Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

ROME. GEOGRAPHIC SIGNIFICANCE What is important about the geography of Italy and its role in the growth of Rome?

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "ROME. GEOGRAPHIC SIGNIFICANCE What is important about the geography of Italy and its role in the growth of Rome?"— Presentation transcript:

1 ROME

2 GEOGRAPHIC SIGNIFICANCE What is important about the geography of Italy and its role in the growth of Rome?

3

4 EARLY ITALIANS AND THE LEGEND OF ROMULUS AND REMUS Sons of the war god Mars and Rhea Silvia. Abandoned along the banks of the Tiber. Found and nursed by a she-wolf. Raised by a herdsman. Around 753 BC, the boys returned to that place along the Tiber. Romulus traced an outline to a new city with his plow. Romulus killed Remus following a dispute over the city’s location. Romulus became Rome’s first king.

5 Greek colonization - 750 - 550 BC Agriculture, alphabet, sculpture, architecture, religion and literature.

6 THE ETRUSCANS The Etruscans conquered Rome around 625 BC. It is said that the Etruscans found Rome a village and left it a city. Streets, public buildings, markets and temples. They taught Romans how to use the arch. Dress (the short toga), chariot races and gladiatorial contests.

7  FOLLOWING THE 509 BC ROMAN REBELLION AGAINST TARQUIN THE PROUD…  THE BIRTH OF THE ROMAN STATE!

8 THE NEW ROMAN STATE POLICY OF “DEFENSIVE IMPERIALISM” 1st the Latins in Latium 2nd the Samnites 3rd the Greeks of the south 4th the Etruscan states of the north What made them so successful?

9 ROMAN PRAGMATISM

10 THE REPUBLIC The fear of kings leads Romans to “create” an alternative form of government. A REPUBLICAN OLIGARCHY A REPUBLICAN OLIGARCHY

11

12 REPUBLICAN CLASS SYSTEM  Upper Classes  Senatorial class (senatores): The basis for this class was political. It included all men who served in the Senate, and by extension their families. This class was dominated by the nobles (nobiles), families whose ancestors included at least one consul (earlier the qualification had been a curule magistracy, i.e. curule aedile and up). The first man in his family to be elected consul, thus qualifying his family for noble status, was called a “new man” (novus homo). Senators had to prove that they had property worth at least 1,000,000 sesterces; there was no salary attached to service in the Senate, and senators were prohibited from engaging personally in nonagricultural business, trade or public contracts. Men of the senatorial class wore the tunic with broad stripes (laticlavi).

13  Equestrian class (equites): The basis for this class was economic. A man could be formally enrolled in the equestrian order if he could prove that he possessed a stable minimum amount of wealth (property worth at least 400,000 sesterces); by extension his family members were also considered equestrians. However, if an equestrian was elected to a magistracy and entered the Senate, he moved up to the senatorial class; this was not particularly easy or frequent. Equestrians were primarily involved in the types of business prohibited to senators. Equestrians wore the tunic with narrow stripes (angusti clavi).

14  Women: Although membership in these classes was dominated by the same families over many generations, the classes themselves were defined according to male activities rather than birth. Women's place in these classes was therefore somewhat problematic. However, there came to be a customary acceptance that women belonged to the social class of their fathers and then of their husbands, although the women had no special dress that distinguished their status. This female participation in social status began to crystallize and formalize under Augustus, who explicitly included the daughters, granddaughters, and great- granddaughters of senators in his law prohibiting members of the senatorial class from contracting legal marriages with freedpeople.

15 Lower Classes Lower Classes Commons (plebs or vulgus): all other freeborn Roman citizens. The special mark of dress for citizen males was the toga. All Roman citizens had conubium, the right to contract a legal marriage with another Roman citizen and beget legitimate children who were themselves Roman citizens. Commons (plebs or vulgus): all other freeborn Roman citizens. The special mark of dress for citizen males was the toga. All Roman citizens had conubium, the right to contract a legal marriage with another Roman citizen and beget legitimate children who were themselves Roman citizens. Latins (Latini): freeborn residents of Italy (until 89 BCE, when they were all granted full citizenship) and of certain other Roman municipalities who had some legal rights but were not full Roman citizens. Former slaves who had been informally freed by Roman citizens were a special category, “Junian Latins.” Latins (Latini): freeborn residents of Italy (until 89 BCE, when they were all granted full citizenship) and of certain other Roman municipalities who had some legal rights but were not full Roman citizens. Former slaves who had been informally freed by Roman citizens were a special category, “Junian Latins.” Foreigners (peregrini): all other freeborn men and women who lived in Roman territories. In 212 CE most freeborn people living within the Roman empire were granted Roman citizenship. Foreigners (peregrini): all other freeborn men and women who lived in Roman territories. In 212 CE most freeborn people living within the Roman empire were granted Roman citizenship.

