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1 /ray.html

2 Week 2

3 ingratiate gain favor with somebody by deliberate efforts

4 invigorate heighten or intensify give life or energy to make lively impart vigor, strength, or vitality to

5 exculpate pronounce not guilty of criminal charges

6 enervate weaken mentally, physically, or morally. disturb the composure of

7 debilitate make weak

8 candor ability to make judgments free from discrimination or dishonesty the quality of being honest and straightforward in attitude and speech

9 dissuade turn away from by persuasion

10 animosity a feeling of ill will arousing active hostility

11 frivolity the trait of being frivolous; not serious or sensible something of little value or significance acting like a clown or buffoon

12 ratify approve and express assent, responsibility, or obligation

13 nullify declare invalid show to be invalid make ineffective by counterbalancing the effect of

14 refute overthrow by argument, evidence, or proof prove to be false or incorrect

15 supplant take the place or move into the position of

16 elocution an expert manner of speaking involving control of voice and gesture

17 impediment something immaterial that interferes with or delays action or progress any structure that makes progress difficult

18 impetus a force that moves something along the act of applying force suddenly

19 fickle marked by erratic changeableness in affections or attachments liable to sudden unpredictable change

20 recalcitrant stubbornly resistant to authority or control marked by stubborn resistance to authority

21 pugnacious tough and callous by virtue of experience ready and able to resort to force or violence

22 spurious plausible but false born out of wedlock intended to deceive

23 cacophony a loud harsh or strident noise loud confusing disagreeable sounds

24 scourge a whip used to inflict punishment (often used for pedantic humor) something causing misery or death a person who inspires fear or dread punish severely; excoriate whip cause extensive destruction or ruin utterly

25 irascible quickly aroused to anger characterized by anger

26 blatant without any attempt at concealment; completely obvious conspicuously and offensively loud; given to vehement outcry

27 miniscule Very small

28 egregious conspicuously and outrageously bad or reprehensible

29 gratuity a relatively small amount of money given for services rendered (as by a waiter) an award (as for meritorious service) given without claim or obligation

30 dormant in a condition of biological rest or suspended animation (of e.g. volcanos) not erupting and not extinct lying with head on paws as if sleeping inactive but capable of becoming active

31 lethargy a state of comatose torpor (as found in sleeping sickness) weakness characterized by a lack of vitality or energy inactivity; showing an unusual lack of energy

32 capricious changeable determined by chance or impulse or whim rather than by necessity or reason

33 diligence conscientiousness in paying proper attention to a task; giving the degree of care required in a given situation persevering determination to perform a task a diligent effort

34 altruist someone who makes charitable donations intended to increase human well-being

35 charlatan a flamboyant deceiver; one who attracts customers with tricks or jokes

36 prerequisite something that is required in advance required as a prior condition or course of study

37 philanthropist someone who makes charitable donations intended to increase human well-being

38 penchant a strong liking

39 nihilist someone who rejects all theories of morality or religious belief an advocate of anarchism

40 despot a cruel and oppressive dictator

41 culpable deserving blame or censure as being wrong or evil or injurious

42 laconic brief and to the point; effectively cut short; `yes'"

43 verbose using or containing too many words

44 lugubrious excessively mournful

45 sonorous full and loud and deep

46 antiquated make obsolete or old-fashioned give an antique appearance to so extremely old as seeming to belong to an earlier period

47 impecunious not having enough money to pay for necessities

48 prescient perceiving the significance of events before they occur

49 pusillanimous lacking in courage and manly strength and resolution; contemptibly fearful

50 Agreement

51 Q #1 The harmful effects of excessive alcohol intake on the hepatic system [is extensively documented by medical studies.] A.) is extensively documented by medical studies B.) is documented more extensively by medical studies C.) are extensively documented by medical studies D.) medical studies are extensively documenting E.) has documented extensively by medical studies

52 Q #1 Answer The harmful effects of excessive alcohol intake on the hepatic system [is extensively documented by medical studies.] C.) are extensively documented by medical studies

