Presentation on theme: "A Peacekeeping Challenge. Egypt raided southern areas for slaves, using Nile for transport British colonial authorities focused investment on northern."— Presentation transcript:
A Peacekeeping Challenge
Egypt raided southern areas for slaves, using Nile for transport British colonial authorities focused investment on northern areas near Nile south and west remain isolated and poor (tribute collected from them) Western area (Darfur) kingdom, defeated by various forces in late 19 th /early 20 th centuries, absorbed into Sudan Independence Sudan ruled by “Arabs” in northern Nile regions. Soon, revolts begin in South.
North-South Muslim/Christian Arab/Black Tribal Fragmentation 1973 Agreement – Abrogated 10 years later Peace agreement signed in 2005; slow implementation but South Sudan secedes in 2011
1970s-present: Prolonged drought pushes nomadic herders south into settled areas of Darfur conflict between “Arab” nomads and “Black” farmers
“Native administration” weakened by Sudan government
1980s: Government arms “Arab militias” in south and west to counter SPLA Absence of local administration plus militias insecurity Conflict between a few tribes “draws in” new alliances of armed tribes : Arab-Fur conflict: 2500 Fur, 500 Arabs killed
: SPLA allies with some Fur but pushed out of Darfur by government forces plus “Arab” militias (janjaweed)
1994: Government splits state in three, dividing central Fur area to empower “Arabs” (gerrymander) 1995: Division of local tribal homelands, quotas for Arab leaders Massaleit
: SPLA allies with some Fur but pushed out of Darfur by government forces plus “Arab” militias (janjaweed) 1994: Government splits state in three, dividing central Fur area to empower “Arabs” (gerrymander)
1995: Regional government attempts to divide Massaleit tribal homeland into districts with many under Arab control : Arab-Massaleit Conflict – hundreds killed, mostly by Arab militias. Up to 100,000 displaced. Early 2000s: Split within Islamist “Arab” national leadership one faction tries to mobilize “Blacks” against the other emergence of JEM 2002: Massaleit, Fur, and Zaghawa (heavily armed from fighting in Chad’s civil wars) form SLA
Rebels (SLA and JEM) demand government reform: claim Darfur neglected by Arab government Rebels inflict heavy casualties on government troops Government responds by arming/mobilizing janjaweed militias (Arabs) SLA and JEM unable to protect civilians from Arab militias flee into mountains By summer 2004, 60,000-80,000 dead, > 1 million IDPs/refugees
Has been translated as “devil on a horse” in Arabic Janjaweed in military fatigues in Geneina.
After attacking and looting, Janjaweed begin to burn the village of Um Zeifa
In addition to killing and expelling members of a village, the Janjaweed burn their food stores and poison wells so that the survivors cannot return. A government soldier burning the food storage of the villagers in Marla.
2.5 million refugees and IDPs in Sudan and neighboring Chad. Three generations of farmers, formerly self-sufficient, now forced to live in a camp.
Thousands die each month from the effects of inadequate food, water, health care, and shelter in a harsh desert environment. Pictured are graves outside and IDP camp.
Janjaweed shout racial slurs as they destroy the villages Rape used as weapon of war: stigma in Darfur society and desire to “Arabize” population One refugee: “the Arabs want to get rid of anyone with black skin.... There are no blacks left…” Death toll = 100,000 to 300,000 (mostly children <5 years old), mostly from hunger and disease, 2003-
2004: US declares the crisis in Darfur to be a genocide First time a genocide declared as such by US while in progress US supports UN resolutions calling on Sudan to end janjaweed attacks and threatening sanctions (China and Russia – heavily invested in Sudanese oil – abstain) Sudan refuses consent for UN force, but allows small African Union contingent (AMIS). Increases to 7000 troops by late 2005 (analogous to Dallas police force trying to patrol area the size of Texas) Mandate: Protect civilians “under imminent threat and in the immediate vicinity” and within its “resources and capability.” AMIS was occasionally targeted by both sides and by simple bandits
Signed only by larger SLM, not smaller JEM. Major provisions: Security: Disarm janjaweed within 6 months (not implemented) Reduce government military forces Rebels to disarm after janjaweed Buffer zones around IDP camps Integrate former rebels into police, military units Establish a commission to work with the United Nations to help refugees and displaced persons return to their homes. Power-Sharing: Transitional Darfur authority created; rebels to have majority locally and some seats nationally Elections at all levels of government by July 2009 Referendum: unification of three Darfur provinces by July 2010
Creates fund for Darfur Reconstruction and Development: $700 million over three years from government Creates a commission to provide compensation to victims of the conflict. Creates transparent process to track the flow of grants and monies from Khartoum into Darfur.
2007: UN Security Council votes to establish UNAMID, a joint AU-UN force tasked with supporting the Darfur Peace Agreement (up to 26,000 troops – but only 9000 deployed by 2009) Poorly-equipped, lacking helicopters and even reliable vehicles Agrees to abide by wishes of Sudanese government 2009: Sudanese President Bashir indicted for genocide by International Criminal Court -- refuses to renew agreement to UNAMID unless indictment withdrawn
23,129 total uniformed personnel 17,777 troops 319 military observers 5,033 police (including formed units) 1,136 international civilian personnel 2,834 local civilian staff 485 United Nations Volunteers
2010: JEM signs truce in February, but clashes between SLA and government intensify. Elections held, but not free ones (boycotted by opposition) 2011: Further clashes between government and both JEM and SLA, but October UNAMID report claims 70% decrease in violence since March: Government issues decree for referendum on division of Darfur, to be held in JEM opposes referendum, breaks off peace talks. May: Government approves draft report calling for division of Darfur into five states, controlled by central government July 29: UN Security Council votes to extend UNAMID another year. Sudan threatens to expel mission (revoke consent)