16 Freedpeople (liberti or libertini): men and women who had been slaves but had bought their freedom or been manumitted. They were not fully free because they had various restrictions on their rights and owed certain duties to their former masters, who now became their patrons, but they could become citizens if their former masters were citizens and they had been formally manumitted; they were not, however, eligible for public office. This was the one class it was not possible to leave, though the class encompassed only one generation. The next generation, their freeborn children, became full citizens (i.e., members of the commons, though there was a social stigma attached to being a freedman's son) and could even become equestrians if rich enough. Freedpeople had low social status, and most were probably fairly poor, but it was possible for them to achieve some success in a trade, and a few might even become wealthy. They had no special distinction of dress, though their names indicated their status as freedpeople. Freedpeople (liberti or libertini): men and women who had been slaves but had bought their freedom or been manumitted. They were not fully free because they had various restrictions on their rights and owed certain duties to their former masters, who now became their patrons, but they could become citizens if their former masters were citizens and they had been formally manumitted; they were not, however, eligible for public office. This was the one class it was not possible to leave, though the class encompassed only one generation. The next generation, their freeborn children, became full citizens (i.e., members of the commons, though there was a social stigma attached to being a freedman's son) and could even become equestrians if rich enough. Freedpeople had low social status, and most were probably fairly poor, but it was possible for them to achieve some success in a trade, and a few might even become wealthy. They had no special distinction of dress, though their names indicated their status as freedpeople.

17 Slaves (servi): system of chattel slavery where human beings were born into slavery or sold into slavery through war or piracy. Slaves were the property of their owners by law, but by custom some slaves (especially urban, domestic slaves) might be allowed their own savings (peculium) with which they might later buy their freedom, or their masters could manumit them, so some mobility into the previous class was possible.. Roman slavery was not racially based, and slaves had no special distinction of dress, though slaves who had run away were sometimes made to wear metal collars with inscriptions such as the following: “I have run away. Capture me. When you have returned me to my master, Zoninus, you will receive a reward.” Slaves (servi): system of chattel slavery where human beings were born into slavery or sold into slavery through war or piracy. Slaves were the property of their owners by law, but by custom some slaves (especially urban, domestic slaves) might be allowed their own savings (peculium) with which they might later buy their freedom, or their masters could manumit them, so some mobility into the previous class was possible.. Roman slavery was not racially based, and slaves had no special distinction of dress, though slaves who had run away were sometimes made to wear metal collars with inscriptions such as the following: “I have run away. Capture me. When you have returned me to my master, Zoninus, you will receive a reward.”

18 Women: Since the lower classes were not defined by male activities, there was no problem with including women; female and male children were automatically members of the social class of their parents (except for freedpeople, since only one generation could be “freed”). If the parents were Roman citizens and had contracted a legal Roman marriage, the children followed the social status of their father (i.e., they were Roman citizens). However, in the case of Latins, foreigners, and slaves, children took the social status of their mother, even if their father was a freeborn Roman citizen. Women: Since the lower classes were not defined by male activities, there was no problem with including women; female and male children were automatically members of the social class of their parents (except for freedpeople, since only one generation could be “freed”). If the parents were Roman citizens and had contracted a legal Roman marriage, the children followed the social status of their father (i.e., they were Roman citizens). However, in the case of Latins, foreigners, and slaves, children took the social status of their mother, even if their father was a freeborn Roman citizen.

19 SOCIAL LIFE  The family was central to Roman values. –Doctrine of Pater Familias (father rule) –Crime of Parricide – punishment was being sewn up in a sack with a dog, a rooster, a snake and a monkey and thrown into a river. –Arranged marriages – Contract between families. Men married in their 20s, girls in their early teens. –'Our ancestors, in their wisdom, considered that all women, because of their innate weakness, should be under the control of guardians.' Cicero

20 Religion was family oriented - Polytheism – Borrowed from the Greeks Jupiter, Mars, Juno and Neptune The State had priests who would perform rituals for the benefit of the State. Household rituals were mandatory. Vesta, goddess of the hearth and Janus, goddess of the threshold were two of the family cult icons.

