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Insect ID and Management Kelly V. Tindall Extension Entomologist Twin Falls County.

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Presentation on theme: "Insect ID and Management Kelly V. Tindall Extension Entomologist Twin Falls County."— Presentation transcript:

1 Insect ID and Management Kelly V. Tindall Extension Entomologist Twin Falls County

2 Management Techniques Integrated Pest Management (IPM): Management of pests that incorporates many practices for environmentally friendly and economically feasible control of pests –Physical/Mechanical – barriers, hand removal –Cultural – proper irrigation –Biological – ladybugs, lacewings, etc. –Chemical – general vs selective insecticides –Variety selection – tolerance or resistance

3 Mechanical/Physical Control Caulk - Seal off entrances into home Manual removal Bug-Vac Window screens – mechanical barrier Manually killing Plastic mulch Remove and burn infested plant structures Traps & Lures

4 Cultural Control Proper sanitation Fertilize Water Wood storage Washing plants Tillage

5 Biological Control Preying mantis Lacewing larva Wasps Ladybug Parasitic wasps and flies Spiders Pathogens

6 Sprays Chemical Control Bait systems Dormant Oils Localized applications Pheromone disrupters Insecticidal soaps General vs specific insecticides

7 Variety Selection Three ways plants are resistant Tolerance –Plants able to withstand injury better Antixenosis –Not-preferred Too hairy, too waxy Odorous Antibiosis –Toxic to the insect Plant compounds with in the plant

8 Natural Control (Abiotic) Temperature –Hard winters  populations –High temps increase insect development Rainfall –Drowns soil insects (any stage) –Too dry, insects dry out also Sunny versus shady –Some insects have a preference for shaded areas Wind –Increases migration potential

9 Identification

10 Classification System Kingdom (Animalia) Phylum (Arthropoda) Class (Insecta) Order (Hymenoptera) Family (Apidae) Genus (Apis) Species (Mellifera) Common Name: Honey Bee

11 Why Learn Classification? Groups have similar biology and appearance More specific groups have closer biology Characters relate to damage and pest status When a name is known we can look up more information

12 Classification System 3 Kingdoms (1894) 5 Kingdoms (1959) 6 Kingdoms (1977) 3 Domains (1990) ProtistaMoneraEubacteriaBacteria PlantaeProtistaArchaebacteriaArchaea AnimaliaFungiProtistaEukarya PlantaeFungi AnimaliaPlantae Animalia

13 Classification System Kingdom (Animalia) Phylum (Arthropoda) Class (Insecta) Order (Hymenoptera) Family (Apidae) Genus (Apis) Species (Mellifera) Common Name: Honey Bee

14 Animalia Characteristics Multicellular Organelles have –Nucleus –No chloroplasts or cell walls Move via contractile proteins –cilia, flagella, or muscular organs Ingest nutrients

15 Classification System Kingdom (Animalia) Phylum (Arthropoda) Class (Insecta) Order (Hymenoptera) Family (Apidae) Genus (Apis) Species (Mellifera) Common Name: Honey Bee

16 Arthropoda Characteristics Exoskeleton Chitin Segmented appendages Segmented body Bilateral symetry Dorsal tubular heart Ventral paired nerve chord

17 Classification System Kingdom (Animalia) Phylum (Arthropoda) Class (Insecta) Order (Hymenoptera) Family (Apidae) Genus (Apis) Species (Mellifera) Common Name: Honey Bee

18 Classes of Arthropods Arachnida – spiders, mites, ticks Diplopoda – millipedes Chilopoda – centipedes Insecta – insects

19 Arachnida Characteristics Body divided into two parts Four pairs of legs No antennae No wings Ticks, mites, spiders, scorpions Cat-faced Spider

20 Longer antennae than millipedes Flattened in cross section 1 pair of legs per segment Beneficial – prey on other arthropods Are fast moving Have poison glands & can inflict a painful bite Chilopoda Centipedes

21 Feed on fungi and decaying plants Can damage plants 2 pair of legs per segment 2 visible body parts – head and body Round in cross section Slow moving Dilopoda Millipedes

