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Population Studies Updated 2013. Population Density Which photograph shows an area with high population density?

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Presentation on theme: "Population Studies Updated 2013. Population Density Which photograph shows an area with high population density?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Population Studies Updated 2013

2 Population Density Which photograph shows an area with high population density?

3 Population Density = Total number of people per unit area of land

4 Calculation of Population Density Total residents in 1997 = Total land area = sq km Pop density = 5768 persons per sq km

5 Population Density Canada – 3 people per sq km Bangladesh – 1042 people per sq km Singapore – 6000 people per sq km

6 Top 10 most densely populated countries and territories (humans/sq km) 1.Monaco Macau Singapore Hong Kong Gibraltar Vatican City Malta Maldives Bermuda Bahrain 1080 Source: The Straits Times (11 Jul 2008)

7 Population Distribution The way people are spread out over an area of land

8 Factors Affecting Population Distribution 1. Physical Environment Examples can include: –Relief –Climate –Soils 2. Level of technology Las Vegas 1. Physical Environment Examples can include: –Relief –Climate –Soils 2. Level of technology Las Vegas

9 Population Distribution of Malaysia Population is not evenly distributed 80% of the people live on the west coast; 20% on the east coast. Areas of high pop density are the major cities such as Kuala Lumpur, Melaka and Johor Bahru Areas of low to moderate pop density are found on the coastal plain on the east coast

10 Relief Lowland areas/low reliefs are able to support a dense population Development of settlements, transport, agriculture and industry Central northern part is sparsely populated because it is mountainous

11 Climate West coast more densely populated – sheltered from SW monsoon by Sumatra Sheltered from heavy rain facilitates the growth of trade, market towns and ports East coast is exposed to NE monsoon as it faces South China Sea Heavy and prolonged downpour causes floods and inflict economic losses

12 Soil Soil on the west coast is generally suitable for growing cash crops such as rubber and oil palm Moist and soft soil also supports wet rice cultivation Hence, west coast able to support dense population East coast – swampy lowland Mountains in central northern part – poor, thin, stony soil. Unsuitable for rice cultivation

13 Describe and account for the population distribution and density in Peninsular Malaysia. Describe High population density – where? moderate population density – where? Low population density – where? Account - Factors influencing population distribution Physical environment Level of technology

14 High Population Growth in Developing Countries

15 Population Pyramid Shows the proportion of males and females in different age groups Measured in % or no of total pop Shape determined by BR, DR and migration

16 How to look at a population pyramid? Look at 4 things: –Overall shape –Narrow or Broad Base (% of population that is young) –Narrow or Broad Top (% of population that is old) –Skewness of gender ratio (has migration caused males/females to move out of the country?)

17 A Pyramidal-shaped Population Pyramid (Progressive)

18 Describing and interpreting Broad base indicates high BR or fertility rate and an expanding/youthful population Large dependent population account 35% or more of the total population Pyramid narrows from age group to age group, indicating high DR The narrow top from the 65 – 69 age group indicates low life expectancy Overall sex ratio is balanced which reflects little immigration or emigration Such a population diagram is typical of developing countries with increasing population

19 Reasons for high growth rate: Developing countries Low DRHigh BR Better hygieneLack of family planning Better nutritionEarly marriages Better healthcarePreference for sons Need for farm labour

20 High growth rate: Developing countries Consequences: Overpopulation Strain on country’s resources (food, housing, education) High unemployment rate Environmental problems

21 Responses for high growth rate: Developing countries Solutions Education on family planning Incentives and penalties through policies –China’s one child policy –Singapore’s “stop at two” policy

22 Low Population Growth in Developed Countries

23 A bee-hived Pyramid (Regressive)

24 Describing and Interpreting Narrow base indicates low BR and fertility rate Young dependent makes up less than 30% of the total population Broader top indicates a long life expectancy and a relatively low DR Aged can account more than 15% of the population – greying pop There is a possibility of the population shrinking as birth and population growth rates continue to drop each year Such a pyramid typifies the population structure of developed countries

25 Reasons for low growth rate: Developed countries Low DRLow BR Better hygieneLater marriages Better nutritionFewer marriages Better medical and health care Preference for smaller families

26 Consequences of low growth rate: Aging Population –Lower economic output  lower standard of living Higher taxes on the smaller working population –More $$ is needed for public services like hospitals and libraries Smaller talent pool & less dynamic workforce –Results in manpower shortages in creative or high- technology sectors

27 Incentives to encourage marriage and child bearing Meeting needs of the elderly Raising retirement age Increasing population through immigration Measures to overcome low growth rate:

28 Case Study: Sweden See Link: Population Pyramid Population Pyramid at 31 Dec 2006

29 References 1. Chong, M. (2000) Aspect of Human Geography, Singapore: Pekoe Books. Chapter 1 (p.1 – 47) 2. Waugh, D. (2000) Geography An Integrated Approach, UK: Nelson. Chapter 13 (p. 344 – 383) 3. Wikipedia


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