Presentation on theme: "Cyberbullying as a Community Challenge: Finding Collaborative Solutions."— Presentation transcript:
Cyberbullying as a Community Challenge: Finding Collaborative Solutions
Overview Background: definitions, epidemiology, effects Policy and legal aspects Cyberbullying and K12 schools Working with teens involved in cyberbullying Case discussions Report back and future directions
Ellen Selkie, MD, MPH Adolescent Medicine Fellow University of Washington/Seattle Children’s
Bullying: Uniform Definition Bullying is any unwanted aggressive behavior(s) by another youth or group of youths who are not siblings or current dating partners that involves an observed or perceived power imbalance and is repeated multiple times or is highly likely to be repeated. Bullying may inflict harm or distress on the targeted youth including physical, psychological, social, or educational harm. http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/bullying-definitions-final-a.pdf
Cyberbullying: Terminology and Definitions Electronic Harassment? Online Aggression? Internet bullying? “anything that someone does that upsets or offends someone else [using email, text or social networking sites]” “using a cell phone or the Internet to send or post messages or images ot hurt or embarrass someone else in an unfriendly way” “any behavior performed through electronic or digital media by individuals or groups that repeatedly communicates hostile or aggressive messages intended to inflict harm or discomfort on others” Juvonen 2008, Roberto 2014, Tokunaga 2010
Cyberbullying in Adolescents: Epidemiology ● 15-30% have been aggressors ● Risk factors: moral disengagement, low empathy, targets of cyberbullying ● 20-40% have been targets ● Risk factors: traditional bullying targets, loneliness, social anxiety, depression ● Significant overlap with traditional (face-to-face) bullying Tokunaga 2010
Cyberbullying: Health Consequences Depression, suicidality, substance use, school problems (both aggressors and targets) Degree and severity of cyberbullying associated with severity of depression Recent meta-analysis found that cyberbullying is more strongly related to suicidal ideation than traditional bullying van Geel, 2014
Peter Moreno, JD University of Washington School of Law
New Cyberbullying Statutes 49 states prohibit electronic harassment and require schools to adopt anti-harassment policies State laws and policies often prohibit a wide range of behavior, raising constitutional concerns Evidence is important
State laws vary widely Washington prohibits acts that “substantially interfere” with a student’s education or the orderly operation of the school. R.C.W. § 28A.300.285(2). Arkansas prohibits ridicule that results in: “inability of students or educational staff to focus on learning…” A.C.A. §§ 5-71-217, 6-18- 514. Indiana prohibits (and criminalizes) using a computer to communicate with intent to “annoy” or “alarm.” I.C. § 35-45-2-2.
Freedom of Speech in Schools Students don’t “shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate.” Tinker v. Des Moines (1969). “The mere fact that expressive activity causes hurt feelings, offense or resentment does not render the expression unprotected.” R.A.V. v. St. Paul (1992) (J. White, concurring).
Freedom of Speech vs. School Objectives Regulation is generally permissible when speech “substantial disrupts” the orderly operation of the school. Tinker v. Des Moines (1969). Schools must teach the “shared values of a civilized social order.” Bethel v. Fraser (1986)
Bullying, Cyberbullying & K12 Schools Mike Donlin Program Supervisor, OSPI http://www.k12.wa.us/SafetyCenter http://www.k12.wa.us/SafetyCenter
Not all negative, socially unacceptable behavior is “bullying”. First of all…
Federal - Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. In a nutshell: - No unreasonable searches and seizures - Requires probable cause - Specific place to be searched, and persons or things to be seized For schools: - reasonable suspicion - be very sure of the rules / policies - limited / reasonable scope * STOP! Caution! Training! Liability! “Phone a friend”
Federal: Universal Services Administration Universal Services Administration / ERate: Children’s Internet Protection ActChildren’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) 1. Internet Safety Policy 2. Protection measures / filters 3. Monitor internet activity of minors AND: 4. Broadband Data Improvement Act: Protecting Children in the 21 st Century Act Protecting Children in the 21 st Century Act - (2008) TEACH internet safety & cyberbullying awareness & response
The Nexus between on and off-campus behavior : 1.location & proximity school 2.time: hour & date 3.the effect on others 4.severity of activity & likely connection to student or staff safety 5.impact on overall environment and safety of the school.
Harassment-related student bullying & School liability: 1.Target is a member of a “protected class” defined under federal civil rights laws - include gender, race and disability 2.Harassment was based on the students’ membership in a protected class 3.Harassment was severe, pervasive and offensive 4.School had knowledge of the harassment 5.School was deliberately indifferent
When should a parent or teacher suspect that a child is being bullied? Has social skill deficits Absences or school avoidance Lost interest in schoolwork Appears sad, moody, tearful Somatic complaints on school days Trouble sleeping Loss of appetite
Recommendations for teens Don’t: Respond to hurtful messages Send a picture that might be embarrassing Do: Tell somebody Use privacy preferences on social media Save copies of harassing or abusive messages, posts, and comments
Recommendations for parents Set limits about computer use Monitor text messages Discuss parameters for a Facebook account. Communicate openly and non-judgmentally about use of technology
Realistic Strategies: Bullying Prevention & Intervention Talk with school about anti-bullying policy that is consistent with state and federal policies Make sure the adult workplace models healthy social relationships Work respectfully and collaboratively with families Use videos and classroom discussion guides to talk about the detrimental effects of bullying Use social-emotional learning activities (www.casel.org) to create a positive school climate Use positive behavioral interventions and supports (www.pbis.org) to respond effectively to student behaviors
Group Activity Please divide into 4 groups for case discussion Select a note taker
Case 15 year old female presents for evaluation of depression. In the last year, multiple students have called her names and thrown food at her in the hallways at school. Others have sent messages via text and Facebook that she should kill herself.
Case Questions 1)What other questions might you ask this client and/or her parents? 2)Describe the next steps you would take while she is in your office. 3)Think about your home community. What resources are available in your community (or online) to help this student?
Case (continued) You next see this girl 1 year later. One month after her previous visit, she changed schools as she did not feel safe at her current school due to bullying. However, she continues to receive threatening messages on Facebook and via text message. She stopped going to school 6 months ago. She has friends from school that she stays in touch with over social media, but she has become less interested in leaving the house to socialize with them. In the last 2 weeks, she has had poor sleep, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation but no plan.
Case Questions 1)What further resources would you utilize? 2)What is NEEDED in your home community to address the situation? 3)How could this be prevented in the future?
Reassemble! Report out on key points Questions for facilitators Pool resources Sign up for further information
Contact us! Ellen Selkie email@example.com Peter Moreno firstname.lastname@example.org Mike Donlin email@example.com Erik Schlocker firstname.lastname@example.org