Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 From Riot to Rebellion: The Road to Independence 1770–1776."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 8 From Riot to Rebellion: The Road to Independence 1770–1776
The Storms Within the Lulls Parliament avoids provoking colonies Tensions appear to be easing Principal issue of who has what power not settled Several incidents indicate underlying problems Boston Massacre, March 5, 1770 Locals harass British soldiers British fire, killing five Bostonians Paul Revere, Sam Adams use incident as propaganda Most colonists blame incident on local people
The Storms Within the Lulls The Storms Within the Lulls (cont.’d) Colonists dislike presence of soldiers Soldiers are “rough and lusty,” “dregs” of society Troops stationed in towns after Stamp Act Riots Soldiers in daily contact with working class colonials Conflict between locals and soldiers Soldiers create more anti-British sentiment than taxes Most lower-class colonials also rough; social outcasts Both soldiers and lower class drink heavily Upper class worries about “mob rule”
The Storms Within the Lulls The Storms Within the Lulls (cont.’d) The Regulators Colonial class conflict clearer in countryside East-West power struggle 1763 Paxton boys attacked Indians then marched on Philadelphia South Carolina frontiersmen, “The Regulators,” revolt North Carolina frontiersmen fight Battle of Alamance Most frontiersmen disliked colonial assemblies The Gaspée British schooner, the Gaspée, spies ship suspected of smuggling The Gaspée follows and runs aground Crew set ashore, locals burn the Gaspée No locals would provide any evidence for prosecution
The March Towards War Leaders arouse Americans against British James Otis of Massachusetts Patrick Henry of Virginia Samuel Adams of Massachusetts The Tea Act, May 10, 1773 Purpose to bail out East India Company Gives Company tea monopoly in America Keeps Townshend tax on tea Means cheap tea; British assume Americans will obey Boston Tea Party, December 16, 1773 Colonists respond by destroying tea 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor
The March Towards War The March Towards War (cont.’d) Intolerable Acts Close port of Boston Moves trials of soldiers accused of killing protestors Limits Massachusetts’ self-government Includes new Quartering Act
Rebellion Colonies coordinate resistance with Committees of Correspondence Responded to 1774 Acts with Continental Congress Delegates to Continental Congress Gentlemen, prized education and civility Differed on what should be done Got along remarkably well Defining Issues at Continental Congress Declare Intolerable Acts invalid Call for boycott of British trade Still support king, but he refuses to compromise Congress calls Americans to begin military training
Rebellion Rebellion (cont.’d) Militias Many did not own their own gun Americans excellent marksmen Little military training and discipline Officers elected
Rebellion Rebellion (cont.’d) Lexington and Concord British try to seize supplies and leaders Sons of Liberty spies warned Shots fired at Lexington Americans force British retreat at Concord British suffer severe casualties from snipers Bunker Hill 16,000 rebels surround Boston British try to seize high ground Americans do not fire until British in close range Rebels inflict heavy casualties; run short on ammunition British win battle, but gain nothing Ticonderoga & Quebec Benedict Arnold-Ethan Allen lead American troops British surrender Ticonderoga Arnold sent to take Quebec but all poorly managed
Rebellion cont’d Second Continental Congress More militant than First Congress Armed rebellion a reality Send George Washington to lead troops Justify taking up arms
Cutting the Tie Thomas Paine’s Common Sense Attacks hereditary monarchy Well-written propaganda, convinces Americans on independence Independence Richard Henry Lee introduces resolution June 7, 1776 Continental Congress debates for three weeks Officially declare independence July 2, 1776 Adopt Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776
Cutting the Tie Cutting the Tie (cont.’d) Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson primary writer Committee tones down some of Jefferson’s rhetoric George III bears the brunt of blame, not Parliament Focuses anger on visible and vulnerable scapegoat Declaration’s universal human rights Bases case for independence on rights of all humans Insists government must be based on consent of people Inspires other people groups for next two centuries
Discussion Questions Explain the significance of the Boston Massacre. How did the Tea Act cause the final thrust into Revolution for the American colonies? Consider the Coercive Acts. Defend them from the position of the British. Attack them from the position of the Americans. Examine the Declaration of Independence. Why is the Declaration considered a fundamental part of the political structure of this nation?
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