22 Insecta Characteristics Mandibulate –Mouth consists of mandible, maxilla & labia 3 body segments –Head –Thorax –Abdomen Pair of antenna Most have compound eyes

23 Classification System Kingdom (Animalia) Phylum (Arthropoda) Class (Insecta) Order (Hymenoptera) Family (Apidae) Genus (Apis) Species (Mellifera) Common Name: Honey Bee

24 Orders of Insects Collembola – spring tails Thysanura – silver fish Ephemerptera – maylfies Odanota – dragonflies Phasmida – walking sticks Orthoptera - grasshoppers Mantodea – preying mantids Blattaria - roaches Isoptera - termites Dermaptera - earwigs Plecoptera - stoneflies Psocoptera – book & bark lice Phthiraptera – true lice Hemiptera – true bugs Homoptera – aphids/hoppers Thysanoptera - thrips Neuroptera – lace wings Coleoptera - beetles Mecoptera – scorpionfly Siphonaptera - fleas Diptera – flies, mosquitoes Tricoptera - caddisflies Lepidoptera – butterfly/moth Hymenoptera – ants, wasps, bees

25 No. of Species per Order Coleoptera Diptera Lepidoptera Hemiptera Hymenoptera Aprx. 800,000 species

26 Helpful Hints for Identification Pictures Specimens from a collection Biology –Habitat – soil, wood, plant, food, aquatic –Sometimes host specific –Characteristic damage patterns –Time of year may help Rear immatures to adults Keys Ask the expert

27 Websites sefile/insects/bugs/stinkbugs/stinkbugs.htm ntification.htm

28 Characteristics of an Adult Thorax: Locomotor appendages 3 pairs of true legs 1 or 2 pairs of wings Head: Pair of antennae Pair of mandibles Abdomen: Genitalia at the end Spiracles head

29 Characteristics of Larvae Head Thorax: (1 st 3 segments after head; true legs) Abdomen: Prolegs

30 Head of Insect

31 Genae ‘Cheeks’

32 Head of Insect Compound eyes

33 Head of Insect Ocelli Simple eyes

34 Head of Insect Antennae

35 Head of Insect Clypeus

36 Head of Insect Frons

37 Head of Insect Mouth

38 Head of Insect Labrum

39 Head of Insect Mandibles

40 Head of Insect Maxilla

41 Head of Insect Labium

42 Antennal Types Setaceous Bristle-like Dragonfly Filiform Thread-like Cockroaches Ground beetles Moniliform Bead-like Termites Serrate Sawtoothed Click beetles

43 Antennal Types Clavate Gradually clubbed Carrior beetles Capitate Abruptly clubbed Butterflies Pectinate Comb-like Male glow-worms Geniculate Elbowed Ants Weevils

44 Antennal Types Lamellate Nested plates Scarab beetles (June bugs) Pulmose Feather-like Mosquitoes Male moths Aristate Pouch-like with lateral bristles Flies

45 Mouth Parts Sucking (fly) Chewing-sucking (carpenter bee) Piercing-sucking (hemipteran) (mosquito) Chewing Sucking (moth) (wasp) (weevil – beetle) (stag beetle)

46 Mouth Parts of the Orders Chewing Collembola Thysanura Ephemerptera* Odanota Phasmida Orthoptera Mantodea Blattaria Isoptera Dermaptera Plecoptera Sucking Hemiptera Homoptera Phthiraptera Thysanoptera Siphonaptera* Diptera* Tricoptera* Lepidoptera* Hymenoptera* * Mouthparts are different on immature and adult forms Psocoptera Phthiraptera Neuroptera Coleoptera Mecoptera Siphonaptera* Diptera* Tricoptera* Lepidoptera* Hymenoptera*