21 THE PUNIC WARS

22 The 1 st Punic War and the Strait of Messina 264 – 241 BCE Fear of Carthaginian control of Sicily Roman need to build a navy Roman victory – Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia become Rome’s 1 st overseas provinces. What does this mean for Rome?

23 1st Punic War 264 - 241 BCE Carthage and Rome battle for the Mediterranean. Battle begins over Sicily and the Strait of Messina. Rome quickly builds a navy. After several initial defeats, Rome is victorious. Sicily becomes Rome’s 1s Roman province.

24 2ND PUNIC WAR Hannibal, The Alps, some elephants, Cannae and Scipio.

25 HANNIBAL The 2nd Punic War 218 - 201 BCE Cause: Spanish colony rebels against Carthage Hannibal begins campaign against Rome  40,000 men, 6,000 horses and 50 war elephants  Crosses the Pyrenees, the Alps and the Rhone  Lost 1/3 of his men, most of the horses and his elephants  Victories at: Trebbia, Lake Trasimene and Cannae.  All that remains is Rome…

26 SCIPIO...give to me and to the Roman people means to inflict upon the Carthaginian state the sufferings which the Carthaginians have labored to inflict upon us. Prayer of Scipio Africanus at the embarkation from Sicily.- Livy, The History of Rome from its Foundation XXIX.27 Livy Scipio’s attack on Carthage forced the return of Hannibal. The decisive battle was at Zama. Each had close to 40,000 men and neither had ever been defeated. However, Scipio’s cavalry was superior. 20,000 Carthaginians were killed to Rome’s 1,500.

27 THE 3RD PUNIC WAR 146 BCE Fear of a Carthaginian resurgence: The spring of 146 BC opened with an assault on the city. 6 days of brutal street fighting was a testament to both dire Carthaginian resistance and determined Roman resolve. First capturing the walls, then surrounding the citadel, the Romans were free to wreak havoc on the civilian population. Before the final Carthaginian surrender, a city of some 700,000 people was reduced to as few as 50,000 defenders. Upon finally giving up, these remaining forces were rounded up and sold into slavery. In the aftermath, despite Scipio's objections, he was ordered to raze the city. Taking every bit of plunder they could, the Romans destroyed the harbor, demolished all large stone structures and burned the city for 10 days.

28 PEACE Unlike Hannibal after Cannae, Scipio seized the moment to lay maximal pressure on the beaten Carthaginians by marching on the city. It is unlikely that he intended to besiege it - he did not have the resources for such a task - but the threat alone was a potent weapon. The Carthaginians caved in; and Scipio set forth his terms: Carthage was no longer to have an independent foreign policy; their navy and elephant corps were to be destroyed (Livy says that more than 500 ships were burned), and for the next 50 years, Carthage would have to pay indemnities to the Romans. The terms were harsh, and left Carthage as little more than yet another Roman vassal. Unlike Hannibal after Cannae, Scipio seized the moment to lay maximal pressure on the beaten Carthaginians by marching on the city. It is unlikely that he intended to besiege it - he did not have the resources for such a task - but the threat alone was a potent weapon. The Carthaginians caved in; and Scipio set forth his terms: Carthage was no longer to have an independent foreign policy; their navy and elephant corps were to be destroyed (Livy says that more than 500 ships were burned), and for the next 50 years, Carthage would have to pay indemnities to the Romans. The terms were harsh, and left Carthage as little more than yet another Roman vassal.

29 Some Carthaginians balked at submitting to these terms, but Hannibal - seeing the inevitable - convinced the Carthaginians to accept the terms, even physically dragging a senator from the speaker's podium to shut him up. The war was over. Some Carthaginians balked at submitting to these terms, but Hannibal - seeing the inevitable - convinced the Carthaginians to accept the terms, even physically dragging a senator from the speaker's podium to shut him up. The war was over. Everywhere he found rejoicing as much on account of the peace as for victory, when the towns poured out to do him honor and crowds of peasants too held up his progress along the roads. He reached Rome and rode into the city in triumph -- triumph such as had never been seen before. To the treasury he brought 123,000 pounds weight of silver; to his soldiers he distributed 400 asses apiece....As for the surname Africanus, I have not been able to find out how it became current -- through the army's devotion to their general, or from popular favor; or it may have started with the flattery of his close friends, in the way, in our fathers' time, Sulla was called "Fortunate" and Pompey "the Great". What is certain is that Scipio was the first general to be celebrated by the name of the people he conquered, though subsequently there were men far less renowned for the victories who took him as a precedent, and acquired titles of honour for their family portraits and distinguished surnames for their descendants.- Livy, The History of Rome from its Foundation XXX.45 Everywhere he found rejoicing as much on account of the peace as for victory, when the towns poured out to do him honor and crowds of peasants too held up his progress along the roads. He reached Rome and rode into the city in triumph -- triumph such as had never been seen before. To the treasury he brought 123,000 pounds weight of silver; to his soldiers he distributed 400 asses apiece....As for the surname Africanus, I have not been able to find out how it became current -- through the army's devotion to their general, or from popular favor; or it may have started with the flattery of his close friends, in the way, in our fathers' time, Sulla was called "Fortunate" and Pompey "the Great". What is certain is that Scipio was the first general to be celebrated by the name of the people he conquered, though subsequently there were men far less renowned for the victories who took him as a precedent, and acquired titles of honour for their family portraits and distinguished surnames for their descendants.- Livy, The History of Rome from its Foundation XXX.45 Livy Livy

