Presentation on theme: "UNI320Y: Canadian Questions: Issues and Debates Week 4: Educating Citizens Professor Emily Gilbert"— Presentation transcript:
UNI320Y: Canadian Questions: Issues and Debates Week 4: Educating Citizens Professor Emily Gilbert http://individual.utoronto.ca/emilygilbert/
Educating Citizens I.Moral Reform in Early 20 th Century Canada II.Schools, Education and Citizenship
I: Moral Reform in Early 20 th Century Canada Context of moral reform: Increasing urbanization Increasing immigration Health concerns, eg: contamination, venereal diseases Sangster: Children as “future state assets, whose future role as model adult citizens rested precariously on their upbringing, socialization, and ideological embrace of the norms of law and order” (337)
Moral panics around youth and: WWI: concern about fatherless families 1920s: Roaring Twenties: materialism, licentiousness, drugs Depression era: lawlessness, prostitution WWII: decay of the family, inverted gender roles, materialism
Disciplinary society Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish (1975), and the Panopticon hierarchical observation normalizing judgement examination Nexus of power/knowledge Panopticon blueprint by Jeremy Bentham, 1791
1908: Juvenile Delinquents Act (revised 1924; 1929) Deals with criminal acts of youth ages 7-16 (18 in some jurisdictions) Also criminalized youth for behaviour not illegal among adults 1924 revisions: sexual immorality and other vices Allowed Provincial variability Indeterminate sentences Discretionary and arbitrary review process in name of child’s “best interests” State deemed a sympathetic guardian: juvenile treated as misguided child requiring care and supervision
What kind of citizens? “Boys it was assumed, should be re-moulded into social citizens with respect for democracy, law, and the work ethic, while girls needed protection, discipline, and self- control in order to become model moral citizens” (Sangster 338) “boys needed a firm, guiding hand and an understanding of democracy, law, and social order to develop into honest workers and social citizens. Girls, however, needed protection, discipline, and self-control to develop into moral citizens” (Sangster 346)
1982: Young Offenders Act (amended 1986; 1992; 1995) National age of criminality is now set at 12 (so YOA covers 12-17) Tighter legal framework: more responsibility on offender Have same rights and privileges as adults: bail; hearing; lawyer; appeal; Charter; etc. But some special provisions: Youth Court; separated from adults; parental notice; anonymity; etc. All stautus offences – eg truancy, sexual immorality—eliminated Sentences range from reprimands, fines, community service to secure custody Provinces provide care and supervision, with some “alternative measures” programs Concerns that No clear philosophy of youth justice with inconsistent and unfair sentences Overuse of courts Too lax; doesn’t deal with serious and violent offences (but revisions) Youth incarceration becomes one of highest in Western World (including US, Australia, most of Europe) 1960s: discussions around altering the JDA
2002: Youth Criminal Justice Act After 7 years of debate and 3 drafts; draws from YOA and JDA includes a “Statement of Principles”: Prevention: addressing underlying circumstances Rehabilitation: to reintegrate into society Subject youth to meaningful consequences No more adult court, but adult sentences can be imposed from 14 Less emphasis on custody for non-violent or less serious offences More emphasis on alternative youth sentencing methods (out of court) Victim rights: access to court records; information about sentencing Mandatory intense supervision upon release from jail “Youth justice committees” reintroduced to assist in community supervision and provide services
Surveillance and monitoring of the population Changing ideas regarding crime, youth responsibility and treatment Removal of deviants from society: Children’s Aid; training, industrial and residential schools Institutions to train and discipline citizens to be self-governing: school Normalized ideas of citizenship, eg: proper roles for men and women Exists within and reflects broader economic and geopolitical context
II: Schools, Education and Citizenship Egerton Ryerson: schools and creating ‘safe’ citizens Mitchell: Impact of “spatial dynamics of capital accumulation” on education and citizenship (387) Althusser how to “learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour – the rules of morality, civic and professional conscience, and of course, the respect for the socio-technical division of labor and rules of order established by class domination” (389) Role of education in creating workers; reproduction of consciousness; and state formation
Multiculturalism vs. strategic cosmopolitanism (388) Learned multiculturalism: As liberalism: individual freedom As controlling difference As promoting export of liberalism
Pressures on multicultural ethos Decentralization Devolution Discourse of failing schools Shift to competitiveness in world economy Excellence—standardized testing Accountability—performance and financing Choice and separation—and more role for private sector
Ontario Safe Schools Act (2000) (2) The following are the purposes of the code of conduct: 1. To ensure that all members of the school community, especially people in positions of authority, are treated with respect and dignity. 2. To promote responsible citizenship by encouraging appropriate participation in the civic life of the school community. 3. To maintain an environment where conflict and difference can be addressed in a manner characterized by respect and civility. 4. To encourage the use of non–violent means to resolve conflict. 5. To promote the safety of people in the schools. 6. To discourage the use of alcohol and illegal drugs.
Encompasses: conduct; discipline; safety; access; dress; appeals Includes: (1) Every board shall ensure that opening or closing exercises are held in each school under the board’s jurisdiction, in accordance with the requirements set out in the regulations. (2) The opening or closing exercises must include the singing of O Canada and may include the recitation of a pledge of citizenship in the form set out in the regulations. But: The Minister may establish different policies and guidelines under this section for different circumstances, for different locations and for different classes of persons.
Suspension is mandatory if: 1. Uttering a threat to inflict serious bodily harm on another person. 2. Possessing alcohol or illegal drugs. 3. Being under the influence of alcohol. 4. Swearing at a teacher or at another person in a position of authority. 5. Committing an act of vandalism that causes extensive damage to school property at the pupil’s school or to property located on the premises of the pupil’s school. 6. Engaging in another activity that, under a policy of the board, is one for which a suspension is mandatory.
Expulsion is mandatory if: 1. Possessing a weapon, including possessing a firearm. 2. Using a weapon to cause or to threaten bodily harm to another person. 3. Committing physical assault on another person that causes bodily harm requiring treatment by a medical practitioner. 4. Committing sexual assault. 5. Trafficking in weapons or in illegal drugs. 6. Committing robbery. 7. Giving alcohol to a minor. 8. Engaging in another activity that, under a policy of the board, is one for which expulsion is mandatory.
Ontario Human Rights Commission report that more visible minorities and children with disabilities charged