47 Thorax Prothorax: 1 st thoracic segment 1 st pair of legs

48 Thorax Mesothorax: Middle segment of thorax 2 nd pair of legs 1 st pair of wings (forewing)

49 Thorax Metathorax: Last segment of thorax 3 rd pair of legs 2 nd pair of wings (hindwings)

50 Wing Types Elytra Hard, sclerotized front wings that as protect membranous hind wings Coleoptera Dermaptera Hemelytra Front wings that are leathery at the base and membranous near the tip Hemiptera Tegmina Front wings are completely leathery or parchment-like in texture Orthoptera Blattodea Mantodea

51 Wing Types Halteres Small, club-like hind wings Diptera Fringed wings Slender wings with long fringes of hair Thysanaptera Hairy wings Front and hind wings covered with setae Trichoptera

52 Wing Types Scaly wings Front and hind wings covered with scales Lepidoptera Frenulum Bristle near base of hind wing that holds front and hind wings together LepidopteraS

53 Wing Types Hamuli Tiny hooks on hind wing that hold front and hind wings together Hymenoptera Membranous Clear wings with many veins Wings may be tinted with color or banded-pattern Odanota Neuroptera

54 Insect Legs coxa - the basal segment of the insect leg (ball joint where human leg fits into thigh) tarsus - the part of the leg beyond the tibia (foot) trochanter - segment between coxa and femur femur - the third leg segment, (human thigh bone) tibia - the fourth leg segment, (shin bone) coxa trochanter femur tibia tarsus

55 Insect Legs Cursorial – running Roaches Tiger beetles Fossorial - digging Mole cricket

56 Insect Legs Natorial – swimming Whirligig beetles Back swimmers Water boatmen Saltorial - jumping Grasshoppers

57 Insect Leggs Ratptorial – grasping Preying mantid

58 Abdomen Multiple segments Spiracles present on abdominal segments May have appendages on last segment Genitalia present on abdomen

59 Spiracles Used for respiration Usually 1 – 10 pairs Can be important for ID purposes (maggot larvae)

60 Abdominal Appendages Cerci Paired abdominal segments Sensory or defensive in nature Often reduced or retracted into the body Mayfly Roach Earwig Silverfish Cornicles Tubular structures on the 5 th or 6 th segment Secrete defensive fluids

61 Metamorphosis Simple –external wing development (if winged), no period of inactivity –Ametabolous –Hemimetabolous –Paurometabolous Intermediate –External wing pads & internal development, period of inactivity Complete –Internal wing development, period of inactivity

62 Simple Metamorphosis Ametabolous Immatures look identical to adult only smaller (silverfish)

63 Simple Metamorphosis Hemimetabolous Immatures (niads) look different than adult – NO PUPA (mayflies and odanates)

64 Simple Metamorphosis Paurometabolous Immatures (nymphs) look similar to adult Gradual development of wing pads externally Homoptera, Hemiptera & other orders

65 Incomplete Metamorphosis Intermediate Immatures (nymphs) look similar to adult Some internal wing development prepupal and pupal stages (period of inactivity)

66 Complete Metamorphosis Holometabolous Immatures (larvae/ maggots) look different than adult Pupa formed Bettles, diptera, lepidoptera, hymenoptera); Internal wing development

67 Type of Metamorphosis by Order Simple (A) Collembola Thysanura Complete Neuroptera Coleoptera Mecoptera Siphonaptera Diptera Tricoptera Lepidoptera Hymenoptera A= ametabolous; H= hemimetabolous; P= paurometabolous Simple (H) Ephemerptera Odanota Plecoptera Simple (P) Phasmida Orthoptera Mantodea Blattaria Isoptera Dermaptera Psocoptera Phthiraptera Hemiptera Homoptera Psocoptera Intermediate Thysanoptera

68 Larval Types Vermiform Maggot-like, worm-like Legless With or without a developed head Elateriform Wireworm-like Elongate body Cylicrical Hardshelled Short legs

69 Larval Types Eruciform Caterpillar-like Cylindrical body Well developed head Short antennae Thoracic and prolegs Campodeiform Elongate body Somewhat flattened Usually well developed antennae Active

70 Larval Types Marlin E. Rice Scarabaeiform Grub-like Usually curved (C-shaped) Well developed head Thoracic legs, NO prolegs

