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State-owned Development Finance (SDFI): the Political Economy and Performance Assessment Jacob Yaron Rome, March 19-21,2007 Jacob Yaron.

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Presentation on theme: "State-owned Development Finance (SDFI): the Political Economy and Performance Assessment Jacob Yaron Rome, March 19-21,2007 Jacob Yaron."— Presentation transcript:

1 State-owned Development Finance (SDFI): the Political Economy and Performance Assessment Jacob Yaron Rome, March 19-21,2007 Jacob Yaron Rome, March 19-21,2007

2 Issues to discuss History until State owned development banks Interest rate policy Microfinance and access to finance of the rural sector Conclusions History until State owned development banks Interest rate policy Microfinance and access to finance of the rural sector Conclusions

3 History: The policy and institutions until Directed, subsidized credit State owned development banks Poor financial performance Poor loan collection Often, the well to do, influential borrowers benefited from the lion’s share of the “grant element” in the subsidized loans Financial outcome of SDFIs- meaningless or misleading Directed, subsidized credit State owned development banks Poor financial performance Poor loan collection Often, the well to do, influential borrowers benefited from the lion’s share of the “grant element” in the subsidized loans Financial outcome of SDFIs- meaningless or misleading

4 Objectives of Intervention in Rural Financial Markets Poverty Reduction Food security Growth The agriculture can not pay “regular” interest rates Agriculture is a “priority” sector The agriculture sector is very important in terms of its share of GDP, employment and export All countries support the sector-if we will not the sector will die

5 Characteristics of Rural Finance High risks - Seasonal fluctuations - Covariance risks (yield and price) - Small size of production and fragmented markets -Lack of traditional collateral Poorly complementary insurance and labor markets Lack of physical and human infrastructure High risks - Seasonal fluctuations - Covariance risks (yield and price) - Small size of production and fragmented markets -Lack of traditional collateral Poorly complementary insurance and labor markets Lack of physical and human infrastructure

6 The Daunting Dilemma of Lending Interest Rates Under hard budget constraints a choice is inevitable Budget Unsubsidized lending interest rates can serve a high share of the rural population with no subsidy per $ lent Highly subsidized lending interest rates can serve only small number of clients with high subsidy per $ lent

7 Interest Rate Policy Objectives - Growth - Poverty reduction For Growth - “Higher”, unsubsidized lending interest rates contribute to a better resource allocation. Scarce funds would be lent to high return investments, thereby accelerating growth. Objectives - Growth - Poverty reduction For Growth - “Higher”, unsubsidized lending interest rates contribute to a better resource allocation. Scarce funds would be lent to high return investments, thereby accelerating growth.

8 For Poverty Reduction… General: The use of artificially low, subsidized lending interest rates is very tempting and widely used. However, subsidized lending rates are inefficient in fighting poverty because: - Most of the poor don’t have access to credit and therefore don’t benefit from the subsidy. General: The use of artificially low, subsidized lending interest rates is very tempting and widely used. However, subsidized lending rates are inefficient in fighting poverty because: - Most of the poor don’t have access to credit and therefore don’t benefit from the subsidy.

9 Figure 1: Effect on a DFI’s ROA and ROE Based of Changing the Interest Rate Charged on its Borrowed Funds Key Assumptions: equity equals 10 percent of total assets, the average annual yield obtained on total assets is 20 percent, and administrative expenses are six percent of total assets.

10 Agricultural Production Soars Even as Formal Agricultural Credit Declines in Brazil in US$ Index Index of Growth in Rural Credit and Grains Production (1967=100) US$/ton* Rural credit** Grains production Note: * Nominal credit values were adjusted by the general price index for domestically available goods, then converted by the avg exchange rate of R$1.8428/US$1; ** Units of credit (US$) per ton of grains produced Source: Central Bank of Brazil, as reproduced in Moysés Kessel: “O Crédito Rural no Brasil”, Nota Técnica, BCB-DEPEC. 2001

11 Microfinance and agriculture Microfinances, usually when active in rural finance serve: Clients with diversified sources of income High population density Clients with short production cycle that generate cash flow that allows frequent loan repayments Clients that are not adversely influenced by seasonality Microfinances, usually when active in rural finance serve: Clients with diversified sources of income High population density Clients with short production cycle that generate cash flow that allows frequent loan repayments Clients that are not adversely influenced by seasonality

12 Recent changes Tailoring procedures and products to production cycles Applying risk management techniques that reduces creditor risk Applying technologies and alternative delivery mechanisms aiming at enhancing outreach and saving operational cost High population density and tough competition among urban MFIs are important factors that e ncourage agricultural lending Tailoring procedures and products to production cycles Applying risk management techniques that reduces creditor risk Applying technologies and alternative delivery mechanisms aiming at enhancing outreach and saving operational cost High population density and tough competition among urban MFIs are important factors that e ncourage agricultural lending