53 Q #2 The validity of IQ tests as accurate measures of human intelligence have been the subject of much debate. A.) have been the subject of much debate B.) are often the subject of much debate C.) has been the subject of much debate D.) are a debate that is frequently held E.) are something that many have been debating

54 Q #2 Answer The validity of IQ tests as accurate measures of human intelligence have been the subject of much debate. C.) has been the subject of much debate

55 Q #3 Bob Hope, [long] [considered] a hero by many members [of] the military, [were] very patriotic. A.) long B.) considered C.) of D.) were E.) No error

56 Q #3 Answer Bob Hope, [long] [considered] a hero by many members [of] the military, [were] very patriotic. D.) were

57 Q #4 By virtue of [their] size and superior technological advances, the Russian army [was able] to quell the [aggressive] rebellion [with] unmatched efficiency. A.) their B.) was able C.) aggressive D.) with E.) No error

58 Q #4 Answer By virtue of [their] size and superior technological advances, the Russian army [was able] to quell the [aggressive] rebellion [with] unmatched efficiency. A.) their

59 Q #5 Some parents [believe that] a weekly allowance [help] children [to appreciate] the importance [of] good money management skills. A.) believe that B.) help C.) to appreciate D.) of E.) No error

60 Q #5 Answer Some parents [believe that] a weekly allowance [help] children [to appreciate] the importance [of] good money management skills. B.) help

61 Q #6 The surgical method [of inserting] the valve, [which includes] making a small incision between the ribs, [are intended] to shorten recovery time and reduce complications [associated with] traditional open-heart surgery. A.) of inserting B.) which includes C.) are intended D.) associated with E.) No error

62 Q #6 Answer The surgical method [of inserting] the valve, [which includes] making a small incision between the ribs, [are intended] to shorten recovery time and reduce complications [associated with] traditional open-heart surgery. C.) are intended

63 Q #7 The play director has announced [that] if anyone [wants] to try out [for] the musical, [they] should do so immediately. A.) that B.) wants C.) for D.) they E.) No error

64 Q #7 Answer The play director has announced [that] if anyone [wants] to try out [for] the musical, [they] should do so immediately. D.) they

65 Modifiers

66 Q #8 If asked to name a famous explorer, Christopher Columbus would probably be the person most of us would choose. A.) Christopher Columbus would probably be the person most of us would choose B.) most of us would probably choose Christopher Columbus C.) our choice for the most of us would probably be Christopher Columbus D.) Christopher Columbus would probably get most of our choices E.) most of our choices would probably be for Christopher Columbus

67 Q #8 Answer If asked to name a famous explorer, Christopher Columbus would probably be the person most of us would choose. B.) most of us would probably choose Christopher Columbus

68 Q #9 Located in Manhattan, many sightseers like to visit the Empire State building, a massive skyscraper constructed during the Great Depression. A.) many sightseers like to visit the Empire State building, a massive skyscraper constructed during the Great Depression B.) the Empire state building, a massive skyscraper constructed during the Great Depression many sightseers like to visit C.) and constructed during the Great Depression, many tourists like to visit the Empire State Building D.) the Empire State Building is a massive skyscraper, constructed during the Great Depression, that many sightseers like to visit E.) a massive skyscraper constructed during the Great Depression, the Empire State Building, is a place that sightseers like to visit

69 Q #9 Answer Located in Manhattan, many sightseers like to visit the Empire State building, a massive skyscraper constructed during the Great Depression. D.) the Empire State Building is a massive skyscraper, constructed during the Great Depression, that many sightseers like to visit

70 Q #10 [Having poured down heavily throughout the night, Felisha observed that the rain had leaked into the cellar] through the cracked window. A.) Having poured down heavily throughout the night, Felisha observed that the rain had leaked into the cellar B.) Felisha observed that the rain, which had poured down heavily throughout the night, had leaked into the cellar C.) Having poured down heavily throughout the night, the rain was observed by Felisha to have leaked into the cellar D.) Felisha observed the rain, having poured down heavily throughout the night, had leaked into the cellar E.) The rain, which poured down heavily throughout the night, leaked into the cellar as it was observed by Felisha