71 Larval Types by Order Eruciform: Lepidoptera Mecoptera Hymenoptera* Scarabaeiform: Coleoptera* Campodeiform: Neuroptera Tricoptera Coleoptera Elateriform: Coleoptera* Vermiform: Diptera Siphonaptera Hymenoptera Coleoptera* Lepidoptera* * Not the most common larval form of the order

72 Pupal Types Obtect Appendages more or less glued to body May be covered by cocoon Lepidoptera, some Diptera

73 Pupal Types Exerate Appendages free Not covered by cocoon “mummified adult” Most insects with complete metamorphosis – NOT Lepidopteran or Diptera

74 Pupal Types Coarctate Like exerate but covered with hardened cuticle Some Diptera

75 Orders of Insects Collembola – spring tails Thysanura – silver fish Ephemerptera – maylfies Odanota – dragonflies Phasmida – walking sticks Orthoptera - grasshoppers Mantodea – preying mantids Blattaria - roaches Isoptera - termites Dermaptera - earwigs Plecoptera - stoneflies Psocoptera – book & bark lice Phthiraptera – true lice Hemiptera – true bugs Homoptera – aphids/hoppers Thysanoptera - thrips Neuroptera – lace wings Coleoptera - beetles Mecoptera – scorpionfly Siphonaptera - fleas Diptera – flies, mosquitoes Tricoptera - caddisflies Lepidoptera – butterfly/moth Hymenoptera – ants, wasps, bees

76 Collembola Wingless Small Hop with tail appendage (furcula) Nuisance, rarely pests Soil, leaf litter Metamorphosis: young resemble adults Springtails

77 Thysanura Wingless Long antennae Three tails Scales on the body Nuisance, pests in libraries Mouthparts: Chewing Metamorphosis: Young resemble adults Silverfish and Firebrats Silverfish Firebrat

78 Ephemeroptera Upright wings Only group to molt once winged Elongate body Three tails Fish food, occasional nuisance Mouth parts: chewing Metamorphosis: aquatic immatures, winged adults Mayflies

79 Odonata Two pairs of membranous wings Large conspicuous eyes Dragonflies hold wings flat Damselflies hold wings together Beneficial predators Dragonflies and damselflies

80 Plecoptera Large soft-bodied insects Four wings held flat over the back Hind pair fold fan-like Long antennae Larvae are aquatic Fish food, scavengers Stoneflies

81 Orthoptera Front pair of wings usually slender and leathery Hind pair of wings broad and fan-like Characteristic jumping hind leg Plant pests, few predators Grasshoppers, Crickets, Katydids

82 Crickets Mormon Cricket Field Cricket House Cricket

83 Katydids Chapparal KatydidBroad-winged KatydidFork-tailed Bush KatydidTrue Katydid Mormon Cricket

84 Blattaria Flattened bodies Head is concealed from above Two pairs of wings Eggs in a capsule called an ootheca Unpleasant odor Household pests Cockroaches American Cockroach

85 Mantodea Large, elongate & slow moving Front legs grasp prey Biological control agents Leaf mimics Mantids Eggs

86 Praying Mantis California MantisChinese Mantis

87 Phasmida Elongated bodies Slow moving Found on trees or shrubs Wingless as adults Foliage feeder Rarely a pest Walkingsticks

88 Dermaptera Medium sized insects Four wings Hind wings are folded under front Abdomen exposed Cerci on last abdominal segment Predators Nuisance pests, chew on foliage Earwigs

89 Isoptera Small, soft bodied Yellowish or whitish insects Wide waist, bead-like antennae (not bent) Liven in colonies in wood Three castes: workers, soldiers and reproductives Structural pests Termites

90 Head of Insect Clypeus

91 Psocoptera Tiny, soft-bodied insects Four wings or none at all Microscopic to ¼ inch “Busted upper lip” (swollen clypeus) Scavengers, pests in libraries and stored food, webbing on trees Psocids (Booklice)