13 Facilitating agriculture credit- MFIs Capping the % of agricultural lending of OLP allows risk mitigation Lending to households with diversified sources of income including primary agriculture Matching disbursements and repayments t o the production cycle Flexible collateral requirements Technological innovations (ATM, point of sale, debit and credit cards) Using existing delivery mechanism (post offices, retailers, mobile credit officers) Capping the % of agricultural lending of OLP allows risk mitigation Lending to households with diversified sources of income including primary agriculture Matching disbursements and repayments t o the production cycle Flexible collateral requirements Technological innovations (ATM, point of sale, debit and credit cards) Using existing delivery mechanism (post offices, retailers, mobile credit officers)

14 The transaction cost of microfinance MFIs have very high transaction cost as a share of their OLP (compared to regular, urban banks) Innovations needed to reduce substantially these cost and facilitate high growth rate of rural microfinance Administrative cost of 124 old, young and new (urban and rural) MFIs were 31%, 38% and 40% of OLP The adjusted combined financial cost and credit risk of these MFIs were less than 10 % of OLP (excluding opportunity cost of equity capital) source-MicroBank Bulletin, 2005) MFIs have very high transaction cost as a share of their OLP (compared to regular, urban banks) Innovations needed to reduce substantially these cost and facilitate high growth rate of rural microfinance Administrative cost of 124 old, young and new (urban and rural) MFIs were 31%, 38% and 40% of OLP The adjusted combined financial cost and credit risk of these MFIs were less than 10 % of OLP (excluding opportunity cost of equity capital) source-MicroBank Bulletin, 2005)

15 Risk mitigating instruments Whether insurance Minimum commodity price insurance- by creating a joint product of a loan and a put option Combination of the above- guarantees income (yield and price risks are mitigated) These insurances rely on the markets-- a sheer contrast to the “administrative” instruments that poorly performed and were highly subsidized (state owned crop insurance and artificial agricultural price support schemes). Whether insurance Minimum commodity price insurance- by creating a joint product of a loan and a put option Combination of the above- guarantees income (yield and price risks are mitigated) These insurances rely on the markets-- a sheer contrast to the “administrative” instruments that poorly performed and were highly subsidized (state owned crop insurance and artificial agricultural price support schemes).

16 BRI-Village bank in Indonesia-BUD Was established in 1983 replacing the poorly performed subsidized, directed credit to rice growers- BIMAS program Is a profit center in a state owned bank Is considered the flagship of the rural microfinance industry in the world Introduced and continued to apply the “best practices” in microfinance Was established in 1983 replacing the poorly performed subsidized, directed credit to rice growers- BIMAS program Is a profit center in a state owned bank Is considered the flagship of the rural microfinance industry in the world Introduced and continued to apply the “best practices” in microfinance

17 The BUD’s key elements of success Autonomy (charging “high” lending rates, paying substantial bonuses to employees). Incentives to staff and clients Adequate products’ pricing (saving yield, 0%-16%) High growth rate of rural GDP Financing all rural activities not only agriculture Benefiting from existing infrastructure, while changing drastically the “rules of the game” Autonomy (charging “high” lending rates, paying substantial bonuses to employees). Incentives to staff and clients Adequate products’ pricing (saving yield, 0%-16%) High growth rate of rural GDP Financing all rural activities not only agriculture Benefiting from existing infrastructure, while changing drastically the “rules of the game”

18 BUD -Indonesia Outreach Average annual OLP ($ million) Number of outstanding loans (million) Average outstanding loan amount ($) Average annual deposit volume ($ million) Number of deposit account (million) NA Average deposit amount ($) NA Average annual deposit value/ average annual OLP: , Outreach Average annual OLP ($ million) Number of outstanding loans (million) Average outstanding loan amount ($) Average annual deposit volume ($ million) Number of deposit account (million) NA Average deposit amount ($) NA Average annual deposit value/ average annual OLP: ,

19 BUD- Financial performance Nominal Ave. yield earned on OLP (%) Nominal Ave. rate paid on deposits (%) 10, % Nominal interest spread (%) Real Ave. yield earned on OLP (%) Real Ave. interest rate paid on deposits (%)

20 BUD (continued) Lowest nominal lending yield on OLP needed for self sustainability (%) As above real yield Operating costs as a % of ( a) Average annual OLP (%) (b) Average annual total assets (%) Lowest nominal lending yield on OLP needed for self sustainability (%)

21 BUD (continued) Profit ($ million) % of profitable units SDI (Subsidy Dependenc e Index) 32.2%Negative (13.7) Negative (44.5%)

22 Conclusions The “traditional” approach of subsidized, poor performing state owned bank is wasteful, yielding limited outreach and highly subsidized systems. Effective Microfinance financial intermediation has a great potential to reach the rural poor New technologies, procedures and particularly risk mitigating instruments can facilitate access to financial services to many small farming households. The “traditional” approach of subsidized, poor performing state owned bank is wasteful, yielding limited outreach and highly subsidized systems. Effective Microfinance financial intermediation has a great potential to reach the rural poor New technologies, procedures and particularly risk mitigating instruments can facilitate access to financial services to many small farming households.


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