Presentation on theme: "Autonomy and Beneficence. Right to make one’s own choices Respect for persons- not to interfere with choice of another, though persuasion permitted."— Presentation transcript:
Right to make one’s own choices Respect for persons- not to interfere with choice of another, though persuasion permitted. Obligation to treat persons as capable of choice unless good evidence against.
Free action: (1) Voluntary without coercion; (2) Intentional- informed and understand consequences. Authentic choice- consistent with one’s beliefs, values and life plan. Effective deliberation- aware of alternatives and consequences.
Agent intends to influence other person by presenting a severe threat which must be (a) credible and (b) irresistible.
Intentional and successful influence of a person by noncoercive altering of (a) choices available to the person or (b) perception of these choices.
One ought to do or promote good. Non-malficience- not to inflict harm or evil.
Must the help be active or passive? How does one know what is the good of the other?
What is the level of good intended or level of harm risked or permitted? What is the probability of the good or harm? What are the actual causal influences?
Context: Applied only if not against individual autonomy and dignity. There must be proportionate good to permit risk of harmful. Are there alternatives?
A is acting paternalistically toward S in and only if A’s behavior indicates that (1) The action benefits S; (2) The action involves violating a moral rule with regard to S; (3) The action does not have S’s present or forth-coming consent; and (4) S is competent to give consent.
Goals of Informed Consent Professional Obligation Protect subject’s status as a human being (dignity rights) Promote individual autonomy Prevent fraud and duress
Must be autonomous Effects on life, health, lifestyle, values, family, religious beliefs, friends and society. Must be competent to consent. -able to rationally deliberate; to have adequate understanding and to give reasonable assessment of consequences. Must be free from coercion or manipulation. Must have adequate and relevant information- Four standards: (1) Patient preference; (2) Professional custom; (3) Prudent (reasonable) person; and (4) Subjective substantial rule.
Medical Practice Ethical Practice Standard medical practice- Primary exceptions: (1) Therapeutic privilege-withhold information to protect the health of the patient.- watch for paternalism (2) Emergency conditions- unable to consent, life is in danger and immediate treatment is needed. Major question- informed consent ever be over-ridden?