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TRADITIONS 1 CONFERENCE INPUT BY Willy Nel, NWU 2009-11-18 Suggestions on how to address male violence in the context of a South African First People,

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Presentation on theme: "TRADITIONS 1 CONFERENCE INPUT BY Willy Nel, NWU 2009-11-18 Suggestions on how to address male violence in the context of a South African First People,"— Presentation transcript:

1 TRADITIONS 1 CONFERENCE INPUT BY Willy Nel, NWU Suggestions on how to address male violence in the context of a South African First People, the ‡Khomani San of the Kalahari.

2 SHORT BACKGROUND In 1999 a land claim, worth R15mil, was concluded in the Southern Kalahari desert region of S.A. In 1999 a land claim, worth R15mil, was concluded in the Southern Kalahari desert region of S.A ha outside, ha inside the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, were signed back to the ‡Khomani San, a group of N/u-speaking Southern Kalahari San people who were driven off in 1931with the proclamation of the Kalahari Gemsbok Park ha outside, ha inside the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, were signed back to the ‡Khomani San, a group of N/u-speaking Southern Kalahari San people who were driven off in 1931with the proclamation of the Kalahari Gemsbok Park 297 members were originally signed up in 1999 on the register of the Communal Property Association (CPA) of the ‡Khomani San 297 members were originally signed up in 1999 on the register of the Communal Property Association (CPA) of the ‡Khomani San

3 SHORT BACKGROUND By 2006, 341 members (74 families) settled on the land By 2006, 341 members (74 families) settled on the land Traditional leadership of the ‡Khomani San was created as per the constitution of the CPA, acknowledging mr Dawid Kruiper as leader, son of mr !Gam!gaup Regopstaan Kruiper, the patriarch of the ‡Khomani San group who instituted the land claim Traditional leadership of the ‡Khomani San was created as per the constitution of the CPA, acknowledging mr Dawid Kruiper as leader, son of mr !Gam!gaup Regopstaan Kruiper, the patriarch of the ‡Khomani San group who instituted the land claim (Chennells, 2006) (Chennells, 2006)

4 VIOLENCE AND THE ‡KHOMANI SAN Crime statistics for the Witdraai police precinct (situated on the land of the ‡Khomani San), Apr 2008-March 2009, indicates that of the 29 incidents of contact crime, 25 cases or 86% were recorded as ‘assault with the intent to inflict grievous bodily harm’ and ‘common assault’ (http://www.saps.gov.za/statistics/reports) Crime statistics for the Witdraai police precinct (situated on the land of the ‡Khomani San), Apr 2008-March 2009, indicates that of the 29 incidents of contact crime, 25 cases or 86% were recorded as ‘assault with the intent to inflict grievous bodily harm’ and ‘common assault’ (http://www.saps.gov.za/statistics/reports) The ‡Khomani San community is thus not exempt from violent crimes The ‡Khomani San community is thus not exempt from violent crimes

5 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE I accept that historical trauma (as described by Lazarus, Ratele, Seedat, Suffla and Paulse, 2009) is a key determinant of violence in the ‡Khomani San community I accept that historical trauma (as described by Lazarus, Ratele, Seedat, Suffla and Paulse, 2009) is a key determinant of violence in the ‡Khomani San community Their forced displacement and subsequent unsatisfactory resettlement process provide enough reasons for support of the historical trauma hypothesis Their forced displacement and subsequent unsatisfactory resettlement process provide enough reasons for support of the historical trauma hypothesis The dire poverty of the ‡Khomani San community is aggrevating the situation The dire poverty of the ‡Khomani San community is aggrevating the situation

6 ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGES The ‡Khomani San community is not a monolith of sameness The ‡Khomani San community is not a monolith of sameness There are members who are trying to revive their nearly lost traditional ways, members who live a totally westernised life and members who try to combine the two worlds There are members who are trying to revive their nearly lost traditional ways, members who live a totally westernised life and members who try to combine the two worlds Hence I suggest that intervention strategies need to take such a mixed reality into account Hence I suggest that intervention strategies need to take such a mixed reality into account

7 ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGES A critical community psychology approach is proposed, instead of a mainstream, individual approach (Viljoen, Pistorius and Eskell-Blokland, 2007) A critical community psychology approach is proposed, instead of a mainstream, individual approach (Viljoen, Pistorius and Eskell-Blokland, 2007) The emphasis should be on empowerment from a complicated, political understanding of the people and their context without assuming expertise over the community. The emphasis should be on empowerment from a complicated, political understanding of the people and their context without assuming expertise over the community. A transformative view of change should be held that analyses power relations, then act to effect systems change A transformative view of change should be held that analyses power relations, then act to effect systems change

8 ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGES Sen’s capabilities theory (1995, 2008) holds that well-being depends on what a person can be and on the freedom the person has to pursue well- being. 'Capability' reflects the freedom that someone has to lead one type of life over another. Poverty in this theory is then the lack of freedom that a person has to pursue the well-being of his/her choice. Sen’s capabilities theory (1995, 2008) holds that well-being depends on what a person can be and on the freedom the person has to pursue well- being. 'Capability' reflects the freedom that someone has to lead one type of life over another. Poverty in this theory is then the lack of freedom that a person has to pursue the well-being of his/her choice. When addressing the challenge of male violence in the ‡Khomani San community, Sen’s view of poverty offers opportunities for reframing that commodity-based views of poverty do not offer When addressing the challenge of male violence in the ‡Khomani San community, Sen’s view of poverty offers opportunities for reframing that commodity-based views of poverty do not offer

9 SUGGESTIONS Systemic level: Pressure on government to accelerate the process of town establishment and inclusion of the ‡Khomani San community in the economic development plans of their municipality Systemic level: Pressure on government to accelerate the process of town establishment and inclusion of the ‡Khomani San community in the economic development plans of their municipality –e.g. through community political activism for service delivery; policy activism based on constitutional and UN-determined grounds by the KS community, their partners in national and international NGO’s and other structures, national and international

10 SUGGESTIONS Community level: Respectful Consultation with members of the KS community should form the basis of any interaction that aim to address male violence Community level: Respectful Consultation with members of the KS community should form the basis of any interaction that aim to address male violence –e.g. in faith-based efforts, psycho- educational programmes

11 SUGGESTIONS Interpersonal level: A critical awareness of similarities and differences in worldviews, and its impact on power relations Interpersonal level: A critical awareness of similarities and differences in worldviews, and its impact on power relations –e.g. in the westernised counselling situation, in dispute resolution, in arrests made,

12 SUGGESTIONS In the ‡Khomani San community many traditions and practices were not actively practiced in their diaspora; revival and exploration of such traditions and practices are advisable. In the ‡Khomani San community many traditions and practices were not actively practiced in their diaspora; revival and exploration of such traditions and practices are advisable. Much work is done in this regard by S.A.San Institute and the Working Group for Indigenous Minorities of Southern Africa. Learning from other First Peoples, like Native Americans, provides basis for exploration of good practices in the KS context (Duran&Duran, 1995). Much work is done in this regard by S.A.San Institute and the Working Group for Indigenous Minorities of Southern Africa. Learning from other First Peoples, like Native Americans, provides basis for exploration of good practices in the KS context (Duran&Duran, 1995).

13 THANK YOU THANK YOU


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