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Chapter 4 Personality and Values

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1 Chapter 4 Personality and Values
Stephen A. Schwarzman 7 Billion Dollar Man, “King of Wall street” Grand 60th Birthday Celebration Successful, Glamorous!

2 Narcissist Mr. Schwarzman wants! CEO of Blackstone Group Mission
A financial advisory firm Mission Inflict pain on rivals Kill off rivals Successful, 5’6” Firing employees Not wearing proper shoes Sound of employee’s nose Narcissist

3 Personality shapes behavior
What is Personality? The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others; measurable traits a person exhibits. “The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment” Gordon Allport Quiet vs. aggressive people? Personality types vs. job types? Personality shapes behavior Personality Traits Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior. E.g. shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy, loyal, timid

4 Measuring Personality
Self-report surveys Observer-rating surveys Projective measures Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Big Five Model Rorschach Inkblot Test Thematic Apperception Test Influence of Psychometric Tests For hiring …

5 Personality Determinants
Heredity- Genes Factors determined at conception- biological, physiological and psychological makeup Molecular structure- genes Identical twins (39/31 yrs, 45 miles) Smoke, car, dog, vacations Twins on different household Vs. Siblings Environment Parental environment! Situations (Experience) ! Change in Rank Ordering Dependability Smartness

6 Measuring Personality- Tests
Tests are good Hiring decisions Managing decisions (understand, manage) “I worry a lot about the future” Problems- Accuracy Lie “Fake good” Impression management Individual Rating Vs. Observer Rating Bad mood during test Identifying primary traits Shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy, ambitious, loyal, timid, … … …

7 The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
MBTI- A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types. 100 Question How people feel or act in certain situations

8 MBTI- Personality Types
Extroverted vs. Introverted (E or I) Social Vs. Shy Sensing vs. Intuitive (S or N) Detail (routine) Vs. Big Picture (unconscious process) Thinking vs. Feeling (T or F) Logic Vs. P. Value/emotions Judging vs. Perceiving (P or J) Control/Order Vs. Flexible/Spontaneous Indicator

9 MBTI Indicator Can be a valuable tool for self-awareness and career guidance BUT Should not be used as a selection tool because it has not been related to job performance! INTJ Visionaries Original mind with drive for own ideas and purpose Skeptical, critical, independent, determined, stubborn ESTJ Organizers Realistic, logical, analytical, decisive ENTP Conceptualize Innovative, Individualistic, Versatile, Entrepreneur Challenging problem Vs. Routine NT Apple FedEx (Frederick W. Smith) Honda Microsoft Sony (Akio Morita) What is your type

10 IA-C4 Do an MBTI test. Analyze the result and explain your
career choice with respect to the test. Due June 22nd

11 Big Five Personality Model …
Five basic Dimension Major Dimensions Encompasses most variations others underlie Research support

12 The Big Five Model-Personality Dimensions
Extroversion Comfort level with relationship Sociable, gregarious, and assertive Vs. reserved, timid, and quiet Agreeableness Cooperative, warm, trusting Vs cold, disagreeable, antagonistic Conscientiousness/Reliability Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized Vs. opposite! Emotional Stability Neuroticism (craziness) Calm, self-confident, secure under stress (positive), Vs. nervous, depressed, and insecure under stress (negative). Openness to Experience Range of interest with novelty Curious, imaginative, artistic, and sensitive Vs. routine (familiarity) The Big Five Model-Personality Dimensions

13 Organizational impact
Employee traits Relationship with Job Performance Conscientiousness Higher skill level Emotional Stability Job Satisfaction Good decisions on bad mood! Extrovert Socially Dominant Leaders Impulsive Dependable Reliable Careful Thorough Planner Organized Hardworking Persistent Achievement-oriented Exhibit4-2/4.4 Job Performance

14 Other Major Personality Attributes In Organizations
Core Self-evaluation Machiavellianism Narcissism Self-monitoring Risk taking Type A vs. Type B personality Proactive Personality

15 Core Self-Evaluation: Components
Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves. Find themselves capable and effective Feel control over environment Self Esteem Locus of Control The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate. Positive Negative Job Satisfaction Challenge in jobs Attain more complex jobs Job Performance Ambitious goals Commitment Persistence Insurance Agents Internals Individuals- control what happens to them. Externals Individuals- controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance. Too Positive

16 Machiavellianism (Mach)
Degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means. Strive for Power Machs Manipulates Wins Persuaded less Persuades more Conditions Favoring High Machs Direct interaction with others Minimal rules and regulations Emotions distract for others


18 Narcissism A Narcissistic Person
Mirror A Narcissistic Person Has grandiose sense of self-importance Requires excessive admiration Has a sense of entitlement Tends to be rated as less effective Is arrogant Selfish Exploitive Leaders ! How bad is it? Views of others

19 Narcissism In adults, a reasonable amount of healthy narcissism allows the individual's perception of his needs to be balanced in relation to others. Healthy narcissism is the feeling of greatness. This is used to avoid feelings of inadequacy or insignificance.

20 Self-Monitoring An individual’s ability
to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors. I am true to myself- I do not remake myself to please others High Self-Monitors Receive better performance ratings Likely to emerge as leaders Show less commitment to their organizations I monitor behavior of my customer and conform accordingly!

