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Final Review Chapters 9-12. Chapter 9 Manifest Destiny (1835-1848) In this period, Americans strove to expand the nation’s boundaries. Many believed they.

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Presentation on theme: "Final Review Chapters 9-12. Chapter 9 Manifest Destiny (1835-1848) In this period, Americans strove to expand the nation’s boundaries. Many believed they."— Presentation transcript:

1 Final Review Chapters 9-12

2 Chapter 9 Manifest Destiny ( ) In this period, Americans strove to expand the nation’s boundaries. Many believed they had a “manifest destiny” to spread democratic ideals. Others simply wanted to go west to find a new and better life. In Texas, settlers came into conflict with Mexico; while those going west on the Oregon Trail came into conflict with Native Americans.

3 Manifest Destiny  The idea that God had given the continent to Americans and wanted them to settle western land  “To overspread the continent allotted by Providence”  Fueled our actions in the west

4 Bear Flag Republic  California settlers declare California independent of Mexico on June 14,  They renamed the region the Bear Flag Republic  After only a few weeks, the Bear Flag Republic came to an end when US naval forces occupied San Diego and San Francisco

5 Sam Houston  Led the army of the Republic of Texas to victory over Mexico at the Battle of San Jacinto  Elected president of the Republic of Texas  Later served as a US Senator when Texas joined the country

6 William B. Travis  Commanded a small force holed up in an abandoned Spanish Catholic mission called The Alamo  Sought to delay Santa Anna and give Houston’s army more time to prepare  The Texans held off Santa Anna for 13 days  They were eventually defeated, but they had bought Houston’s army nearly two extra weeks to organize

7 Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna  President of Mexico  Sparked the Texas Revolution when he instituted a less democratic form of government  Crushed by Sam Houston at the Battle of San Jacinto

8 “Fifty-four Forty or Fight”  President Polk’s supporters used this campaign slogan to declare that they all wanted all of Oregon to the line of 54° 40’ north latitude  Polk said that the US had a “clear and unquestionable” right to Oregon despite Britain’s claims  SOUNDS LIKE MANIFEST DESTINY TO ME!!

9 Donner Party  In 1846, a group of 87 overlanders were trapped by winter snows high in the Sierra Nevada.  After 41 died of starvation, those still alive faced the choice of death of cannibalism  Many did resort to cannibalism in order to survive

10 San Jacinto  TURNING POINT in the Texas Revolution  Santa Anna makes a mistake – allows his men to sleep in the afternoon  Houston, shielded from sight by a hill, launches an afternoon attack – surprise attack  “Remember the Alamo!” = Battle cry  Battle lasted less than 20 minutes – many wounded or killed  Santa Anna captured  Texas had won the war

11 Stephen Austin  The first, and by far, the most successful empresario in Texas  Empresario = “agents” who promised to fill land with settlers  Founded the town of Washington- on-the-Brazos  By mid-1830s, persuaded 1500 American families to immigrate to Texas

12 Annexation of Texas  Played a role in slavery debate  Most Texans had voted in favor of annexation  Its entrance into the Union would upset the fragile balance between slave and free states  Texas already had a significant population of Southerners who had brought their slaves – slavery would be supported  Antislavery leaders called this a “pro-slavery plot)

13 Mexican-American War  The annexation of Texas and disputes over its southern border angered Mexico  Polk ordered Zachary Taylor to cross the Nueces River forcing Mexico to be the aggressor – “American blood has been shed on American soil.”  To expand the army, the US needed volunteers  Leads to the independence of California  Mexico City captured in September  Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Mexico ceded 500,000 sq. miles of land, the Rio Grande was southern border of Texas  Another example of MANIFEST DESTINY

14 Chapter 10 Sectional Conflicts Intensifies ( ) When the nation gained new territory the slavery controversy intensified. Would new states be slave or free? Who would decide? States that allowed slavery were determined to prevent free states from gaining a majority in the Senate. Political compromise broke down by 1860, and when Lincoln was elected president, many Southern states decided to secede

15 James K. Polk  Democratic candidate in the election of 1844, slaveholder  Former Congressman and governor of Tennessee  Polk promised to annex both Texas and Oregon, also vowed to buy California  Appealed to both Northerners and Southerners as it expanded the country while maintaining the balance between the states  Created a situation that would lead to the Mexican-American War  Mistakenly believed that no one would take slaves to the Southwest because the climate would not support the kinds of farming that made slavery profitable

16 Know-Nothings/American Party  Anti-catholic  Nativist (anti-immigrant)  Anger towards the Democrats and organization of the Republican party allowed the Know-Nothings to make gains in the Northeast  Fear that immigrants would take away jobs  Eventually the party splits and the Republicans absorb the Northern Know-Nothings