92 Phthiraptera Wingless parasites on most birds and mammals Deposit eggs on hair or feathers Bloodsucking, transmit diseases Lice Head Lice Crab Lice Head Lice

93 Thysanpotera Tiny insects about 1/8 in long Two pair of slender wings, fringed with long hair Legs and antennae are short Only pest with asymmetrical mouthparts Plant pests, minor bites of humans, frequent pests in greenhouses and blooms Thrips Western Flower Thrips

94 Hemiptera Four wings, folded flat Front pair are thickened and leathery Beak arises from the front of head Plant feeders, predators True Bugs

95 Backswimmer Bed bug Stink bug Leaf-footed bug Tarnished plant bug Giant water bug Assassin bug Milkweed bug Adults

96 True Bugs Backswimmer Bed bug Stink bug Leaf-footed bug Tarnished plant bug Giant water bug Assassin bug Milkweed bug Nymphs

97 Homoptera May or may not have wings Four wings when present and are held roof-like over body Feed on plants Mouthparts: sucking with beak arising from the hind part of the head Metamorphosis: Gradual Many are pests and can transmit diseases Leafhoppers, Scales, Aphids, Mealybugs

98 Leafhoppers Scarlet & Green Leafhopper Potato Leafhopper Rose Leafhopper Beet Leafhopper Spines on hind tibia

99 Scales Female – host specific, no antenna, legless & wingless Male – 1 pair wings, 1 pair haltere; only reproduce, antenna

100 Aphids Plant specific Transmit viruses Cornicles – “tail pipes” Symbiotic relationship with ants Give live birth

101 Mealybugs They feed on all parts of the plant, including roots, and reproduce all summer Many times they are controlled by natural enemies Characteristic trait: body covered with wax or filamentous waxy secretions

102 Neuroptera Fragile insects Two pair of many veined wings – held roof-like over their abdomen Long antennae Many beneficial/predators Lacewings, Antlions

103 Lacewings Brown Lacewing Green Lacewing Lacewing Nest Lacewing Larva Lacewing Eggs

104 Antlions Antlion Larvae Antlion Adults Larvae live in the soil and seek prey

105 Coleoptera Largest order of insects Usually two pairs of wings Front pair are thick (elytra) Straight line down the middle of back Plant feeders, predators, scavengers, wood borers, etc Beetles & Weevils

106 Weevils Boll Weevil Pecan Weevil Rose Weevil Alfalfa Weevil Many are economic pests Elongated rostrum (nose) Like to play dead Immature weevils

107 June Beetle/White Grub Adults 1/2 to 5/8 inches long Reddish brown Noctural Can be a nuisance near light Larvae (grubs): C-shaped White with brown head Three pairs of legs Soil-dwelling Feed on roots of grasses

108 Carpet Beetles Adult: Small, stout, robust, or elongate oval Larva: Usually covered with hairs Scavengers of plant and animal products the ‘CSI’ bug (forensics) leather, skins museum specimens wool stored foods carrion (‘bone cleaners’)

109 Cucumber Beetle Phytophagous (plant eaters) Usually oval shaped Can be colorful with stripes or spotted markings (may fade with age) Prefer shady cool places such as leaf and melon undersides Keep leaves dry; lift fruits to keep the underside dry Adults overwinter in weedy areas – therefore keep weeds cut down all year

110 Ladybird Beetles 1 st biological control agent (cottony cushion scale) Predators of aphids & eggs

111 Mecoptera Small to medium sized Four long, narrow wings Long antennae Larvae look like caterpillars Larvae live in damp soil Adults are seasonal in summer Adults feed on insects Harmless Scorpionflies

112 Diptera Winged or wingless One pair of membranous wings – one pair halteres Few feed on plant foliage Some of the most beneficial insects Beneficial as pollinators, parasites & predator, stings are a nuisance True Flies, Mosquitoes, Gnats, Midges

113 True Flies House Fly Cherry Fruit Fly Deer Fly Horse Fly

114 Mosquitoes Larvae are aquatic Tiny hairs outline the margins of wings Adults feed on nectar or blood (females only) Females must have blood meal to produce young Crepuscular or nocturnal Males - plumose antenna

