BTLEW I.Word Study 1. append v. to add or join (esp. something written or printed) to a piece of paper Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox add attach affix join Synonyms detach Antonym Examples: They appended their signatures to the statement. appendix n. 附录；阑尾
BTLEW I.Word Study 2. aristocratic a. belonging to or typical of the highest social class, who traditionally have a lot of land, money and power Examples: an aristocratic family her aristocratic manners aristocracy n. 贵族，上层社会，知识界杰出分子 aristocrat n. 贵族 Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW I.Word Study 3. beckon Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox v. to call, order, or signal with a movement of the head, hand, etc. gesture invite motion signal Synonyms Examples: I could see her beckoning (to) me from the other side of the room. I’d like to stay—but work beckons, you know.
BTLEW I.Word Study 4. bind v. to form a strong emotional or economic connection between two people, two countries, etc. Examples: Commerce binds the two countries together. The welfare of the individual is bound up with the welfare of the community. binding a. 有约束力的 The statement is unofficial and not binding on either country. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW I.Word Study v. to win the support or friendly feelings of (someone), removing the anger or distrust they felt before 5. conciliate Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox alleviate moderate soothe Synonyms alienate estrange Antonyms Examples: The explorers tried to conciliate the natives with presents. The government ignored the union’s attempts at conciliation (n. 安抚；调和 ). conciliatory a. 安抚的，和好的 a conciliatory gesture / attitude
BTLEW I.Word Study 6. doubt v. a. to be uncertain about; not trust or have confidence in b. to consider unlikely Examples: I doubt his honesty. I doubt that she will get the job. I doubt if/whether we will make a profit out of it. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox Usage To be continued on the next page.
BTLEW I.Word Study In negative statements doubt is followed by that: I don’t doubt that he’s telling the truth. In other statements doubt is often followed by if or that, though some people feel whether is the only correct form here: I doubt whether he’s telling the truth. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW I.Word Study v. a. to choose or name for a particular job or purpose b. to point out of call by a special name 7. designate Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox appoint indicate nominate specify Synonyms Examples: The Town Hall has been designated (as) an emergency feeding center in the event of an enemy attack. These crosses on the drawing designate all the possible entrances to the castle.
BTLEW I.Word Study 8. disperse v. a. to scatter or spread in different directions, so as to be no longer present b. to place at different points Examples: Police used tear gas to disperse the crowd. Groups of police were dispersed all along the street where the Queen was to pass. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox distribute scatter spread Synonyms collect gather Antonyms
BTLEW She dissolved in tears. Dissolve the tablets in warm water. The vision dissolved before her eyes. The military government dissolved the country’s parliament. I.Word Study 9. dissolve v. a. to make or become liquid by putting into liquid b. to (cause to) end or break up c. to lose one’s self-control d. to disappear c d b a Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox Decide the meaning of “dissolve” according to a, b, c and d.
BTLEW I.Word Study 10. dwindle v. to become steadily fewer or smaller Examples: The number of people who live on the island is rapidly dwindling. Membership has dwindled to only 25. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox decline decrease diminish lessen shrink Synonyms
BTLEW I.Word Study 11. enlist v. a. to (cause to) join the armed forces b. to join a course of study Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox enroll join Synonyms Examples: He enlisted when he was 18. enlisted man 士兵 I’ve enlisted in the Women’s Studies course.
BTLEW I.Word Study 12. havoc Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox n. widespread damage or serious disorder Examples: The earthquake wreaked havoc on the city. damage destruction devastation ruin wreck Synonyms
BTLEW I.Word Study 13. hound Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox v. to keep following someone and asking them questions in an annoying and threatening way Examples: I must finish the work so my boss will stop hounding me. He was hounded out of public life by the persistent attacks of the popular newspapers. chase drive hunt press pursue urge Synonyms
BTLEW I.Word Study 14. momentous a. of very great importance or seriousness, esp. because of possible future effects Examples: a momentous decision a momentous occasion a momentous event Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox eventful important serious Synonyms
BTLEW I.Word Study v. to be more in numbers than Examples: We were completely outnumbered by the enemy. We outnumbered them (by) four to one. 15. outnumber Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox exceed surpass Synonyms
BTLEW I.Word Study 16. resolve v. a. to find a satisfactory way of dealing with a difficulty b. to decide firmly Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox The dispute among them should be resolved by consultation. She resolved to study harder. a b Decide the meaning of “resolve” according to the sentences.
BTLEW I.Word Study 17. spare v. a. to treat mercifully b. to give someone something you are not using or can do without c. to avoid doing something difficult, boring, unpleasant etc. for somebody Examples: Take my money but spare my life! Can you spare me ten minutes? Use the telephone and spare yourself a visit. a. 备用的；额外的；空闲的 a spare bedroom/pen/tyre spare time/moment Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW I.Word Study 18. successive a. following each other closely Examples: It happened on two successive days. There had been successive waves of invaders. succession n. 连续；演替 The days followed each other in close succession and still no news came. A succession of visitors came to the door. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox succeeding following in a row Synonyms The end of Word Study.