17 John Brown  Fervent abolitionist  Initially played a role in the events that became known as “Bleeding Kansas”  Raid on Harper’s Ferry, VA to arm the slaves and lead an insurrection – God approved according to Brown  The raid failed – John Brown was captured, tried, and hung  BUT – his importance comes with the reaction to his raid  North = finally have a martyr, finally willing to take ACTION  South = scared of slave insurrection, scared of Northern determination and use of violence

18 1849/California  1848 discovery of gold  By 1849, more than 80,000 “Forty- Niners” had arrived to look for gold  The question of California statehood came to the forefront as the need for government became clear  Again, the issue of slavery took center stage

19 Harriet Tubman  Famous “conductor” on the Underground Railroad  Born into slavery, she was a runaway slave  She risked many trips to the South  Nickname was “Moses”  No one ever betrayed her whereabouts  She never lost a “passenger”

20 Popular Sovereignty  The citizens of each new territory would decide whether or not slavery was permitted.  The citizens would vote on the issue.  Proposed by Senator Lewis Cass

21 Compromise of 1850  Proposed by Henry Clay 1.California enters as a free state 2.Remainder of land gained from Mexico would have no restrictions on slavery 3.Settled border between New Mexico and Texas 4.Texas compensated for land lost to New Mexico 5.Slavery outlawed in the District of Columbia 6.Slavery not outlawed elsewhere 7.Federal government would not interfere in slave trade 8.Fugitive slave law

22 Responses to the Compromise of 1850  Calhoun  The South needs acceptance  If not, no other option but secession  Daniel Webster  National unity should come before sectional loyalties  Stephen Douglas  Very crafty, carves the compromise into pieces so ALL will be passed

23 Dred Scott  Dred Scott sued to end his slavery since he had lived in free territory  The Supreme Court ruled against Dred Scott because, in the opinion of the court, the founders of the nation had not intended African Americans to be citizens  The court went on to say that the Missouri Compromise’s ban on slavery was unconstitutional.  This took the power to determine the future of slavery out of the hands of the Federal Government and gave it to the states (STATES’ RIGHTS)  Democrats = liked, Republicans = opposed

24 Fugitive Slave Act  An African American accused of being a runaway was arrested and brought to a federal commissioner.  A sworn statement saying the captive was an escaped slave, or testimony by a white witness, was all a court needed to send the person south.  Controversy surrounding financial incentives and the use of ordinary citizens to locate runaways  Hurt the Southern cause because it created hostility toward slavery among Northerners

25 Abraham Lincoln  Republican  1858, ran for Senate in Illinois against Stephen Douglas (participated in a series of debates)  Not an abolitionist  Believed slavery was morally wrong and opposed its spread into the western territories  Elected President in 1860, 1864  Committed to preserving the Union as he led the nation through the Civil War

26 Jefferson Davis and the Confederacy  The Confederate States of America  Created own Constitution  Each state = independent (STATES’ RIGHTS!)  Guaranteed slavery  Banned tariffs (Think about the Tariff of Abominations)  Limited the presidency (STATES’ RIGHTS!)  President = Jefferson Davis

27 The Border States  Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, Kentucky  These states could easily go either way  Maryland – Martial Law imposed by Lincoln to prevent a move towards the Confederacy and to protect the capital  Important to Lincoln and the Union

28 Chapter 11 The Civil War ( ) The Civil war was a milestone in American history. The four-year- long struggle determined the nation’s future. With the North’s victory, slavery was abolished. During the war the Northern economy grew stronger; while the Southern economy stagnated. Military innovations, including the expanded use of railroads and the telegraph, coupled with a general conscription, made the Civil War the first “modern” war.

29 Robert E. Lee  Originally one of the best senior officers in the United States Army  Remained loyal to Virginia and the South – “I cannot raise my hand against my birthplace, my home, my children.”  Became one of the most famous Confederate officers, he was trusted  His skills as a military leader allowed his army to achieve many battlefield successes

30 Habeas Corpus  A person’s right not to be imprisoned unless charged with a crime and given a trial  A writ of habeas corpus is a court order that requires the government to either charge an imprisoned person with a crime or let the person go free.  When writs of habeas corpus are suspended, a person can be imprisoned indefinitely without trial.  President Lincoln suspended the writ for anyone who openly supported the rebels or encouraged others to resist the militia draft.