71 Q #10 Answer [Having poured down heavily throughout the night, Felisha observed that the rain had leaked into the cellar] through the cracked window. B.) Felisha observed that the rain, which had poured down heavily throughout the night, had leaked into the cellar

72 Q #11 [When looking] at satellite photographs of the area [affected] by Hurricane Katrina, the effects of the massive storm [are] [clearly] visible. A.) When looking B.) affected C.) are D.) clearly E.) No error

73 Q #11 Answer [When looking] at satellite photographs of the area [affected] by Hurricane Katrina, the effects of the massive storm [are] [clearly] visible. A.) When looking

74 Q #12 [Walking on four legs,] their two legged ancestry is revealed by their hind legs, which are longer than their front legs, making them slant forward when they stand. A.) Though modern crocodiles walk on four legs, B.) Four legged walkers, C.) Modern crocodiles, despite walking on four legs, D.) As four legged walkers, modern crocodiles, E.) Having four legs,

75 Q #12 Answer [Walking on four legs,] their two legged ancestry is revealed by their hind legs, which are longer than their front legs, making them slant forward when they stand. A.) Though modern crocodiles walk on four legs,

76 Idioms

77 Q #13 [Quick to] [take advantage] of his mother’s [preoccupation in] proper nutrition, Jules [convinced] her to cook a large breakfast for him before he went to the beach for the day. A.) Quick to B.) take advantage C.) preoccupation in D.) convinced E.) No error

78 Q #13 Answer [Quick to] [take advantage] of his mother’s [preoccupation] in proper nutrition, Jules [convinced] her to cook a large breakfast for him before he went to the beach for the day. C.) preoccupation in

79 Q #14 Scientists [are amassing] evidence that the placebo [affect] is a physiological reaction, and that the expectation of a benefit [can trigger] the same neurological pathways as [real medication does]. A.) are amassing B.) affect C.) can trigger D.) real medication does E.) No error

80 Q #14 Answer Scientists [are amassing] evidence that the placebo [affect] is a physiological reaction, and that the expectation of a benefit [can trigger] the same neurological pathways as [real medication does]. B.) affect

81 Q #16 [Being as he is a perfect gentleman], Tommy is well known for his polite behavior even around strangers. A.) Being as he is a perfect gentleman B.) Although he is a perfect gentleman C.) Being a gentleman perfectly D.) A perfect gentleman E.) In being a perfect gentleman

82 Q #16 Answer [Being as he is a perfect gentleman], Tommy is well known for his polite behavior even around strangers. D.) A perfect gentleman

83 Parallelism

84 Q #15 Harper’s Conservative Party [favors lowering taxes, a more decentralized government, and the spending of less money] on imports. A.) favors lowering taxes, a more decentralized government, and the spending of less money B.) favor lower taxes, more decentralizing government, and spending less money C.) favors lower taxes, a more decentralized government, and a lesser expenditure D.) favoring lower taxes, a more decentralized government, and less money spent E.) favor lowering taxes, a more decentralized government, and spending less money

85 Q #15 Answer Harper’s Conservative Party [favors lowering taxes, a more decentralized government, and the spending of less money] on imports. C.) favors lower taxes, a more decentralized government, and a lesser expenditure

86 Q #17 [Too much] sugar [causes] a cake to sag [in the center], to brown excessively, and [having sticky], thick crust. A.) Too much B.) causes C.) in the center D.) having sticky E.) No error

87 Q #17 Answer [Too much] sugar [causes] a cake to sag [in the center], to brown excessively, and [having sticky], thick crust. D.) having sticky

88 Q #18 [After completing] her examination of the patient, the medical intern [informed] the chief resident that the patient [was] not only feeling sick, [but dizzy], and therefore might have an infection. A.) After completing B.) informed C.) was D.) but dizzy E.) No error

89 Q #18 Answer [After completing] her examination of the patient, the medical intern [informed] the chief resident that the patient [was] not only feeling sick, [but dizzy], and therefore might have an infection. D.) but dizzy

90 Homework: Syllogism practice: Come up with a syllogism in answer to this prompt. How important is it to seek the opinions of others when making significant personal decisions? Then turn that syllogism into a paragraph. Print it out, bring it in.


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