30 Result of the Punic Wars ROME COMMANDS THE MEDITERRANEAN

31 The Beginning of the End of The Republic The Beginning of the End of The Republic  What problems arise as a result of Rome’s victories over Carthage; both at home and in the newly acquired territories?  Local and Provincial governments  Latifundia – Equite Class  Small farmers out of work – urban poor

32 THE GRACCHI THE GRACCHI  133 BCE – Tiberius Gracchus  Tribune  Populares – “party of the people”  Land reform unpopular with the Optimates  Murdered by angry Senators  A precedent had been set

33  Gaius Gracchus  Continued his brother’s reforms  Introduced legislation that would have drastically changed the infrastructure of the government – paving the way to a possible democracy.  Gaius was forced from power – exiled – pursued as a criminal – eventually “took his own life”.

34 MILITARY RULE  MARIUS – 107BCE elected consul  General of new professional army.  Agrarian and political reform CIVIL WAR  SULLA – 82BCE Took Rome in a coup d’etat  Eliminated popular assembly, executed all in his way  Restored the Senate to its former powers  Sulla retires and dies of an aneurism.

35 Julius Caesar and the 1 st Triumvirate Born around 100BCE Married to Cornelia in 85BCE. Had a daughter, Julia, his only legitimate child. Was forced into exile during the reign of Sulla. After Sulla’s death, he returns to Rome to pursue a political career. 69BCE Cornelia dies. 68BCE – He is elected quaestor and marries Pompeia, granddaughter of Sulla. It was rumored that he was having affairs with Pompey’s wife, among others.

36 63BCE – He is elected pontifex maximus and divorced Pompeia. 60BCE – Caesar, Pompey and Crassus create the 1 st Triumvirate. Caesar marries his daughter to Pompey. He himself marries Calpurnia. Elected proconsul of Gaul. Caesar’s daughter dies in child birth and Crassus is killed in battle. Pompey takes over Rome and declares Caesar an enemy of the state. Caesar crosses the Rubicon!!! Civil War is declared. Pompey’s head is delivered by the Egyptians to Caesar. Has an affair with Cleopatra, that produces a child.

37 DICTATOR FOR LIFE In 47BCE he takes Asia Minor proclaiming “veni, vidi, vici” (I came, I saw, I overcame) Was “given” the position of dictator in 46 and in 44 claims for himself the position for life. He attempted to fix the debt (which he helped to create), reform the calendar, regulate prices on grain and reward loyal soldiers with conquered land. Caesar was assassinated by members of the Senate, March 15, 44BCE. Conspirators included his friends; Brutus and Cassius.

38 The Will  Caesar had adopted Octavian to be his heir.  Marc Antony – General who fought along side Caesar thought it would be him.  2 nd Triumvirate – Octavian, Antony and Lepidus. Broke up the empire into 3 parts (temporarily) and set out to bring justice to Caesar’s assassins.  Lepidus forced out. Antony hunts down conspirators and Octavian lobbies the Senate.  Antony marries Cleopatra – gives Octavian what he needs to get support from the Senate to defeat him. .

39 OCTAVIAN BECOMES AUGUSTUS  The Battle at Actium: Octavian uses similar tactic that the Athenians used at Salamis.  Antony and Cleopatra abandon their troops and flee to Alexandria.  Octavian enters Egypt: Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide.  Octavian returns to Rome and is declared imperator (emperor).


Download ppt "ROME. GEOGRAPHIC SIGNIFICANCE What is important about the geography of Italy and its role in the growth of Rome?"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google