31 Hardtack  A hard biscuit made of wheat flour  Part of the meals for Union soldiers during the war

32 George McClellan  Led the Union army in the east  Organized a Peninsula Campaign to push the Union forces towards Richmond  Overly cautious in his command  Often allowed the Confederate army to get in better positions and inflict casualties on the Union  Involved in the Peninsula Campaign, Seven Days’ Battle, Antietam

33 John Wilkes Booth  Actor  Witness to the execution of John Brown  “That is the last speech he will ever make” – comment made after hearing Lincoln describe a plan that mentioned including African Americans in Southern state governments following the war  Shot President Lincoln in the head at Ford’s Theater on April 14, 1865

34 William Sherman  Took part in the Battle of Chattanooga  Defeated Atlanta  Cut the roads and railways leading into the city  Created “Sherman’s Neckties” by heating the railroad tracks and twisting them  Marched to the Sea

35 Winfield Scott  Led the Mexico City campaign during the Mexican American War  Early General in Chief of the US  Created the Anaconda Plan  Blockade Confederate ports and send gunboats down the Mississippi River to divide the Confederacy  Would take time, but would defeat the South with the least amount of bloodshed

36 First Battle of Bull Run  Confederate troops gathering near Manassas Junction, an important railroad center in northern VA  At first, Union forces slowly pushed Confederates back from their positions behind a stream called Bull Run  Confederate reinforcements and the actions of “Stonewall” Jackson, convinced Union forces to fall back  Union defeat  Displayed the need for a large, well- trained army to defeat the South – led to the Militia Act

37 Black Codes  Laws that severely limited African Americans’ rights in the South  Varied from state to state, but they all seemed to keep African Americans in a condition similar to slavery  Annual labor contracts  Apprenticeships with whippings and beatings  Specific work hours  Licenses required to work in nonagricultural jobs  Enraged Northerners

38 Emancipation ProclamatIon  Many Republicans were strong abolitionists, while others did not want to endanger the loyalty of the slaveholding border states that had chosen to remain in the Union  Many Northerners began to agree that slavery had to end  Punish the South  Make the Soldiers’ sacrifices worthwhile  The Union victory at Antietam paved the way for this document  Issued on September 22, 1862  A decree freeing all enslaved persons in states still in rebellion after January 1, 1863  Did not address slavery in the border states – needed a Constitutional Amendment  Transformed the conflict over preserving the Union into a war of liberation

39 Battle of Shiloh  April 6, 1862 Confederates launch surprise attack on Grant’s troops camped near a small church named Shiloh in Tennessee  After the first day of attacks, Grant refuses to retreat  Grant went on the offensive the next morning, surprising the Confederates and forcing them to retreat  Stunned people in the North and South  20,000 troops killed or wounded  More than in any other battle up to that point

40 Stonewall Jackson  Brought reinforcements to the First Battle of Bull Run  Earned nickname by refusing to retreat  Went on to become one of the most effective commanders in the Confederate army

41 David G. Farragut  February 1862, took command of the Union navy  Veteran of the War of 1812 and the war with Mexico  Battle for New Orleans made him a hero in the North  After failing to destroy Confederate forts along the Mississippi, made the daring decision to send his ships upriver at night, exposing them to enemy fire  All but four survived  Thus, he was crucial in securing the South’s largest city and a center of the cotton trade for the Union

42 Ulysses S. Grant  Union General  Took part in the Battle of Shiloh, the Siege of Vicksburg, securing Tennessee  Appoint General in Chief, promoted to Lieutenant General – he now had command of the Union troops  Instrumental in the surrender of Lee at Appomattox  Elected President in 1868

43 Henry Wirz  Commandant at Andersonville – an infamous prison in the South  No shade or shelter  Exposure, overcrowding, lack of food, and disease killed more than 100 men per day during the summer of 1864  13,000 men died  He was the only person executed for war crimes during the Civil War

44 Second Battle of Bull Run  Lee attacks Union troops defending Washington  The South forced the North to retreat  Confederate forces left only 20 miles from Washington = the beginning of a Northern invasion

45 Battle of Antietam  Lee believed this invasion of Maryland would convince the North to accept the South’s independence  Also, that a victory in the North would help the South win recognition from the British  McClellan’s troops gathered near Antietam Creek – ordered attack on Sept. 17, 1862  This was the bloodiest one-day battle in the war and in American history  Over 6,000 men killed, 16,000 wounded  The British decide not to get involved  Union victory!!