115 Hymenoptera Winged or Wingless Two pair of membranous wings Few feed on plant foliage Many beneficial insects - pollinators, parasites & predators Stings are a nuisance Complete metamorphosis Many social insects Ants, bees, wasps, hornets, sawflies

116 Carpenter Ants Black in color Build nests in old trees and logs May invade homes in search of food Queen Nest

117 Red Harvester Ants Will sting or bite Colonies occur in open areas Do not invade homes

118 Honey Bees Social insects Division of labor: queen –matriarch of the colony, lays eggs drones – males, only purpose to mate; kicked out in rough times workers – females, tend to all duties (care for larvae and queen, food collection, etc) Communication - ‘Waggle Dance’

119 Yellow Jackets & Hornets Bald-faced Hornet Very aggressive Distinguished from bees by their thin "waists" Fold their wings lengthwise when at rest Prey on a variety of arthropods, may forage on human (especially sweets and meats) Considered beneficial insects Paper Wasps Western Yellow Jacket

120 Sawflies Adult Adults resemble bees or small wasps Larvae resemble caterpillars >5 pairs of abdominal prolegs Often spotted or striped ½ to 1 inch long External feeders on foliage Entire leaf or skeletonize Often clump together Wide host range including: conifers, oaks, black locust, ash, black walnut & woody ornamentals Larvae

121 Sawflies Blue Steel Sawfly Small infestations - manually remove and destroy Large infestations of young larvae - spray with horticultural oil Large larvae - spray with a contact insecticide. Sawfly larvae are not caterpillars; Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) formulations for caterpillar control will not kill sawflies Larvae

122 Trichoptera Soft bodied Two pairs of wings covered with silky hairs Adults have long antennae Adults resemble small dull- colored moths Larvae are usually scavengers Larvae build cases from pepples or bits of sticks; often found in the cases – with heads only protruding Fish food, rarely a nuisance Caddisflies

123 Lepidoptera Four well-developed wings Wings have overlapping scales Caterpillars on leaves of plants Leaf feeders Few are beneficial Moths & Butterflies

124 Looper Corn Earworm Cutworm Armyworm

125 Banded Woolly Bear Clothes Moth

126 Western Tiger SwallowtailAnise Swallowtail Hummingbird MothPainted Lady

127 Cabbage WhiteCommon Branded Skipper Western SulpherPink-spotted Hawk Moth

128 Mourning CloakEuropean Skipper Monarch & CaterpillarTwo-tailed Swallowtail

129 Small, wingless body Flattened laterally Larvae in nests of various animals Pests of animals and man Siphonaptera Fleas

130 Insects of Special Interest

131 Earwigs Scary appearance, but harmless May emit a foul-smelling, yellowish-brown liquid Noctural Live live outdoors and rarely establish themselves indoors Can ‘pinch’ with the forceps Predators

132 Earwigs Serious feeding damage may occur on flowers, vegetables, fruits and other plants –Leaves have a ragged appearance with the numerous, small, irregular holes. –Considered temporary pests –Can occur in large populations Consume decomposing organic matter

133 Earwigs Tanglefoot (sticky trap) around tree trunks prevent them from crawling up trees Well maintained garden deters large infestations Baits are available for control

134 Leaf Miners Several kinds of leaf miners: beetles, flies, sawflies, and caterpillars Adult lay eggs and the immatures do the actual mining

135 Leaf Miners Host range: fruit trees, grape vines, berry vines, grain crops, garden flowers, wildflowers, vegetables and weeds Usually not of economic concern –Birches and foreign species of elms attacked by a sawfly leaf miner drop most of the leaves may die –Damage to vegetables and some flowers may be serious

136 Leaf Rollers Caterpillars protect themselves while they feed –by rolling themselves up in a leaf or in several leaves of their host plant Difficult to control with insecticides because they are protected in the leaf Marlin E. Rice

137 Aphids Green Apple Aphid Wooly Apple Aphid Rose Aphid Pea Aphid Rosy Apple Aphid

138 Coddling Moth A destructive pest introduced from Europe by settlers Female moths lay the scale-like eggs singly on developing fruit or adjacent leaves or stems

139 Coddling Moth Larvae: –hatch and enter the side of the fruit and tunnel to the center –pinkish to white in color with a brown head –up to 3/4 inch long –exit the fruit to pupate in a thick silken cocoon on the bark or other protected areas –frass is often noticed near larvae entered

140 Spittlebugs Nymphs: Small, green, soft-bodied insects Surrounded by a frothy, white mass Protection from drying out and predators Adults small (¼ inch), winged insects fly away quickly when disturbed lay their eggs inside of stems or between the leaf blades and stems Hosts: ornamental, vegetable and garden plants, forage crops, conifers, grasses and weeds

141 Spittlebugs Damage Adults & nymphs suck sap Inject toxin into a plant's vascular system Leaves appear distorted, yellow and/or stunted Control: Spray with a sharp stream of water to dislodge spittlebugs and wash froth away –some small spittlebugs will dry out –insecticidal soaps may also be effective on spittlebugs

142 Snailcase bagworm Introduced into the United States from Europe around 1940 Larvae Produce a protective bag covered with small particles of soil, resembles a snail shell Lives inside this bag until becoming an adult Bag grows as the larvae grow (aprx. 1/4 in)

143 Snailcase bagworm Escape detection because small and resembles soil Noticed when damage appears Nuisance - attach to house siding, automobiles, trees, or fence posts in large numbers –Tight attachment - paint often removed when dislodged Problematic because: –feeds on many different plants –females reproduce without mating –carried long distances by mammals, birds, or humans

144 Snailcase bagworm Damage Feed on leaf tissue Mine circular areas beneath the surface layer Potential nursery pest Baby's breath is highly susceptible Control Must control on the host plant prior to their migration to a pupation site Chemicals ineffective on pupae Manual control (hand removal/ killing) is only effective control

145 Non-Insects

146 Arachnida Characteristics Body divided into two parts Four pairs of legs No antennae No wings Ticks, mites, spiders, scorpions Cat-faced Spider

147 Orders of Arachnids Araneae – spiders Acari – mites, ticks Scorpiones – scorpions Opiliones - harvestmen

148 Araneae Wingless and lack antennae Six or eight legs Body variable in size and shape All food intake is liquid Webs to capture prey All are beneficial, few are hazardous Spiders

149 Spider Facts Hundreds of species in Idaho All are beneficial Almost all have venom Hazardous spiders include black widow and hobo spiders Reactions vary with individual Black widow-male Black widow - female

150 Acari Characteristics Wingless, lack antennae Body is flat or round Adults have eight legs Ticks only feed on blood of animals Four stages; egg, larva, nymph and adult Ticks & Mites

151 Ticks Rocky Mountain Spotted Tick Dog Tick Ectoparisite – feeds on blood Tick bites look like mosquito bites, but can also bruise or resemble a bullseye. Often found in tall grasses Can transmit human diseases: relapsing fever Lyme disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever tularemia equine encephalitis several forms of ehrlichiosis Can transmit livestock diseases: babesiosis & anaplasmosis

152 Mites Diverse and successful Exploit an incredible array of habitats Because they are small most go totally unnoticed Many live freely in the soil or water, some live as parasites on plants or animals. Some of the plant pests include the so-called Spider mites; Gall mites Sarcoptic Mange mites which burrow under the skin Perhaps the most well known, though, is the house dust mite Insects may also have parasitic mites. (Varroa mites which attaches to the body of the honeybee) Reproductive colony of plant mites Peacock mite

153 Scorpionida Characteristics Wingless Lack Antennae Bodies are broad Tail with a sting at the tip Front appendages are enlarged pinchers Size from 1-3 inches Mouthparts: chewing Metamorphosis: Gradual Status: Beneficial

154 Scorpions More species as you go west 18 to 25 in Idaho Stings are painful but not fatal unless very sensitive

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