knowledge, expertise Legitimate power Based on official rank, formal standing Referent power Based on admiration, respect, regard COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION INC., ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 8
Politeness theory Explains how people deal with face threats Positive and negative face Face refers to a person’s public self-image. Positive face threats convey disapproval. Negative face threats constrain freedom or autonomy. Source and target face needs are interdependent. A source must adapt a message to another’s face needs. Threats to another’s face tend to decrease compliance COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION INC., ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 9 POLITENESS AND FACEWORK
Power and Politeness People with low power, status tend to rely on polite strategies People with high power, status have more leeway to use impolite strategies Direct requests are often the most polite, efficient approach (Kellermann & Shea, 1996) Viewed more favorably than threats Viewed more favorably than hinting COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION INC., ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 10 POLITENESS AND FACEWORK
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES & DESIGN LOGICS Design Logics Expressive design logic People who respond reflexively, impulsively Conventional design logic People who follow norms, social customs Rhetorical design logic People who rely on shared goals and reason-giving Of the three types, the last is rated as more competent and effective. COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION INC., ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 11
Studies have asked which strategies people prefer, but not which strategies they would actually use Studies have examined strategy usage, but not strategy effectiveness Studies have utilized hypothetical scenarios, as opposed to real-life situations Many studies have relied on “checklist” typologies Hypothetical checklists invite social desirability bias COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION INC., ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 12 METHODOLOGICAL CONCERNS
More recent research has addressed many of the previous concerns Dozens of studies have been conducted in real-life contexts Actual compliance was measured Examples of real-life contexts studied food servers and tipping behavior computer-mediated influence strangers and helping behavior retail sales and consumer purchases sexual compliance resisting physician-patient compliance gaining COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION INC., ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 13 METHODOLOGICAL CONCERNS
GOALS, PLANS, AND ACTIONS Primary goals An employee wants a pay raise Secondary goals The employee doesn’t want to work more hours The employee doesn’t want to irritate the boss Plans The employee opts for a positive, rational approach The employee provides evidence demonstrating his/her higher productivity compared to other employees COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION INC., ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 14
Provide guidance “You should send a thank you note.” Request advice “what would you do if you were in my situation?” Ask a favor “Would you give me hand?” Obtain permission “Can I take the day off tomorrow?” Share time “Let’s do lunch.” Change relationship “I think we should start seeing other people.” Fulfill an obligation “ But you promised me…” Get a date “How about dinner and a movie?” Change an opinion “I think we should go to my parent’s’ home for Thanksgiving” Stop an annoying habit “Do not clip your toenails in the bed.” COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION INC., ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 15 TYPES OF PRIMARY GOALS
Five types of secondary goals Identity goals Goals consistent with one’s own character Interaction goals Goals regarding facework, impression management Relational resource goals Goals involving relationship maintenance Personal resource goals Goals to improve one’s own assets or standing Affect management goals Goals about managing one’s mood, emotions COPYRIGHT © 2014 PEARSON EDUCATION INC., ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 16 DILLARD’S SECONDARY GOALS
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