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Background  Born February 18 th 1516 to Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon  Sick throughout her childhood and adult life  Inherited her Catholicism.

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Presentation on theme: "Background  Born February 18 th 1516 to Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon  Sick throughout her childhood and adult life  Inherited her Catholicism."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Background  Born February 18 th 1516 to Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon  Sick throughout her childhood and adult life  Inherited her Catholicism from her mother, refused to renounce her faith  Declared illegitimate in 1533 after the divorce of Henry VIII and Catherine, later to be reinstated  Succeeded throne in 1553 as first Queen Regnant at age 37

3 Steps Toward a Catholic EnglandSteps Toward a Catholic England  Restored Papal Supremacy and Latin mass  Abolished Edward VI’s religious laws and reasserted her own legitimacy  1554: Cardinal Reginald Pole declared Archbishop of Canterbury  Burnings of approximately 300 heretics

4 Marriage to Philip II of SpainMarriage to Philip II of Spain  Mary became Queen at age 37 and needed an heir  All Acts of Parliament were in both of their names  Appeared on coinage  Childless marriage  War with France, loss of Calais

5 Written in Mary’s hand for Cardinal Pole at time of first synod November 11, 1555  “…touching the punishments of heretics, I believe it would be well to inflict punishment at this beginning, without much cruelty or passion, but without however omitting to do such justice on those who choose by their false doctrine to deceive simple persons, that the people may clearly comprehend that they have not been condemned without just cause, whereby others will be brought to know the truth, and will beware of letting themselves be induced to relapse into such new and false opinions. And above all I should wish that no one be burned in London save in the presence of some member of the Council; and that during such executions, both here and elsewhere, some good and pious sermons be preached…”

6 The Death of Cranmer from John Foxe’s Book of Martyrs “‘And as for the Pope, I refuse him as Christ’s enemy, and Antichrist, with all his false doctrine.’ Upon the conclusion of this unexpected declaration…the Catholics were completely foiled…Cranmer…having completed a greater ruin upon his enemies in the hour of death, than he did in his life…With thoughts intent upon a far higher object than the empty threats of man, he reached the spot dyed with the blood of Ridley and Latimer…Then were the glorious sentiments of the martyr made manifest; then it was, that stretching out his right hand, he held it unshrinkingly in the fire until it was burnt to a cinder, even before his body was injured, frequently exclaiming ‘this unworthy right hand.’…His body did abide the burning with such steadfastness that he seemed to have no more than the stake to which he was bound; his eyes were lifted up to heaven, and he repeated ‘this unworthy right hand’ as long as his voice would suffer him; and using often the words of Stephen, ‘Lord Jesus, receive my spirit,’ in the greatness of the flame, he gave up the ghost.”

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8 John Knox on Queen MaryJohn Knox on Queen Mary “To promote a woman to bear rule, superiority dominion, or empire above any realm, nation, or city, is repugnant to nature; contumely [an insult] to God…it is a subversion of good order, or all equity and justice…Man, I say, in many other cases, does in this behalf see clearly. For who can deny but it is repugnant to nature, that the blind shall be appointed to lead and conduct such as do see? That the weak, the sick, the impotent persons shall nourish and keep the whole strong? And finally, that the foolish, mad, and frenetic shall govern the discreet, and give counsel to such as be the sober mind? And such be all women, compared unto man in bearing of authority.”

9 “But to repress the raging of woman’s madness, I will descent somewhat deeper into the matter; and not fear to affirm, that as we find a contrary spirit in all these most wicked women to the spirit that was in those godly matrons; so, I say, I fear not to affirm that their condition is unlike, and that their end shall be diverse. In those matrons, we find that the spirit of mercy, truth, justice, and of humility did reign. Under them we find that god did show mercy to his people, delivering them from the tyranny of strangers, and from the venom of idolatry, by the hands and counsel of those women. But in these ages, we find cruelty, falsehood, pride, covetousness, deceit, and oppression…But what makes this for Mary and her match Philip?...it was commanded by Moses that they should marry in the family or household of the tribe and kindred of their father. Wonder it is, that the advocates and patrons of the right of our ladies did not consider and ponder this law, before they counseled the blind princes and unworthy nobles of their court to betray the liberties thereof into the hands of strangers: England, for satisfying of the inordinate appetites of that cruel monster Mary (unworthy, by reason of her blood tyranny, the name of a woman).”

10 Bloody or Not? What do you think? Was distaste towards Mary merely a criticism of Roman Catholicism, and a natural reaction for the shift in religious authority? Were people threatened by the authority of women, as she was the first Queen Regnant? Or was she truly an evil Queen?


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