21 Risk-Taking High Risk-taking Managers Low Risk-taking Managers
Mr. Trump 1980 ~ Rise 1994 ~ -850 M 2007 ~ +2.9 B High Risk-taking Managers Make quicker decisions Use less information to make decisions Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations Low Risk-taking Managers Are slower to make decisions Require more information before making decisions Exist in larger organizations with stable environments Risk Propensity Aligning managers’ risk-taking propensity to job requirements should be beneficial to organizations. Are you going to take risk? Stock Market Vs. GrameenPhone

22 Personality Types- A & B
Type A’s ~ Competitive Always moving, walking, and eating rapidly Feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place Strive to think or do two or more things at once Cannot cope with leisure time Obsessed with numbers, measuring their success …. Type B’s ~ Rarely Hurried Never suffer from a sense of time urgency/impatience Feel no need to display/discuss their achievements Play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost Can relax without guilt Stress Quantity o work Behavior Prediction

23 Proactive Personality
Identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres until meaningful change occurs. Creates positive change in the environment, regardless or even in spite of constraints or obstacles.

24 Chapter Check-Up: Personality
Which of the following is not a typical personality trait considered to be organizationally relevant? Locus of control Self-monitoring Self-enhancing Self esteem Machiavellianism

25 Example- Personality Asifa arrives to class and realizes that she’s forgotten her homework to turn in. She says “It’s just not my lucky day today.” Asifa has Asifa has a high external locus of control. Asifa believes that things outside of her control determine what happens. If Asifa works on a team with you, and you have a very high internal locus of control, what kinds of discussions do you think the two of you might have?

26 A Example- Personality
Hanifa is known for being a go-getter. She never leaves a task incomplete, and is involved in a number of activities. Moreover, she’s at the top of her class. She’s so busy that sometimes, she forgets to stop and eat lunch. Hanifa can be easily characterized as someone that has/is a Type ____ Personality. A

27 Example- Personality Hanifa is also likely to not be very Happy? Fun?
Creative? Stressed? In general, Type A’s are rarely creative because they generally don’t allocate the necessary time for new solution development; they usually rely on past experiences to solve problems in order to be speedy.


29 Values Mode of conduct or end state of existence Value System:
is personally or socially preferable vs. not pref. What is right & good Value System: A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity. Fluid and Flexible Vs. Stable and Enduring Gray Areas Types of Values- Rokeach Value Survey (RVS)

30 Allocation of pay per Performance Vs. Seniority
Importance of Values Provide understanding of individuals (cultures ) attitudes, motivation, and behaviors of Influence our perception of the world around us Represent interpretations of “right”, “wrong” and preference Some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others. Allocation of pay per Performance Vs. Seniority

31 Values in the Rokeach Survey Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. E

32 means of achieving one’s terminal values.
Values in the Rokeach Survey Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values. E

33 Mean Value Ranking (RVS)
E12/U13 E14/U14 Mean Value Ranking (RVS) Varies across group- People in similar occupation/categories …. Negotiation !

34 Values, Loyalty, and Ethical Behavior
Ethical Values and Behaviors of Leaders Ethical Climate in the Organization

35 Generational (Work) Values
Value changes over generation Work values- Exhibit 4.10 Nexters ! High Expectation Seek meaning in their work Goal- Rich and famous Questioning, socially conscious, enterprenueal

36 Achieving Person-Job Fit
Personality matches Job Personality and values matches organization Flexibility vs. ability Personality-Job Fit Theory (Holland) Identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover. Personality Types Realistic Investigative Social Conventional Enterprising Artistic

37 Create a personality profile
Holland’s Typology

38 Relationship. Compatibility among categories. Satisfaction
Relationship * Compatibility among categories * Satisfaction ** Realistic person in social job

39 Person-organization fit
Organizational Culture Profile (OCP) is useful for determining person-organization fit Survey that forces choices/rankings of one’s personal values Helpful for identifying most important values to look for in an organization (in efforts to create a good fit) Result >> Job Satisfaction, Org. Commitment, Low Turnover

40 Values across Cultures: Hofstede’s Framework
Power Distance Individualism vs. Collectivism Masculinity vs. Femininity Uncertainty Avoidance Long-term and Short-term orientation Big Five Hofstede’s Framework for accessing culture

41 Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
Power Distance The extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. Low distance Relatively equal power between those with status/wealth and those without status/wealth High distance Extremely unequal power distribution between those with status/wealth and those without status/wealth

42 Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
Individualism The degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than a member of groups. Collectivism A tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them. Vs.

43 Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
Masculinity The extent to which the society values work roles of achievement, power, and control, and where assertiveness and materialism are also valued. Vs. Femininity The extent to which there is little differentiation between roles for men and women. Separate Roles

44 Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
Uncertainty Avoidance The extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them. High Uncertainty Avoidance: Society does not like ambiguous situations & tries to avoid them. Low Uncertainty Avoidance: Society does not mind ambiguous situations & embraces them.

45 Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
Long-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence. Vs. Short-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the present and the here and now.

46 Exhibit XXX Hofstede’s Cultural Values by Nation

47 Chapter Check-Up: Values
In Country J most of the top management team meets employees at the local diner for a dinner on Fridays, and there are no reserved parking spaces. Everyone is on a first name basis with each other. Country J, according to Hofstede’s Framework, is probably low on what dimension? Collectivism Long Term Orientation Uncertainty Avoidance Power Distance How would a College or University in Country J differ from your College or University? Identify 3 differences and discuss with a neighbor.

48 G-C4 Due 24th (GW= Higher quality work) Case: Rise of a nice CEO
G-C4 Due 24th (GW= Higher quality work) Case: Rise of a nice CEO? P: 2, 4, 5 Nothing Individual

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