46 Gettysburg  Battle in Pennsylvania  Union forces inflict 7,000 casualties in less than half an hour of fighting.  Lee retreats quickly  The Union suffered 23,000 casualties, but the South lost an estimated 28,000 troops, over one-third of Lee’s entire force  Turning Point in the War  Strengthened Republicans politically  Ensured that the British would not recognize the Confederacy  Lee remained on the Defensive

47 Gettysburg Address  November 1863, Lincoln came to Gettysburg to dedicate a portion of the battlefield as a military cemetery  His speech became one of the best-known speeches in American history  The war was not a battle between regions but a fight for freedom

48 Vicksburg  May 1863, Grant launches two assaults but the city’s defenders repulsed both  The only way to take the city was to put it under siege – cut off its food and supplies and bombard the city until its defenders gave up  Confederate commander at Vicksburg surrenders on July 4, 1863  The Union had cut the Confederacy in two

49 13 th Amendment  January 31, 1865  Bans slavery in the United States

50 Life During the War  The South’s economy suffers  Transportation system collapses  Southern morale hurt  Food shortages  Riots  North experienced an economic boom  Growing industries supplied the troops  Mechanized farming allowed it to continue  Women filled labor shortages

51 Chapter 12 Reconstruction ( ) The nation faced difficult problems after the Civil War. The first issue was how to bring the South back into the Union. Lincoln had wanted to make reunion relatively easy. After he died, Congress designed a plan that focused on punishing the South and ensuring that African Americans had the right to vote. These policies increased hostility between the regions. Pressures on the South to reform eased with the Compromise of 1877.

52 Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan  Appointed military governors and developed a plan to restore regular governments for Southern regions now under Union control  Wanted a moderate policy that would reconcile the South with the Union instead of punishing it for treason  Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction reveals plan  Offered a general amnesty, or pardon, to all Southerners who too an oath of loyalty to the US and accepted the Union’s proclamations concerning slavery  10% of voters in 1860 Presidential election take oath = could organize new state government

53 Tenure of Office  Required the Senate to approve the removal of any government official whose appointment had required the Senate’s approval  Passed to prevent Johnson from bypassing the Radical Republicans  Johnson challenges and three days later the House of Representatives voted to impeach Johnson

54 Carpetbaggers  Northerners who moved to the South during Reconstruction  Many were elected or appointed to positions in the South’s new state governments  Southern Democrats called them “carpetbaggers” because they arrived with suitcases made of carpet fabric  They were viewed as intruders working to exploit the South

55 Enforcement Acts  Three acts passed to combat the violence in the South  The first act made it a federal crime to interfere with a citizen’s right to vote  The second put federal elections under the supervision of federal marshals  The third act – also known as the Ku Klux Klan Act – outlawed the activities of the Klan  Local authorities and federal agents arrested more than 3,000 Klan members as a result of these acts – although fewer were convicted or saw jail time

56 Fourteenth Amendment  Granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the US and declared that no state could deprive any person of life, liberty, or property “without due process of law.” No states could deny any person “equal protection of the laws.”  Violence in the South convinced moderate Republicans to support this

57 Scalawags  White Southerners who worked with the Republicans and supported Reconstruction  They were called scalawags – an old Scotch-Irish term for weak, underfed, worthless animals  A diverse group – former Whigs, small farmers, business people

58 Election of 1868  Johnson was demoralized and did not run for reelection  Republicans choose Ulysses S. Grant – the most popular war hero in the North  Violence convinced Northern voters that the South could not be trusted to reorganize without military supervision  Presence of Union troops in the South allowed large numbers of African Americans to vote  Grant won 6 Southern states and most of the Northern  Republicans retain majorities in Congress

59 Military Reconstruction  March 1867 – Congressional Republicans pass the Military Reconstruction Act, which essentially wiped out Johnson’s programs  Divided the former Confederacy into 5 military districts – A Union general was placed in charge of each district  Each former Confederate state must hold another Constitutional Convention to draft an acceptable constitution  All male citizens must be given the right to vote  14 th Amendment must be ratified  Military supervision of voter registration allowed for new elections  By 1868, NC, SC, FL, AL, LA, and AK had all met the requirements

60 Civil Rights Act of 1866  An effort to override the black codes  This act granted citizenship to all persons born in the US except Native Americans  Allowed African Americans to own property  Africans Americans were to be treated equally in court  Federal government given power to sue those who violate these rights

61 Fifteenth Amendment  The right to vote “shall not be denied…on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”  Southern politics changed  Hundreds of thousands of African Americans brought into the political process for the first time  Southern Society also began to change

62 Plessy vs. Ferguson  1896 – creates the doctrine of “Separate but Equal” in terms of facilities for African Americans  Established the legal basis for discrimination in the South until 1954  Shows the results of the failure of Reconstruction

63 Jim Crow Laws  Laws that enforced and perpetuated the discrimination against African Americans in the South  Again, an example of the lasting effects of Reconstruction’s failure


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