BTLEW List: 1.as a token ofas a token of 2.in close pursuitin close pursuit 3.dig indig in 4.drop outdrop out 5.exult inexult in 6. inflict oninflict on 7. nothing but nothing but 8. set in motion set in motion 9. touch off touch off 10. tuck in tuck in II.Phrases and Expressions Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW something that represents a feeling, fact, event, etc. Examples: All the family wore black as a token of their grief. This old watch was given to me by a French friend of mine as a token of friendship. 1. as a token of II.Phrases and Expressions Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW following close behind Examples: The police car raced through the streets in close pursuit of another car. The pop starts ran from the theater to their car, with dozens of fans in close/hot pursuit. 2. in close pursuit II.Phrases and Expressions Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW II.Phrases and Expressions 3. dig in a. to dig a hole to protect a soldier in war b. to mix (something) into the soil by digging c. to establish (oneself) in a position Examples: The soldiers were ordered to dig (themselves) in. We’re digging some fertilizer in the soil. I like my new job but I haven’t had time to dig myself in yet. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW to stop attending or taking part in Examples: He dropped out of college after only two weeks. Three of the runners dropped out. 4. drop out (of) II.Phrases and Expressions Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox “drop” phrases To be continued on the next page.
BTLEW II.Phrases and Expressions Cf. The guests dropped away one by one. The soldiers dropped back before the enemy’s attack. Some friends dropped in to tea. Sales have dropped off. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW to show that you are very happy and proud, esp. because you have succeeded in doing something Examples: The soldiers exulted in/at their victory. The headmaster exulted in the school team’s victory. 5. exult in II.Phrases and Expressions Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW to make someone suffer something unpleasant Examples: We inflicted a fatal blow on the enemy. Mary has inflicted the children on her mother for the weekend. 6. inflict on II.Phrases and Expressions Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW (fml.) only Examples: Nothing but a miracle can save him. It is nothing but a joke. 7. nothing but II.Phrases and Expressions Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW to start a process Examples: The worker set the engine in motion. The machine has been set in motion. At that time it required great courage to set in motion such a reform. 8. set in motion II.Phrases and Expressions Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW to start a difficult situation or violent event Examples: Some slight incident may touch off a major war. His remarks touched off a heated controversy. 9. touch off II.Phrases and Expressions Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox “touch” phrases To be continued on the next page.
BTLEW II.Phrases and Expressions Cf. The plane touched down at 15:25. (to land) In her speech she touched on the need for further economies. (to talk about shortly) The car’s paintwork needs touching up. (to improve by making small changes or additions) Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW to put the edge of a piece of clothing, paper etc. inside something so that it looks tidier or stays in place Examples: He tucked his shirt in. Tuck your shirt into your trousers. 10. tuck in II.Phrases and Expressions The end of Phrases and Expressions. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW n. the act, state, or result of Examples: reconciliation (=the result of reconciliating) presentation (=the act of presenting something) Suffix— -ion More examples III.Word Building Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox To be continued on the next page.
BTLEW dissolve designate exhaust inflict exult resolve disperse rebel humiliate provide Suffix— -ion III.Word building Give corresponding nouns of the following verbs. dissolution designation exhaustion infliction exultation resolution dispersion rebellion humiliation provision The end of Word Building. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW IV.Grammar Absolute Construction Definition: Absolute constructions consist of a noun and some kind of modifier, the most common being a participle. Because they often come at the beginning of a sentence, they are easily confused with dangling participles. But an absolute construction modifies the rest of the sentence, not the subject of the sentence (as a participial phrase does). You can use absolute constructions to compress two sentences into one and to vary sentence structure as a means of holding a reader’s interest. To be continued on the next page. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox Examples
BTLEW No other business arising, the meeting was adjourned. The paint now dry, we brought the furniture out on the deck. The truck finally loaded, they said goodbye to their neighbors and drove off. The horse loped across the yard, her foal trailing behind her. IV.Grammar To be continued on the next page. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW The formation of these constructions falls into five categories. Noun/pronoun + Absolute Construction IV.Grammar To be continued on the next page. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox present participle (phrase) past participle (phrase) adjective (phrase) adverb (phrase) prepositional phrase
BTLEW Constructions like these are used more often in writing than in speaking, where it is more common to use a full clause: When the paint was dry, we brought the furniture out on the deck. There are, however, many fixed absolute constructions that occur frequently in speech: The picnic is scheduled for Saturday, weather permitting. Barring bad weather, we plan to go to the beach tomorrow. All things considered, it’s not a bad idea. Absolute Construction IV.Grammar To be continued on the next page. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW On April 2nd, his railroad lifeline cut by the North, Lee retreated. (4) noun + past participle phrase Absolute Construction IV.Grammar To be continued on the next page. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW … he gave word for his successive brigades to pass us with the same position…, honor answering honor. (14) noun + present participle phrase Absolute Construction IV.Grammar To be continued on the next page. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox
BTLEW … one, symbolizing nobility and the aristocratic tradition of the old South, and the other symbolizing the self-made common man of the new North, Midwest and West. (19) Absolute Construction IV.Grammar Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox noun + present participle phrase The end of Grammar.
BTLEW Part Four This is the end of Part Four. Please click HOME to visit other parts. HOME Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox