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Insect ID and Management

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1 Insect ID and Management
Kelly V. Tindall Extension Entomologist Twin Falls County

2 Management Techniques
Integrated Pest Management (IPM): Management of pests that incorporates many practices for environmentally friendly and economically feasible control of pests Physical/Mechanical – barriers, hand removal Cultural – proper irrigation Biological – ladybugs, lacewings, etc. Chemical – general vs selective insecticides Variety selection – tolerance or resistance

3 Mechanical/Physical Control
Manual removal Bug-Vac Manually killing Window screens – mechanical barrier Traps & Lures Plastic mulch Remove and burn infested plant structures Caulk - Seal off entrances into home

4 Cultural Control Tillage Water Fertilize Washing plants
Wood storage Proper sanitation

5 Biological Control Preying mantis Parasitic wasps and flies
Lacewing larva Pathogens Ladybug Spiders Wasps

6 General vs specific insecticides
Chemical Control Localized applications Bait systems Dormant Oils General vs specific insecticides Insecticidal soaps Sprays Pheromone disrupters

7 Variety Selection Three ways plants are resistant Tolerance
Plants able to withstand injury better Antixenosis Not-preferred Too hairy, too waxy Odorous Antibiosis Toxic to the insect Plant compounds with in the plant

8 Natural Control (Abiotic)
Temperature Hard winters  populations High temps increase insect development Rainfall Drowns soil insects (any stage) Too dry, insects dry out also Sunny versus shady Some insects have a preference for shaded areas Wind Increases migration potential

9 Identification

10 Classification System
Kingdom (Animalia) Phylum (Arthropoda) Class (Insecta) Order (Hymenoptera) Family (Apidae) Genus (Apis) Species (Mellifera) Common Name: Honey Bee

11 Why Learn Classification?
Groups have similar biology and appearance More specific groups have closer biology Characters relate to damage and pest status When a name is known we can look up more information

12 Classification System
3 Kingdoms (1894) 5 Kingdoms (1959) 6 Kingdoms (1977) 3 Domains (1990) Protista Monera Eubacteria Bacteria Plantae Archaebacteria Archaea Animalia Fungi Eukarya

13 Classification System
Kingdom (Animalia) Phylum (Arthropoda) Class (Insecta) Order (Hymenoptera) Family (Apidae) Genus (Apis) Species (Mellifera) Common Name: Honey Bee

14 Animalia Characteristics
Multicellular Organelles have Nucleus No chloroplasts or cell walls Move via contractile proteins cilia, flagella, or muscular organs Ingest nutrients

15 Classification System
Kingdom (Animalia) Phylum (Arthropoda) Class (Insecta) Order (Hymenoptera) Family (Apidae) Genus (Apis) Species (Mellifera) Common Name: Honey Bee

16 Arthropoda Characteristics
Exoskeleton Chitin Segmented appendages Segmented body Bilateral symetry Dorsal tubular heart Ventral paired nerve chord

17 Classification System
Kingdom (Animalia) Phylum (Arthropoda) Class (Insecta) Order (Hymenoptera) Family (Apidae) Genus (Apis) Species (Mellifera) Common Name: Honey Bee

18 Classes of Arthropods Arachnida – spiders, mites, ticks
Diplopoda – millipedes Chilopoda – centipedes Insecta – insects

19 Arachnida Characteristics
Ticks, mites, spiders, scorpions Body divided into two parts Four pairs of legs No antennae No wings Cat-faced Spider

20 Chilopoda Centipedes Longer antennae than millipedes
Flattened in cross section 1 pair of legs per segment Beneficial – prey on other arthropods Are fast moving Have poison glands & can inflict a painful bite

21 Dilopoda Feed on fungi and decaying plants Can damage plants
Millipedes Feed on fungi and decaying plants Can damage plants 2 pair of legs per segment 2 visible body parts – head and body Round in cross section Slow moving

22 Insecta Characteristics
Mandibulate Mouth consists of mandible, maxilla & labia 3 body segments Head Thorax Abdomen Pair of antenna Most have compound eyes

23 Classification System
Kingdom (Animalia) Phylum (Arthropoda) Class (Insecta) Order (Hymenoptera) Family (Apidae) Genus (Apis) Species (Mellifera) Common Name: Honey Bee

24 Orders of Insects Collembola – spring tails Thysanura – silver fish
Ephemerptera – maylfies Odanota – dragonflies Phasmida – walking sticks Orthoptera - grasshoppers Mantodea – preying mantids Blattaria - roaches Isoptera - termites Dermaptera - earwigs Plecoptera - stoneflies Psocoptera – book & bark lice Phthiraptera – true lice Hemiptera – true bugs Homoptera – aphids/hoppers Thysanoptera - thrips Neuroptera – lace wings Coleoptera - beetles Mecoptera – scorpionfly Siphonaptera - fleas Diptera – flies, mosquitoes Tricoptera - caddisflies Lepidoptera – butterfly/moth Hymenoptera – ants, wasps, bees

25 No. of Species per Order Aprx. 800,000 species Hymenoptera Hemiptera
Lepidoptera Coleoptera Diptera

26 Helpful Hints for Identification
Pictures Specimens from a collection Biology Habitat – soil, wood, plant, food, aquatic Sometimes host specific Characteristic damage patterns Time of year may help Rear immatures to adults Keys Ask the expert

27 Websites http://www.insectimages.org/search/index.cfm

28 Characteristics of an Adult
Head: Pair of antennae Pair of mandibles Thorax: Locomotor appendages 3 pairs of true legs 1 or 2 pairs of wings head Abdomen: Genitalia at the end Spiracles

29 Characteristics of Larvae
Abdomen: Prolegs Thorax: (1st 3 segments after head; true legs) Head

30 Head of Insect

31 Head of Insect Genae ‘Cheeks’

32 Head of Insect Compound eyes

33 Head of Insect Ocelli Simple eyes

34 Head of Insect Antennae

35 Head of Insect Clypeus

36 Head of Insect Frons

37 Head of Insect Mouth

38 Head of Insect Labrum

39 Head of Insect Mandibles

40 Head of Insect Maxilla

41 Head of Insect Labium

42 Antennal Types Setaceous Bristle-like Dragonfly Filiform Thread-like
Cockroaches Ground beetles Moniliform Bead-like Termites Serrate Sawtoothed Click beetles

43 Antennal Types Clavate Gradually clubbed Carrior beetles Capitate
Abruptly clubbed Butterflies Pectinate Comb-like Male glow-worms Geniculate Elbowed Ants Weevils

44 Antennal Types Aristate Pouch-like with lateral bristles Flies
Lamellate Nested plates Scarab beetles (June bugs) Pulmose Feather-like Mosquitoes Male moths

45 Mouth Parts Chewing Sucking Piercing-sucking (stag beetle)
(carpenter bee) (wasp) (weevil – beetle) (stag beetle) Piercing-sucking (hemipteran) (mosquito) Sucking (moth) Sucking (fly)

46 Mouth Parts of the Orders
Chewing Collembola Thysanura Ephemerptera* Odanota Phasmida Orthoptera Mantodea Blattaria Isoptera Dermaptera Plecoptera Sucking Hemiptera Homoptera Phthiraptera Thysanoptera Siphonaptera* Diptera* Tricoptera* Lepidoptera* Hymenoptera* Psocoptera Phthiraptera Neuroptera Coleoptera Mecoptera Siphonaptera* Diptera* Tricoptera* Lepidoptera* Hymenoptera* * Mouthparts are different on immature and adult forms

47 Thorax Prothorax: 1st thoracic segment 1st pair of legs

48 Thorax Mesothorax: Middle segment of thorax 2nd pair of legs
1st pair of wings (forewing)

49 Thorax Metathorax: Last segment of thorax 3rd pair of legs
2nd pair of wings (hindwings)

50 Wing Types Tegmina Elytra Hemelytra
Front wings are completely leathery or parchment-like in texture Orthoptera Blattodea Mantodea Elytra Hard, sclerotized front wings that as protect membranous hind wings Coleoptera Dermaptera Hemelytra Front wings that are leathery at the base and membranous near the tip Hemiptera

51 Wing Types Halteres Fringed wings Hairy wings
Small, club-like hind wings Diptera Fringed wings Slender wings with long fringes of hair Thysanaptera Hairy wings Front and hind wings covered with setae Trichoptera

52 Wing Types Scaly wings Frenulum
Front and hind wings covered with scales Lepidoptera Frenulum Bristle near base of hind wing that holds front and hind wings together LepidopteraS

53 Wing Types Membranous Hamuli Clear wings with many veins
Wings may be tinted with color or banded-pattern Odanota Neuroptera Hamuli Tiny hooks on hind wing that hold front and hind wings together Hymenoptera

54 Insect Legs coxa - the basal segment of the insect leg (ball joint where human leg fits into thigh) trochanter trochanter - segment between coxa and femur femur tibia coxa femur - the third leg segment, (human thigh bone) tibia - the fourth leg segment, (shin bone) tarsus tarsus - the part of the leg beyond the tibia (foot)

55 Insect Legs Cursorial – running Roaches Tiger beetles
Fossorial - digging Mole cricket

56 Insect Legs Natorial – swimming Whirligig beetles Back swimmers
Water boatmen Saltorial - jumping Grasshoppers

57 Insect Leggs Ratptorial – grasping Preying mantid

58 Abdomen Multiple segments Spiracles present on abdominal segments
May have appendages on last segment Genitalia present on abdomen

59 Spiracles Used for respiration Usually 1 – 10 pairs
Can be important for ID purposes (maggot larvae)

60 Abdominal Appendages Cerci Paired abdominal segments
Earwig Silverfish Roach Mayfly Cerci Paired abdominal segments Sensory or defensive in nature Often reduced or retracted into the body Cornicles Tubular structures on the 5th or 6th segment Secrete defensive fluids

61 Metamorphosis Simple Intermediate Complete
external wing development (if winged), no period of inactivity Ametabolous Hemimetabolous Paurometabolous Intermediate External wing pads & internal development, period of inactivity Complete Internal wing development, period of inactivity

62 Simple Metamorphosis Ametabolous
Immatures look identical to adult only smaller (silverfish)

63 Simple Metamorphosis Hemimetabolous
Immatures (niads) look different than adult – NO PUPA (mayflies and odanates)

64 Simple Metamorphosis Paurometabolous
Immatures (nymphs) look similar to adult Gradual development of wing pads externally Homoptera, Hemiptera & other orders

65 Incomplete Metamorphosis
Intermediate Immatures (nymphs) look similar to adult Some internal wing development prepupal and pupal stages (period of inactivity)

66 Complete Metamorphosis
Holometabolous Immatures (larvae/ maggots) look different than adult Pupa formed Bettles, diptera, lepidoptera, hymenoptera); Internal wing development

67 Type of Metamorphosis by Order
Simple (A) Collembola Thysanura Simple (P) Phasmida Orthoptera Mantodea Blattaria Isoptera Dermaptera Psocoptera Phthiraptera Hemiptera Homoptera Intermediate Thysanoptera Complete Neuroptera Coleoptera Mecoptera Siphonaptera Diptera Tricoptera Lepidoptera Hymenoptera Simple (H) Ephemerptera Odanota Plecoptera A= ametabolous; H= hemimetabolous; P= paurometabolous

68 Larval Types Vermiform Maggot-like, worm-like Legless
With or without a developed head Elateriform Wireworm-like Elongate body Cylicrical Hardshelled Short legs

69 Larval Types Eruciform Caterpillar-like Cylindrical body
Well developed head Short antennae Thoracic and prolegs Campodeiform Elongate body Somewhat flattened Usually well developed antennae Active

70 Larval Types Scarabaeiform Grub-like Usually curved (C-shaped)
Well developed head Thoracic legs, NO prolegs Marlin E. Rice

71 Larval Types by Order Eruciform: Campodeiform: Vermiform: Elateriform:
Lepidoptera Mecoptera Hymenoptera* Campodeiform: Neuroptera Tricoptera Coleoptera Vermiform: Diptera Siphonaptera Hymenoptera Coleoptera* Lepidoptera* Elateriform: Coleoptera* Scarabaeiform: Coleoptera* * Not the most common larval form of the order

72 Pupal Types Obtect Appendages more or less glued to body
May be covered by cocoon Lepidoptera, some Diptera

73 Pupal Types Exerate Appendages free Not covered by cocoon
“mummified adult” Most insects with complete metamorphosis – NOT Lepidopteran or Diptera

74 Pupal Types Coarctate Like exerate but covered with hardened cuticle
Some Diptera

75 Orders of Insects Collembola – spring tails Thysanura – silver fish
Ephemerptera – maylfies Odanota – dragonflies Phasmida – walking sticks Orthoptera - grasshoppers Mantodea – preying mantids Blattaria - roaches Isoptera - termites Dermaptera - earwigs Plecoptera - stoneflies Psocoptera – book & bark lice Phthiraptera – true lice Hemiptera – true bugs Homoptera – aphids/hoppers Thysanoptera - thrips Neuroptera – lace wings Coleoptera - beetles Mecoptera – scorpionfly Siphonaptera - fleas Diptera – flies, mosquitoes Tricoptera - caddisflies Lepidoptera – butterfly/moth Hymenoptera – ants, wasps, bees

76 Collembola Springtails Wingless Small
Hop with tail appendage (furcula) Nuisance, rarely pests Soil, leaf litter Metamorphosis: young resemble adults

77 Thysanura Silverfish and Firebrats Wingless Long antennae Three tails
Scales on the body Nuisance, pests in libraries Mouthparts: Chewing Metamorphosis: Young resemble adults Silverfish Firebrat

78 Ephemeroptera Mayflies Upright wings Only group to molt once winged
Elongate body Three tails Fish food, occasional nuisance Mouth parts: chewing Metamorphosis: aquatic immatures, winged adults

79 Odonata Two pairs of membranous wings Large conspicuous eyes
Dragonflies and damselflies Two pairs of membranous wings Large conspicuous eyes Dragonflies hold wings flat Damselflies hold wings together Beneficial predators

80 Plecoptera Stoneflies Large soft-bodied insects
Four wings held flat over the back Hind pair fold fan-like Long antennae Larvae are aquatic Fish food, scavengers

81 Orthoptera Grasshoppers, Crickets, Katydids
Front pair of wings usually slender and leathery Hind pair of wings broad and fan-like Characteristic jumping hind leg Plant pests, few predators

82 Crickets House Cricket Mormon Cricket Field Cricket

83 Katydids Fork-tailed Bush Katydid Broad-winged Katydid Mormon Cricket
Chapparal Katydid True Katydid

84 Blattaria Flattened bodies Head is concealed from above
Cockroaches Flattened bodies Head is concealed from above Two pairs of wings Eggs in a capsule called an ootheca Unpleasant odor Household pests American Cockroach

85 Mantodea Mantids Large, elongate & slow moving Front legs grasp prey
Biological control agents Leaf mimics Eggs

86 Praying Mantis Chinese Mantis California Mantis

87 Phasmida Elongated bodies Slow moving Found on trees or shrubs
Walkingsticks Elongated bodies Slow moving Found on trees or shrubs Wingless as adults Foliage feeder Rarely a pest

88 Dermaptera Earwigs Medium sized insects Four wings
Hind wings are folded under front Abdomen exposed Cerci on last abdominal segment Predators Nuisance pests, chew on foliage

89 Isoptera Termites Small, soft bodied Yellowish or whitish insects
Wide waist, bead-like antennae (not bent) Liven in colonies in wood Three castes: workers, soldiers and reproductives Structural pests

90 Head of Insect Clypeus

91 Psocoptera Psocids (Booklice) Tiny, soft-bodied insects
Four wings or none at all Microscopic to ¼ inch “Busted upper lip” (swollen clypeus) Scavengers, pests in libraries and stored food, webbing on trees

92 Phthiraptera Wingless parasites on most birds and mammals
Head Lice Lice Wingless parasites on most birds and mammals Deposit eggs on hair or feathers Bloodsucking, transmit diseases Crab Lice Head Lice

93 Thysanpotera Thrips Tiny insects about 1/8 in long
Two pair of slender wings, fringed with long hair Legs and antennae are short Only pest with asymmetrical mouthparts Plant pests, minor bites of humans, frequent pests in greenhouses and blooms Western Flower Thrips

94 Hemiptera Four wings, folded flat
True Bugs Four wings, folded flat Front pair are thickened and leathery Beak arises from the front of head Plant feeders, predators

95 True Bugs Adults Leaf-footed bug Tarnished plant bug Giant water bug
Assassin bug Milkweed bug Stink bug Backswimmer Bed bug

96 True Bugs Nymphs Leaf-footed bug Tarnished plant bug Giant water bug
Milkweed bug Giant water bug Assassin bug Bed bug Backswimmer Stink bug

97 Homoptera May or may not have wings
Leafhoppers, Scales, Aphids, Mealybugs May or may not have wings Four wings when present and are held roof-like over body Feed on plants Mouthparts: sucking with beak arising from the hind part of the head Metamorphosis: Gradual Many are pests and can transmit diseases

98 Leafhoppers Spines on hind tibia Potato Leafhopper
Scarlet & Green Leafhopper Beet Leafhopper Rose Leafhopper

99 Scales Female – host specific, no antenna, legless & wingless
Male – 1 pair wings, 1 pair haltere; only reproduce, antenna

100 Aphids Plant specific Transmit viruses Cornicles – “tail pipes”
Symbiotic relationship with ants Give live birth

101 Mealybugs Characteristic trait: body covered with wax or filamentous waxy secretions They feed on all parts of the plant, including roots, and reproduce all summer Many times they are controlled by natural enemies

102 Neuroptera Lacewings, Antlions Fragile insects
Two pair of many veined wings – held roof-like over their abdomen Long antennae Many beneficial/predators

103 Lacewings Lacewing Larva Green Lacewing Lacewing Nest Brown Lacewing
Lacewing Eggs

104 Antlions Larvae live in the soil and seek prey Antlion Larvae
Antlion Adults

105 Coleoptera Beetles & Weevils Largest order of insects
Usually two pairs of wings Front pair are thick (elytra) Straight line down the middle of back Plant feeders, predators, scavengers, wood borers, etc

106 Weevils Many are economic pests Elongated rostrum (nose)
Pecan Weevil Many are economic pests Elongated rostrum (nose) Like to play dead Immature weevils Rose Weevil Boll Weevil Alfalfa Weevil

107 June Beetle/White Grub
Adults 1/2 to 5/8 inches long Reddish brown Noctural Can be a nuisance near light Larvae (grubs): C-shaped White with brown head Three pairs of legs Soil-dwelling Feed on roots of grasses

108 Carpet Beetles Adult: Small, stout, robust, or elongate oval Larva:
Usually covered with hairs Scavengers of plant and animal products the ‘CSI’ bug (forensics) leather, skins museum specimens wool stored foods carrion (‘bone cleaners’)

109 Cucumber Beetle Phytophagous (plant eaters) Usually oval shaped
Can be colorful with stripes or spotted markings (may fade with age) Prefer shady cool places such as leaf and melon undersides Keep leaves dry; lift fruits to keep the underside dry Adults overwinter in weedy areas – therefore keep weeds cut down all year

110 Ladybird Beetles 1st biological control agent (cottony cushion scale)
Predators of aphids & eggs

111 Mecoptera Scorpionflies Small to medium sized Four long, narrow wings
Long antennae Larvae look like caterpillars Larvae live in damp soil Adults are seasonal in summer Adults feed on insects Harmless

112 Diptera True Flies, Mosquitoes, Gnats, Midges Winged or wingless
One pair of membranous wings – one pair halteres Few feed on plant foliage Some of the most beneficial insects Beneficial as pollinators, parasites & predator, stings are a nuisance

113 True Flies House Fly Horse Fly Deer Fly Cherry Fruit Fly

114 Mosquitoes Larvae are aquatic Tiny hairs outline the margins of wings
Adults feed on nectar or blood (females only) Females must have blood meal to produce young Crepuscular or nocturnal Males - plumose antenna

115 Hymenoptera Ants, bees, wasps, hornets, sawflies Winged or Wingless
Two pair of membranous wings Few feed on plant foliage Many beneficial insects - pollinators, parasites & predators Stings are a nuisance Complete metamorphosis Many social insects

116 Carpenter Ants Black in color Build nests in old trees and logs
Queen Black in color Build nests in old trees and logs May invade homes in search of food Nest

117 Red Harvester Ants Will sting or bite Colonies occur in open areas
Do not invade homes

118 Honey Bees Social insects Division of labor:
queen –matriarch of the colony, lays eggs drones – males, only purpose to mate; kicked out in rough times workers – females, tend to all duties (care for larvae and queen, food collection, etc) Communication - ‘Waggle Dance’

119 Yellow Jackets & Hornets
Very aggressive Distinguished from bees by their thin "waists" Fold their wings lengthwise when at rest Prey on a variety of arthropods, may forage on human (especially sweets and meats) Considered beneficial insects Bald-faced Hornet Western Yellow Jacket Paper Wasps

120 Sawflies Adults resemble bees or small wasps
Larvae resemble caterpillars >5 pairs of abdominal prolegs Often spotted or striped ½ to 1 inch long External feeders on foliage Entire leaf or skeletonize Often clump together Wide host range including: conifers, oaks, black locust, ash, black walnut & woody ornamentals Adult Larvae

121 Sawflies Small infestations - manually remove and destroy
Large infestations of young larvae - spray with horticultural oil Large larvae - spray with a contact insecticide. Sawfly larvae are not caterpillars; Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) formulations for caterpillar control will not kill sawflies Blue Steel Sawfly Larvae

122 Trichoptera Caddisflies Soft bodied
Two pairs of wings covered with silky hairs Adults have long antennae Adults resemble small dull-colored moths Larvae are usually scavengers Larvae build cases from pepples or bits of sticks; often found in the cases – with heads only protruding Fish food, rarely a nuisance

123 Lepidoptera Moths & Butterflies Four well-developed wings
Wings have overlapping scales Caterpillars on leaves of plants Leaf feeders Few are beneficial

124 Cutworm Corn Earworm Armyworm Looper

125 Clothes Moth Banded Woolly Bear

126 Hummingbird Moth Painted Lady Western Tiger Swallowtail Anise Swallowtail

127 Cabbage White Common Branded Skipper Western Sulpher Pink-spotted Hawk Moth

128 Mourning Cloak European Skipper Monarch & Caterpillar Two-tailed Swallowtail

129 Siphonaptera Small, wingless body Flattened laterally
Fleas Small, wingless body Flattened laterally Larvae in nests of various animals Pests of animals and man

130 Insects of Special Interest

131 Earwigs Scary appearance, but harmless
May emit a foul-smelling, yellowish-brown liquid Noctural Live live outdoors and rarely establish themselves indoors Can ‘pinch’ with the forceps Predators

132 Earwigs Serious feeding damage may occur on flowers, vegetables, fruits and other plants Leaves have a ragged appearance with the numerous, small, irregular holes. Considered temporary pests Can occur in large populations Consume decomposing organic matter

133 Earwigs Tanglefoot (sticky trap) around tree trunks prevent them from crawling up trees Well maintained garden deters large infestations Baits are available for control

134 Leaf Miners Several kinds of leaf miners: beetles, flies, sawflies, and caterpillars Adult lay eggs and the immatures do the actual  mining

135 Leaf Miners Host range: fruit trees, grape vines, berry vines, grain crops, garden flowers, wildflowers, vegetables and weeds Usually not of economic concern Birches and foreign species of elms attacked by a sawfly leaf miner drop most of the  leaves may die Damage to vegetables and some flowers may be serious

136 Leaf Rollers Caterpillars protect themselves while they feed
by rolling themselves up in a leaf or in several leaves of their host plant Difficult to control with insecticides because they are protected in the leaf Marlin E. Rice

137 Aphids Rose Aphid Rosy Apple Aphid Green Apple Aphid Pea Aphid
Wooly Apple Aphid

138 Coddling Moth A destructive pest introduced from Europe by settlers
Female moths lay the scale-like eggs singly on developing fruit or adjacent leaves or stems

139 Coddling Moth Larvae: hatch and enter the side of the fruit and tunnel to the center pinkish to white in color with a brown head up to 3/4 inch long exit the fruit to pupate in a thick silken cocoon on the bark or other protected areas frass is often noticed near larvae entered

140 Spittlebugs Nymphs: Small, green, soft-bodied insects
Surrounded by a frothy, white mass Protection from drying out and predators Adults small (¼ inch), winged insects fly away quickly when disturbed lay their eggs inside of stems or between the leaf blades and stems Hosts: ornamental, vegetable and garden plants, forage crops, conifers, grasses and weeds

141 Spittlebugs Damage Adults & nymphs suck sap Inject toxin into a plant's vascular system Leaves appear distorted, yellow and/or stunted Control: Spray with a sharp stream of water to dislodge spittlebugs and wash froth away some small spittlebugs will dry out insecticidal soaps may also be effective on spittlebugs

142 Snailcase bagworm Introduced into the United States from Europe around 1940 Larvae Produce a protective bag covered with small particles of soil, resembles a snail shell Lives inside this bag until becoming an adult Bag grows as the larvae grow (aprx. 1/4 in)

143 Snailcase bagworm Escape detection because small and resembles soil
Noticed when damage appears Nuisance - attach to house siding, automobiles, trees, or fence posts in large numbers Tight attachment - paint often removed when dislodged Problematic because: feeds on many different plants females reproduce without mating carried long distances by mammals, birds, or humans    

144 Snailcase bagworm Damage Feed on leaf tissue
Mine circular areas beneath the surface layer Potential nursery pest Baby's breath is highly susceptible Control Must control on the host plant prior to their migration to a pupation site Chemicals ineffective on pupae Manual control (hand removal/ killing) is only effective control

145 Non-Insects

146 Arachnida Characteristics
Ticks, mites, spiders, scorpions Body divided into two parts Four pairs of legs No antennae No wings Cat-faced Spider

147 Orders of Arachnids Araneae – spiders Acari – mites, ticks
Scorpiones – scorpions Opiliones - harvestmen

148 Araneae Spiders Wingless and lack antennae Six or eight legs
Body variable in size and shape All food intake is liquid Webs to capture prey All are beneficial, few are hazardous

149 Spider Facts Hundreds of species in Idaho All are beneficial
Almost all have venom Hazardous spiders include black widow and hobo spiders Reactions vary with individual Black widow - female Black widow-male

150 Acari Characteristics
Ticks & Mites Wingless, lack antennae Body is flat or round Adults have eight legs Ticks only feed on blood of animals Four stages; egg, larva, nymph and adult

151 Rocky Mountain Spotted Tick
Ticks Ectoparisite – feeds on blood Tick bites look like mosquito bites, but can also bruise or resemble a bullseye. Often found in tall grasses Can transmit human diseases: relapsing fever Lyme disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever tularemia equine encephalitis several forms of ehrlichiosis Can transmit livestock diseases: babesiosis & anaplasmosis Rocky Mountain Spotted Tick Dog Tick

152 Mites Diverse and successful Exploit an incredible array of habitats
Peacock mite Diverse and successful Exploit an incredible array of habitats Because they are small most go totally unnoticed Many live freely in the soil or water, some live as parasites on plants or animals. Some of the plant pests include the so-called Spider mites; Gall mites Sarcoptic Mange mites which burrow under the skin Perhaps the most well known, though, is the house dust mite Insects may also have parasitic mites. (Varroa mites which attaches to the body of the honeybee) Reproductive colony of plant mites

153 Scorpionida Characteristics
Wingless Lack Antennae Bodies are broad Tail with a sting at the tip Front appendages are enlarged pinchers Size from 1-3 inches Mouthparts: chewing Metamorphosis: Gradual Status: Beneficial

154 Scorpions More species as you go west 18 to 25 in Idaho
Stings are painful but not fatal unless very sensitive


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